FILIPINO IDENTITY- by Zialcita

Shiella Nacorda
Shiella NacordaTeacher um -
Presented by: Shiella H. Nacorda
To understand ideas on Filipino Identity
through the different situations presented in
Zialcita’s essays.
CULTURALLY WE ARE ALL
MESTIZOS
derived from the latin
“mixtus” .
The word originally has
nothing to do with skin
color, it can therefore
refer to anyone who is of
mixed origins.
 Cultural schizophrenia
 Split-personality
Psychological terms for
madness which is use to
describe our culture.
The society or the people are
crushed between 2 or more
cultures disabling them from
balancing the dictations of
the culture.
 Cultural Schizophrenia can be attributed on an individual
and institutional level. Even the institution of the family can
perpetrate this phenomenon. Families who raise a child to
believe that they need to be better than what they are to
achieve equality with white peers is a false assumption based
on fear of not being good enough.
 An individual who despises their black heritage, or their skin
color, features or hair texture can be prone to cultural
schizophrenia. The impingement of linguistic efficiency
through speech lessons and a dominant language system can
also create confusion. Some of these conditions attribute to
mental health problems.
http://www.baatn.org.uk/Resources/Documents/Training/
cultural%20schizophrenia.pdf
Cultural Schizophrenia
Dr. Isha Mckenzie-Mavinga 2011
PAGE 212
 “A culture is the product-in
process, over the course of
time, of many individuals who
may differ from each other in
personality, social class and
religion.”
 “We cannot expect the result to
be harmonious in every
aspect.”
 “In any complex society we
should expect to find 2 or more
traditions coexisting together.”
 “Culture is shaped according to
their needs”
 The Central Javanese
 The Maranao
 The Germanic People
Scenarios:
Each
tradition, imported
practices may coexist
with local ones.
What the terms split
level and schizophrenia
cast as abnormal may
in fact be normal.
THE CENTRAL JAVA
 The heart of the world’s
largest Moslem nation.
 They honor the “spirit of the
rice” .
 They offer gifts to the
founding spirit of their
village.
 They fear certain places as
the abode of the spirits.
Survivals from
the original
animist religion
Traditional ethnic beliefs and rituals
are still practiced in the more remote
areas. Pagan gods must be
presented with regular offerings and
are believed to dwell on mountain
peaks as well as in soil, plants, or
animals.
The souls of the ancestors are also
believed to exert direct influence on
the everyday life of their
descendants. One example is the
belief that Monday is a special day
for bringing live chickens to grave
sites. They are to be offered to
the arwah, or spirits of the
deceased, in order to obtain their
help in making a better living.
http://kcm.co.kr/bethany_eng/p_code/80
1.html
Cleansing: Items of journalistic equipment such as tape
recorders, bags, ID cards and cameras are assembled for
a jamasan (purification) ritual at Gandok Seni Tingal building in
Magelang, Central Java, on Saturday. The ritual was part of
National Press Day celebration. President Susilo Bambang
Yudhoyono will take part in the ongoing National Press Day
celebrations in Manado on Monday. (Antara/Efizudin)
http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/02/11/cleansing.html
Hundreds of residents from the
western valley of Merbabu Mountain
in Magelang, Central Java, walk in a
procession while carrying hampers
filled with cone-shaped yellow rice, or
tumpeng and other traditional foods
during the tradition of Nyadran held at
an ancestral burial site on Thursday.
The tradition normally conducted
before Ramadan is held to respect
the spirits of elders and to pray for
blessings and safety in daily life.
(Antara/Hari Atmoko)
http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2
011/07/22/the-nyadran-tradition.html
THE MARANAO
 Islam emphasizes that, in
case of an offense, only the
individual offender should be
held liable.
 Maranao practice collective
kin responsibility.
 SPLIT LEVEL CHARACTER
presents several studies on
feuding or clan conflicts,
popularly known in Mindanao
as rido.
The studies in this volume deal
with a type of violent conflict
variously
referred to as feuding, revenge
killings, blood
revenge, vendetta, inter-tribal
warfare, and clan conflicts.
Characterized by sporadic
outbursts of retaliatory
violence between families and
kinship groups.
THE GERMANIC PEOPLE
 Referring to the ethnic group
of the ancient Europe.
 German literally means
“Spear man” which was the
common weapon in ancient
German society.
www.odinsvolk.ca/GermanicPeoples.htm
 Accepted christianity in the
fifth century.
 Pre-christian religion
continued to persist.
PROBLEMS WITH THE
CONCEPT OF CULTURAL
SCHIZOPHRENIA POSITIVE OUTLOOK
 1. It ignores the possibility
that tensions between
opposing traditions may
eventually resolved over the
course of centuries;
 2. It overlooks the possibilty
that the tension itself may
give an institution complex
but dynamic relationships.
 The fusion of indigenous
and western styles over the
course of centuries has
resulted in blends that draw
on the strengths of both
styles;
Centralization
Were to be completely
ignored and all power turned
over to the local
government, then the Filipino
nation-state would cease to
be
Local Autonomy
Were ignored, cities and
provinces would continue to
have little incentive to plan for
their future
LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE
FEAR OF ILLEGITIMACY
 Intercultural mixing is not
like marriages across racial
lines. The realm of culture is
symbolic; it is made up of
codes invented by human
beings. p. 219
FALLACY
BASTARD FROM WHOSE
PERSPECTIVE?
 Interracial marriages
produce abnormalities;
 Intercultural unions create
“bastards”
Birth outside a formal union, half-
breed denotes a fusion that is
awkward, for it does not fit in with
any established category.
p.218
There is no law of nature that
forbids human beings from
borrowing ideas from each other.
p. 220
FILIPINO IDENTITY- by Zialcita
FILIPINO IDENTITY- by Zialcita
The concept of “race” is seen as the only
way to classify humankind on the basis of
physical qualities.
If blood type were
used as the basis for
classification, then
people who differ in
skin color will be found
to resemble each other
in their blood type…
p. 220
From the point of view of physical
anthropology, there is no Filipino Race, nor Malay
Race, nor for that matter a German or Japanese or
Chinese race. But there is a Filipino, German or
Japanese culture.
p. 220
RACE
PHYSICAL
CHARACTERISTICS
BIOLOGICAL
PATTERN
CULTURE
WAY OF LIFE
BEHAVIOR
Identity should be interpreted Culturally.
FILIPINO IDENTITY- by Zialcita
“they always
associate it with
indigenous spices
which Philippine
cuisine does not
have” p.240
It is hard to believe that
their ancestors enjoyed
spicy meals before the
coming of the
Spaniards. Or that
contemporary Ilocano
farmer taste is
“confused”. p.240
Portuguese traders
introduced the chili.
“Often they assume that since the costume, the
music, the architecture, and the literature of lowland
Christian Filipinos have an obvious Hispanic
component, they cannot be Asian, for to be Asian
means to be non-Western...” p. 241
“In this article, I would like to show that the Filipino
should not feel embarrassed about not being
sufficiently “Asian”, for this Western-invented
construct has no clear content. He should not feel
embarrassed either about being westernized, for the
West is a syncretism-in-process- Zialcita.”
Page 242
 Asia in simple geographic terms encompasses
Europe. So if the two are to be set apart from each
other, there must be sufficient common denominators on each
side of the Ural line which do not exist on the other.
• Does Asia have such a common identity, some positive
denominators?
• Or is it too big, the home of too many civilizations?
• If so, Asia exists only in the negative sense of being non-European
— which is the European definition.
by Philip Bowring
February 12, 1987 issue of the Far Eastern Economic Review
http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/geography/geo_whatis.html
 “We hear talk of an “Asian look”. Supposedly this means
being nonwhite. The fact is that representatives of the
Caucasoid race, the same race to which Europeans and
Americans belong, form the majority among the
Arabs, Jews, Pakistanis, Iranians, and Afghans. In
India, the white skinned Aryans constitute the upper
castes while the dark skinned Dravidians form the bulk
of the lower castes. On the other hand there are the
Mongoloids to which the Chinese, Japanese, and the
Southeast Asians belong. There is no Asian look.” –
Zialcita, p.246
for Asia as a whole, we would be hard put looking for
a unifying Asian-based language.
There are different language families in Asia.
The lingua franca is English.
ORIENTALISM
Simple and degrading
stereotype of the orient.
CONTINENTALISM
The habit of dividing
the world into
continents and
imagining that each
has an unchanging
Platonic essence.
“This dichotomy has made us forget that ideas have
flowed from East to West and vice versa over
millennia” p.244
Westerners easily forget the artistic debt to Asians.
(e.g. pointed arch was invented in the Near East in the
seventh century A.D. and introduced into the West in
the 11th to the 12th century.)
“We can conclude that there is no single
definable, coherent cultural tradition that embraces
all the Asias together. When people, therefore, say
that the Filipino is confused because Westernization
has altered his pristine Asian identity or that he is
neither Asian nor Western we should ask what being
“Asian” means in the first place.” p. 253.
Toynbee “syncretism” which refers to the fusion of
different cultural traditions to form new ones. For
Toynbee, many civilizations are syncretistic. p.254
To appreciate Filipino culture in its singularity, we
should suspend our preoccupations with what is or
is not Asian and reflect on our concrete experience
of particular Filipino artifacts. p.262
FILIPINO IDENTITY- by Zialcita
“Emotive, meaningful symbols that are
shared together create an oikumene, a
moral and aesthetic community that
embraces diverse cultures and races”
p.269
WHAT IS AN OIKUMENE?
To inhabit
Populated
Or civilized part of the world.
United by a shared great tradition
Meaningful symbols that are shared together
create an oikumene. p. 269
 Has Southeast Asia been an
oikumene?
 What communalities embracing
the entire region to rise?
There are laudable efforts to create a Southeast Asian
consciousness on the basis of similarities in art-
form. In general we can notice these tendencies:
1. An emphasis on commonalities shared by aboriginal art forms in
the region.
2. An emphasis on commonalities given by two great traditions: The
Indian and the Islamic.
3. A de-emphasis' of art shaped by the two other Great Traditions: The
Chinese and the Western.
p. 279
The prevailing tendency is to imagine “Southeast
Asia” as a piece of a larger jigsaw called “Asia”, that
is, as a bounded cultural unity with definable
boundaries that neatly set it apart from other cultural
unities in the world jigsaw puzzle.
It may be better to imagine it as a collage whose
different materials cluster and overlap with each
other, while extending into the surrounding space.
p. 280
HISPANIZED YET SOUTHEAST ASIAN
The art of Hispanized Filipinos is deemed “out of
place” in Southeast Asia. But so, likewise, is the art
of the Sinicized Vietnamese. Forgotten is that both
Islamic and the Indic influences were also originally
intruders centuries earlier: eventually they fused
with indegenous traditions. The same thing has
happened to hispanic influence in the Philippines
and to Chinese influence in Vietnam. p.280-281
Cooking
Allegedly, what defines the Southeast Asian flavor is
the heavy use of chili pepper.
The fact is that the chilli pepper was domesticated in
Mexico centuries before the Europeans came and
may have first entered Southeast Asia via the
Manila Galleon. p. 280
 Costume
When people think of linkages between the Philippines
and the region in terms of costume, they think of either
tribal costumes or the costumes of the Moslem ethnic
groups.
In fact the costumes of the Hispanized majority do fit in.
As was mentioned in an earlier essay, the barong
tagalog, as a loose shirt worn over long pants, relates to
two traditions: the Indian and the Chinese. p. 282
Houses
It is thus unfair to insist that wood-and stone Filipino
houses are “Spanish” copies that have nothing to do
with either Southeast Asia or Asia in general. Yes
they are Hispanic, but also SOUTHEAST ASIAN. p.
293.
Ways of Grouping Cultures
 A Family of Language
societies with related languages share common myths.
 Responses to a Common Ecosystem
societies with similar ecosystem are faced with similar
challenges from the environment.
 Shared tradition
Thank you…
Zialcita, Fernando Nakpil. 2005. Authentic Though not Exotic. Essays
on Filipino Identity. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University
Press, 340 pages, ISBN 971-550-479-5
http://www.baatn.org.uk/Resources/Documents/Training/cultural%20sc
hizophrenia.pdf
http://kcm.co.kr/bethany_eng/p_code/801.html
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FILIPINO IDENTITY- by Zialcita

  • 2. To understand ideas on Filipino Identity through the different situations presented in Zialcita’s essays.
  • 3. CULTURALLY WE ARE ALL MESTIZOS derived from the latin “mixtus” . The word originally has nothing to do with skin color, it can therefore refer to anyone who is of mixed origins.
  • 4.  Cultural schizophrenia  Split-personality Psychological terms for madness which is use to describe our culture. The society or the people are crushed between 2 or more cultures disabling them from balancing the dictations of the culture.
  • 5.  Cultural Schizophrenia can be attributed on an individual and institutional level. Even the institution of the family can perpetrate this phenomenon. Families who raise a child to believe that they need to be better than what they are to achieve equality with white peers is a false assumption based on fear of not being good enough.  An individual who despises their black heritage, or their skin color, features or hair texture can be prone to cultural schizophrenia. The impingement of linguistic efficiency through speech lessons and a dominant language system can also create confusion. Some of these conditions attribute to mental health problems. http://www.baatn.org.uk/Resources/Documents/Training/ cultural%20schizophrenia.pdf Cultural Schizophrenia Dr. Isha Mckenzie-Mavinga 2011
  • 6. PAGE 212  “A culture is the product-in process, over the course of time, of many individuals who may differ from each other in personality, social class and religion.”  “We cannot expect the result to be harmonious in every aspect.”  “In any complex society we should expect to find 2 or more traditions coexisting together.”  “Culture is shaped according to their needs”
  • 7.  The Central Javanese  The Maranao  The Germanic People Scenarios: Each tradition, imported practices may coexist with local ones. What the terms split level and schizophrenia cast as abnormal may in fact be normal.
  • 8. THE CENTRAL JAVA  The heart of the world’s largest Moslem nation.  They honor the “spirit of the rice” .  They offer gifts to the founding spirit of their village.  They fear certain places as the abode of the spirits. Survivals from the original animist religion
  • 9. Traditional ethnic beliefs and rituals are still practiced in the more remote areas. Pagan gods must be presented with regular offerings and are believed to dwell on mountain peaks as well as in soil, plants, or animals. The souls of the ancestors are also believed to exert direct influence on the everyday life of their descendants. One example is the belief that Monday is a special day for bringing live chickens to grave sites. They are to be offered to the arwah, or spirits of the deceased, in order to obtain their help in making a better living. http://kcm.co.kr/bethany_eng/p_code/80 1.html Cleansing: Items of journalistic equipment such as tape recorders, bags, ID cards and cameras are assembled for a jamasan (purification) ritual at Gandok Seni Tingal building in Magelang, Central Java, on Saturday. The ritual was part of National Press Day celebration. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono will take part in the ongoing National Press Day celebrations in Manado on Monday. (Antara/Efizudin) http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/02/11/cleansing.html
  • 10. Hundreds of residents from the western valley of Merbabu Mountain in Magelang, Central Java, walk in a procession while carrying hampers filled with cone-shaped yellow rice, or tumpeng and other traditional foods during the tradition of Nyadran held at an ancestral burial site on Thursday. The tradition normally conducted before Ramadan is held to respect the spirits of elders and to pray for blessings and safety in daily life. (Antara/Hari Atmoko) http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2 011/07/22/the-nyadran-tradition.html
  • 11. THE MARANAO  Islam emphasizes that, in case of an offense, only the individual offender should be held liable.  Maranao practice collective kin responsibility.  SPLIT LEVEL CHARACTER
  • 12. presents several studies on feuding or clan conflicts, popularly known in Mindanao as rido. The studies in this volume deal with a type of violent conflict variously referred to as feuding, revenge killings, blood revenge, vendetta, inter-tribal warfare, and clan conflicts. Characterized by sporadic outbursts of retaliatory violence between families and kinship groups.
  • 13. THE GERMANIC PEOPLE  Referring to the ethnic group of the ancient Europe.  German literally means “Spear man” which was the common weapon in ancient German society. www.odinsvolk.ca/GermanicPeoples.htm  Accepted christianity in the fifth century.  Pre-christian religion continued to persist.
  • 14. PROBLEMS WITH THE CONCEPT OF CULTURAL SCHIZOPHRENIA POSITIVE OUTLOOK  1. It ignores the possibility that tensions between opposing traditions may eventually resolved over the course of centuries;  2. It overlooks the possibilty that the tension itself may give an institution complex but dynamic relationships.  The fusion of indigenous and western styles over the course of centuries has resulted in blends that draw on the strengths of both styles;
  • 15. Centralization Were to be completely ignored and all power turned over to the local government, then the Filipino nation-state would cease to be Local Autonomy Were ignored, cities and provinces would continue to have little incentive to plan for their future LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE
  • 16. FEAR OF ILLEGITIMACY  Intercultural mixing is not like marriages across racial lines. The realm of culture is symbolic; it is made up of codes invented by human beings. p. 219
  • 17. FALLACY BASTARD FROM WHOSE PERSPECTIVE?  Interracial marriages produce abnormalities;  Intercultural unions create “bastards” Birth outside a formal union, half- breed denotes a fusion that is awkward, for it does not fit in with any established category. p.218 There is no law of nature that forbids human beings from borrowing ideas from each other. p. 220
  • 20. The concept of “race” is seen as the only way to classify humankind on the basis of physical qualities.
  • 21. If blood type were used as the basis for classification, then people who differ in skin color will be found to resemble each other in their blood type… p. 220
  • 22. From the point of view of physical anthropology, there is no Filipino Race, nor Malay Race, nor for that matter a German or Japanese or Chinese race. But there is a Filipino, German or Japanese culture. p. 220
  • 25. “they always associate it with indigenous spices which Philippine cuisine does not have” p.240
  • 26. It is hard to believe that their ancestors enjoyed spicy meals before the coming of the Spaniards. Or that contemporary Ilocano farmer taste is “confused”. p.240 Portuguese traders introduced the chili.
  • 27. “Often they assume that since the costume, the music, the architecture, and the literature of lowland Christian Filipinos have an obvious Hispanic component, they cannot be Asian, for to be Asian means to be non-Western...” p. 241
  • 28. “In this article, I would like to show that the Filipino should not feel embarrassed about not being sufficiently “Asian”, for this Western-invented construct has no clear content. He should not feel embarrassed either about being westernized, for the West is a syncretism-in-process- Zialcita.” Page 242
  • 29.  Asia in simple geographic terms encompasses Europe. So if the two are to be set apart from each other, there must be sufficient common denominators on each side of the Ural line which do not exist on the other. • Does Asia have such a common identity, some positive denominators? • Or is it too big, the home of too many civilizations? • If so, Asia exists only in the negative sense of being non-European — which is the European definition. by Philip Bowring February 12, 1987 issue of the Far Eastern Economic Review http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/geography/geo_whatis.html
  • 30.  “We hear talk of an “Asian look”. Supposedly this means being nonwhite. The fact is that representatives of the Caucasoid race, the same race to which Europeans and Americans belong, form the majority among the Arabs, Jews, Pakistanis, Iranians, and Afghans. In India, the white skinned Aryans constitute the upper castes while the dark skinned Dravidians form the bulk of the lower castes. On the other hand there are the Mongoloids to which the Chinese, Japanese, and the Southeast Asians belong. There is no Asian look.” – Zialcita, p.246
  • 31. for Asia as a whole, we would be hard put looking for a unifying Asian-based language. There are different language families in Asia. The lingua franca is English.
  • 32. ORIENTALISM Simple and degrading stereotype of the orient. CONTINENTALISM The habit of dividing the world into continents and imagining that each has an unchanging Platonic essence.
  • 33. “This dichotomy has made us forget that ideas have flowed from East to West and vice versa over millennia” p.244 Westerners easily forget the artistic debt to Asians. (e.g. pointed arch was invented in the Near East in the seventh century A.D. and introduced into the West in the 11th to the 12th century.)
  • 34. “We can conclude that there is no single definable, coherent cultural tradition that embraces all the Asias together. When people, therefore, say that the Filipino is confused because Westernization has altered his pristine Asian identity or that he is neither Asian nor Western we should ask what being “Asian” means in the first place.” p. 253.
  • 35. Toynbee “syncretism” which refers to the fusion of different cultural traditions to form new ones. For Toynbee, many civilizations are syncretistic. p.254 To appreciate Filipino culture in its singularity, we should suspend our preoccupations with what is or is not Asian and reflect on our concrete experience of particular Filipino artifacts. p.262
  • 37. “Emotive, meaningful symbols that are shared together create an oikumene, a moral and aesthetic community that embraces diverse cultures and races” p.269
  • 38. WHAT IS AN OIKUMENE? To inhabit Populated Or civilized part of the world. United by a shared great tradition Meaningful symbols that are shared together create an oikumene. p. 269
  • 39.  Has Southeast Asia been an oikumene?  What communalities embracing the entire region to rise?
  • 40. There are laudable efforts to create a Southeast Asian consciousness on the basis of similarities in art- form. In general we can notice these tendencies: 1. An emphasis on commonalities shared by aboriginal art forms in the region. 2. An emphasis on commonalities given by two great traditions: The Indian and the Islamic. 3. A de-emphasis' of art shaped by the two other Great Traditions: The Chinese and the Western. p. 279
  • 41. The prevailing tendency is to imagine “Southeast Asia” as a piece of a larger jigsaw called “Asia”, that is, as a bounded cultural unity with definable boundaries that neatly set it apart from other cultural unities in the world jigsaw puzzle. It may be better to imagine it as a collage whose different materials cluster and overlap with each other, while extending into the surrounding space. p. 280
  • 42. HISPANIZED YET SOUTHEAST ASIAN The art of Hispanized Filipinos is deemed “out of place” in Southeast Asia. But so, likewise, is the art of the Sinicized Vietnamese. Forgotten is that both Islamic and the Indic influences were also originally intruders centuries earlier: eventually they fused with indegenous traditions. The same thing has happened to hispanic influence in the Philippines and to Chinese influence in Vietnam. p.280-281
  • 43. Cooking Allegedly, what defines the Southeast Asian flavor is the heavy use of chili pepper. The fact is that the chilli pepper was domesticated in Mexico centuries before the Europeans came and may have first entered Southeast Asia via the Manila Galleon. p. 280
  • 44.  Costume When people think of linkages between the Philippines and the region in terms of costume, they think of either tribal costumes or the costumes of the Moslem ethnic groups. In fact the costumes of the Hispanized majority do fit in. As was mentioned in an earlier essay, the barong tagalog, as a loose shirt worn over long pants, relates to two traditions: the Indian and the Chinese. p. 282
  • 45. Houses It is thus unfair to insist that wood-and stone Filipino houses are “Spanish” copies that have nothing to do with either Southeast Asia or Asia in general. Yes they are Hispanic, but also SOUTHEAST ASIAN. p. 293.
  • 46. Ways of Grouping Cultures  A Family of Language societies with related languages share common myths.  Responses to a Common Ecosystem societies with similar ecosystem are faced with similar challenges from the environment.  Shared tradition
  • 48. Zialcita, Fernando Nakpil. 2005. Authentic Though not Exotic. Essays on Filipino Identity. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 340 pages, ISBN 971-550-479-5 http://www.baatn.org.uk/Resources/Documents/Training/cultural%20sc hizophrenia.pdf http://kcm.co.kr/bethany_eng/p_code/801.html http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/02/11/cleansing.html