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Representation in TV Drama - handbook and key terms
Key media Concepts – Representation in TV Drama
This unit will focus on how the TV dramas represent particular social groups through use of camera, editing, sound
and mise en scene (everything in the frame).
The assessment for this unit is the first section of the Key Media Concepts paper.
You will be shown a five minute clip from a TV drama (shown 4 times) and asked to answer the following question:
With reference to the CAMERA, EDITING, SOUND AND MISE EN SCENE,
discuss how ........................ is represented in this clip.
The possible representations under question are:
Physical ability / disability
Class / status
Aerial Shot – A camera shot taken from an overhead position. Often used as an establishing
Close Up – A head and shoulders shot often used to show expressions/emotions of a character.
Also can be a shot of an object, filmed from close to the object or zoomed in to it, that reveals
Extreme Close Up – A shot where a part of a face or body of a character fills the whole
frame/dominates the frame. Also can be a shot of an object where only a small part of it
dominates the frame.
Establishing Shot – A shot that establishes a scene, often giving the viewer information about
where the scene is set. Can be a close up shot (of a sign etc) but is often a wide/long shot and
usually appears at the beginning of a scene.
Medium Shot – the framing of a subject from waist up.
Two Shot – A shot of two characters, possible engaging in conversation. Usually to
signify/establish some sort of relationship
Point-Of-View Shot (POV) – Shows a view from the subject’s perspective. This shot is usually
edited so that the viewer is aware who’s point of view it is.
Over the Shoulder Shot – looking from behind a character’s shoulder, at a subject. The
character facing the subject usually occupies 1/3 of the frame but it depends on what meaning
the director wants to create (for example, if the subject is an inferior character, the character
facing them may take up more of the frame to emphasise this).
Overhead Shot – a type of camera shot in which the camera is positioned above the character,
action or object being filmed.
Reaction Shot – a shot that shows the reaction of a character either to another character or an
event within the sequence.
Editing – the stage in the film-making process in which sound and images are organised into an
Continuity Editing – the most common type of editing, which aims to create a sense of reality
and time moving forward. Also nick named invisible editing referring to how the technique does
not draw attention to the editing process.
Jump Cut – An abrupt, disorientating transitional device in the middle of a continuos shot in
which the action is noticeably advanced in time and/or cut between two similar shots, usually
done to create discontinuity for artistic effect.
Credits – the information at the beginning and end of a film, which gives details of cast and
Cross Cutting – the editing technique of alternating, interweaving, or interspersing one
narrative action (scene, sequence or event) with another – usually in different locations or
places, thus combining the two: this editing technique usually suggests Parallel action (that
takes place simultaneously). Often used to dramatically build tension and/or suspense in chase
scenes or to compare two different scenes. Also known as inter-cutting or parallel editing.
Cutaways – A brief shot that momentarily interrupts continuous action by briefly inserting
another related action. Object, or person (sometimes not part of the principle scene or main
action), followed by a cutback to the original shot.
Freeze Frame – the effect of seemingly stopping a film in order to focus in on one event or
Eye-line Match – a type of edit which cuts from one character to what that character has been
Flashback – a scene or moment in a film in which the audience is shown an event that
happened earlier in the film’s narrative.
Shot Reverse-Shot— Edits which switch back and forth between two characters interacting
Diegetic Sound – sound that can be heard by the characters within a scene/ sound part of the
Non-diegetic Sound – sound that the characters cannot hear and is not part of the imaginary
world of the story. This includes a musical soundtrack or a voiceover (however this excludes a
narration by a character within the story – referred to as an internal monologue and is
Score – The musical component of a programme’s soundtrack, usually composed specifically for
Sound Effects – sounds that are added to a film during the post-production stage.
Sound Motif- A sound effect or combination of sound effects that are associated with a
particular character, setting, situation or idea.
Sound Bridge— Can lead in or out of a scene. They can occur at the beginning of one scene
when the sound from the previous scene carries over briefly before the sound from the new
Dialogue— Words spoken by the characters
Incidental music— non-diegetic sounds which add atmosphere to an action or revelation.
Ambient sound—the background sounds which are present in a scene or location. Common
ambient sounds include wind, water, birds, crowds, office noises, traffic, etc. It performs a
number of functions including: Providing audio continuity between shots, reventing an
unnatural silence when no other sound is present and establishing or reinforcing the mood.
Sound Perspectives—The sense of a sound's position in space, yielded by volume and pitch.
Used to create a more realistic sense of space, with events happening (that is, coming from)
closer or further away.
Voiceover—When a voice, often that of a character in the film, is heard while we see an image
of a space and time in which that character is not actually speaking. The voice over is often used
to give a sense of a character's subjectivity or to narrate an event told in flashback.
Mise en Scene—Everything in the frame.
Location— The place where the scene is shot, e.g Paris or the countryside.
Set design—The way the set has been decorated in order to express particular
Costume - The clothing of a character speaks volumes about their personality
Make-Up—As does their make-up
Iconography—The visual style of a piece of film OR the meaning that using a famous actor
brings to a film or show.
Properties.—or Props. Items that are used by characters in a particular scene
Colour design.—A scene’s colours are very carefully selected in order to give off certain
Proxemics—Refers to the physical distance between characters
Physicality—The physical presence of an actor and what that brings to a role.
Gesture and Posture— The characters physical movements and what that says about them.
High Key Lighting—Lighting which appears to be natural (but very rarely is). A three point
lighting system is used to reduce shadows and be flattering to the character.
Low Key Lighting—Using a lighting system which intensifies shadows and gives a moody or
Back lighting—When a character is lit from behind, thus silhouetting them.
Camera Definitions continued...
Camera Angle – the position of the camera in relation to the subject of a shot. The camera
might be at a high angle, a low angle or at eye level with what is being filmed.
High Angle – A camera angle that looks down upon a subject or object. Often used to make the
subject or object appear small or vulnerable.
Low Angle – A camera angle that looks up at a subject or object. Often used to make the
subject/object appear powerful/dominant.
Canted framing (or oblique) – camera angle that makes what is shot appear to be skewed or
Pan – Where the camera pivots horizontally, either from right to left or left to right to reveal a
set or setting. This can be used to give the viewer a panoramic view. Sometimes used to
establish a scene.
Track - a shot whjere the camera follows a subject/object. The tracking shot can include smooth
movements forward, backward, along the side of the subject, or on a curve but cannot include
complex movement around a subject. ‘Track’ refers to rails in which a wheeled platform (which
has the camera on it) sits on in order to carry out smooth movement.
Crane – A crane shot is sometimes used to signify the end of a scene/ programme /film. The
effect is achieved by the camera being put onto a crane that can move upward.
Stedicam - A steadicam is a stabilising mount for a camera which mechanically isolates the
operator's movement from the camera, allowing a very smooth shot even when the operator is
moving quickly over an uneven surface. Informally, the word may also be used to refer to the
combination of the mount and camera.
Tilt - where a camera scans a set or setting vertically (otherwise similar to a pan).
Zoom – Using a zoom lens to appear to be moving closer to (zoom in) or further away from
(zoom out) a subject/object when in fact the camera may not move (so, strictly not camera
movement). Can be used for dramatic effect.
Graphic Match – an edit effect in which two different objects of the same shape are dissolved
from one into the other.
Juxtaposition – the placement of two (often opposed) images on either side of an edit to create
Linear Narrative – a style of storytelling in which events happen chronologically.
Montage Editing – the juxtaposition of seemingly unconnected images in order to create
Parallel Editing – a type of editing in which events in two locations are cut together, in order to
imply a connection between the two sets of events.
Visual Effects - visual effects are usually used to alter previously-filmed elements by adding,
removing or enhancing objects within the scene.
Match on Action - A shot that emphasises continuity of space and time by matching the action
of the preceding shot with the continuation of the action. (For example a shot of a door
opening after a shot of a close up of a character’s hand turning a door handle)