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Reading: Comprehension, strategies and activities JoAnn Miller, Editorial Macmillan joannmillerj@gmail.com
Outline Experiencing reading Types of reading Bottom-up vs. Top-down Parts of a lesson Reading strategies Other Activities
Experiencing Reading
The Trial Of Bridget Bishop, Alias, Oliver At The Court Of Oyer And Terminer Held At Salem, June 2,1692 1. What is Bridget accused of? 2. What happened to the apple? 3. What did Samuel Gray say happened to him? 4. What happened to the child? 5. What is another way to say “pined away”. 6. What is another way to say “Apparrell”? 7. How old do you think Bridget was at the time of the trial?
How much can you understand? Use the words and the drawings.
Why do you read? Why do your students read? Do you think they ever read in English? What was the last thing you read? Was it is English or Spanish?
What do we read?  (from Grellet 1981)
Types of reading Extensive reading “Reading in order to gain a general overview of the contents” Intensive reading “Careful detailed reading of section of a text.” Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching,  Heinemann, 1994.
Reading involves a variety of skills and strategies.
Recognizing  the script of a language 手机/手機 (cellphone) discourse indicators 				however, therefore, etc. Deducing  meaning “The smoke thickened. John collapsed.” unfamiliar lexical items  “Morphogenesis in diffusion coupled genetic networks.”
Understanding  explicitly stated information Inferred information conceptual meaning function of sentences and utterances relations within the sentence relations between the parts of a text (lexical cohesion devices: however, therefore, etc. cohesion between parts of a text (grammatical cohesion devices) interpreting text by going outside it
Identifying  main point  important information Distinguishing  main idea from supporting ideas.
Extracting salient points  to summarize (the text, an idea, etc.) Basic reference skills Skimming Scanning to locate specifically required information Transcoding information to diagrammatic displays
Bottom-up Processing …work on the incoming message itself, decoding sounds, words, clauses and sentences.  Includes: ,[object Object]
segmenting the stream of speech into constituents, for example, in order to recognize that 'abookofmine' consists of four words
using graphic clues to identify the information focus of the word
using grammatical cues to organize the input into constituentsDavid Nunan, 1999
Top-down Processing Uses background knowledge to assist in comprehending the message.  Examples: ,[object Object]
assigning places, persons or things to categories
inferring cause and effect relationships
anticipating outcomes
inferring the topic of a discourse
inferring the sequence between events
inferring missing details.,[object Object]
Parts of a lesson Pre-reading (Schemata building) Reading practices Post –reading (relate to other skills)
Pre-reading: Schemata Schemata are the underlying connections that allow new experiences and information to be aligned with previous knowledge  Not possessing the proper schema or being unable to activate it leads to inaccurate constructs.  Kevin Laurence Landry,”Schemata In Second Language Reading,” The Reading Matrix, Vol.2, No.3, September 2002.
Schemata The kind of presumptions we make of the world depend on our experiences and on how our minds have organized the knowledge we have gotten from our experiences.
Can you understand this text? Out of 41 cirrhotic patients, 22 (53.7%) patients were diabetic and 7 (17.1%) patients had IFG and/or IGT. Univariate analysis showed that only two factors were associated with DM rate. Mean of age in diabetic cases was significantly higher than that of non-diabetic ones (P = 0.003). Moreover, DM was significantly more prevalent in patients with Child-Pugh's score B than score A (P = 0.04). Since there was no score C in study sample, we could not evaluate this class of cirrhosis. After applying logistic model, only Child-Pugh's score kept its significance (P = 0.04, OR = 9.6, 95%CI: 1.0–88.4) as an independent predictive factor for DM in cirrhotic patients (table 4).
The Reading What kinds of texts? What kind of activities?
What can we read? ,[object Object]
Poems
Letters
Newspapers
Guidebooks
Advertisements, travel brochures, catalogues
Rules for gamesAnd???
Reading Activities Put illustrations of the text in the correct order. Put cut-up paragraphs back in the correct order. Find words in the text that mean the same as a list of words. Read text and find the mistakes in illustration (or draw your own illustration). Read text and make a list of particular items (e.g. jobs that need doing-, the author's proposals; advantages and disadvantages, etc). Give a title to each section of the article (or match given titles with the sections). Find appropriate places in text to reinsert some sentences that have previously been separated from the text.
Post-reading Writing Speaking Listening Reading more
Reading Strategies Understanding vocabulary in context Reading for general meaning Predicting / Previewing Skimming Finding the main idea Reading for specific information Inference Scanning Contextual referents / Rhetorical devices and clause markers
Understanding meaning from context What to do when you find a new word when you’re reading… Ignore it. Continue reading.  Look at it.  Cover it up with your finger and try to read the sentence. Think about the general idea of the text.  And if nothing else works and you still can’t understand the main idea of the text, use the dictionary.

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Reading: Comprehension, Strategies and Activities

  • 1. Reading: Comprehension, strategies and activities JoAnn Miller, Editorial Macmillan joannmillerj@gmail.com
  • 2. Outline Experiencing reading Types of reading Bottom-up vs. Top-down Parts of a lesson Reading strategies Other Activities
  • 4.
  • 5. The Trial Of Bridget Bishop, Alias, Oliver At The Court Of Oyer And Terminer Held At Salem, June 2,1692 1. What is Bridget accused of? 2. What happened to the apple? 3. What did Samuel Gray say happened to him? 4. What happened to the child? 5. What is another way to say “pined away”. 6. What is another way to say “Apparrell”? 7. How old do you think Bridget was at the time of the trial?
  • 6. How much can you understand? Use the words and the drawings.
  • 7. Why do you read? Why do your students read? Do you think they ever read in English? What was the last thing you read? Was it is English or Spanish?
  • 8. What do we read? (from Grellet 1981)
  • 9. Types of reading Extensive reading “Reading in order to gain a general overview of the contents” Intensive reading “Careful detailed reading of section of a text.” Jim Scrivener, Learning Teaching, Heinemann, 1994.
  • 10. Reading involves a variety of skills and strategies.
  • 11. Recognizing the script of a language 手机/手機 (cellphone) discourse indicators however, therefore, etc. Deducing meaning “The smoke thickened. John collapsed.” unfamiliar lexical items “Morphogenesis in diffusion coupled genetic networks.”
  • 12. Understanding explicitly stated information Inferred information conceptual meaning function of sentences and utterances relations within the sentence relations between the parts of a text (lexical cohesion devices: however, therefore, etc. cohesion between parts of a text (grammatical cohesion devices) interpreting text by going outside it
  • 13. Identifying main point important information Distinguishing main idea from supporting ideas.
  • 14. Extracting salient points to summarize (the text, an idea, etc.) Basic reference skills Skimming Scanning to locate specifically required information Transcoding information to diagrammatic displays
  • 15.
  • 16. segmenting the stream of speech into constituents, for example, in order to recognize that 'abookofmine' consists of four words
  • 17. using graphic clues to identify the information focus of the word
  • 18. using grammatical cues to organize the input into constituentsDavid Nunan, 1999
  • 19.
  • 20. assigning places, persons or things to categories
  • 21. inferring cause and effect relationships
  • 23. inferring the topic of a discourse
  • 24. inferring the sequence between events
  • 25.
  • 26. Parts of a lesson Pre-reading (Schemata building) Reading practices Post –reading (relate to other skills)
  • 27. Pre-reading: Schemata Schemata are the underlying connections that allow new experiences and information to be aligned with previous knowledge Not possessing the proper schema or being unable to activate it leads to inaccurate constructs. Kevin Laurence Landry,”Schemata In Second Language Reading,” The Reading Matrix, Vol.2, No.3, September 2002.
  • 28. Schemata The kind of presumptions we make of the world depend on our experiences and on how our minds have organized the knowledge we have gotten from our experiences.
  • 29. Can you understand this text? Out of 41 cirrhotic patients, 22 (53.7%) patients were diabetic and 7 (17.1%) patients had IFG and/or IGT. Univariate analysis showed that only two factors were associated with DM rate. Mean of age in diabetic cases was significantly higher than that of non-diabetic ones (P = 0.003). Moreover, DM was significantly more prevalent in patients with Child-Pugh's score B than score A (P = 0.04). Since there was no score C in study sample, we could not evaluate this class of cirrhosis. After applying logistic model, only Child-Pugh's score kept its significance (P = 0.04, OR = 9.6, 95%CI: 1.0–88.4) as an independent predictive factor for DM in cirrhotic patients (table 4).
  • 30. The Reading What kinds of texts? What kind of activities?
  • 31.
  • 32. Poems
  • 38. Reading Activities Put illustrations of the text in the correct order. Put cut-up paragraphs back in the correct order. Find words in the text that mean the same as a list of words. Read text and find the mistakes in illustration (or draw your own illustration). Read text and make a list of particular items (e.g. jobs that need doing-, the author's proposals; advantages and disadvantages, etc). Give a title to each section of the article (or match given titles with the sections). Find appropriate places in text to reinsert some sentences that have previously been separated from the text.
  • 39. Post-reading Writing Speaking Listening Reading more
  • 40. Reading Strategies Understanding vocabulary in context Reading for general meaning Predicting / Previewing Skimming Finding the main idea Reading for specific information Inference Scanning Contextual referents / Rhetorical devices and clause markers
  • 41. Understanding meaning from context What to do when you find a new word when you’re reading… Ignore it. Continue reading. Look at it. Cover it up with your finger and try to read the sentence. Think about the general idea of the text. And if nothing else works and you still can’t understand the main idea of the text, use the dictionary.
  • 42. Reading for general meaning Predicting / previewing: Looking quickly at the text before beginning reading Skimming: Reading quickly to get a main idea Finding the main idea: Understanding the writer’s principal message
  • 43.
  • 46.
  • 47. Finding the main idea Think about the meaning of the whole text Try to identify a these that connects each sentence Look for examples that might explain the topic Don’t focus on individual words
  • 48. Reading for Specific Information Inference: Understanding something the writer doesn’t say directly Scanning: Looking through a text quickly to find specific information.
  • 49. Inference From Sharkey’s Dance Club ???
  • 50. Inference Look for verbs, adjectives and adverbs. Decide if adjectives are positive or negative. Decide how ideas relate to each other Try to imagine what is happening Look for clues…like a detective
  • 51. Scanning Look at any heading. Find the section you want Quickly look for the information you need. Stop reading when you find what you want.
  • 52. Contextual References and Cohesion Devises Understanding how ideas in a text are related. Pronouns Possessive adjectives Rhetorical devices Clause markers
  • 53. Pronouns and Possessives John gave Jane her book. his
  • 54. Rhetorical Devices and Clause Markers Rhetorical devices are used to help readers understand the relationships between ideas. Some are very easy to understand: for example, and, but. However, others are much more difficult from a vocabulary point of view.
  • 55. Other Activities Not all is work…there is also play.
  • 56. Jigsaw Reading Goal: To help the student to find out how the text is organized and what the relations are between the different parts of a text. Strategies involved: Prediction, recognizing discourse indicators and relations between parts of a text. Skills involved: Reading, listening, speaking
  • 57. Thank you. JoAnn Miller, Editorial Macmillan miller@room20.org Handout available at: www.efltasks.net Presentations