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# Fishbone analysis (edited)

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### Fishbone analysis (edited)

1. 1. FAH 0033 APPROACHES TO PROBLEM- SOLVING TECHNIQUES: FISHBONE ANALYSIS
2. 2. Fishbone Diagram – Problem Analysis Tool What is a Fishbone diagram?  Dr. Kaoru Ishikawa, a Japanese quality control statistician, invented the fishbone diagram. Therefore, it may be referred to as the Ishikawa diagram.  The fishbone diagram is an analysis tool that provides a systematic way of looking at effects and the causes that create or contribute to those effects.
3. 3. Fishbone Diagram – Problem Analysis Tool  Because of the function of the fishbone diagram, it may be referred to as a cause-and-effect diagram. The design of the diagram looks much like the skeleton of a fish. Therefore, it is often referred to as the fishbone diagram.
4. 4. Fishbone Diagram – Problem Analysis Tool  The value of the fishbone diagram is to assist teams in categorizing the many potential causes of problems or issues in an orderly way and in identifying root causes.
5. 5. Usefulness of Fishbone Analysis  it can be used when the team... - needs to study a problem/issue to determine the root cause - wants to study all the possible reasons why a process is beginning to have difficulties, problems, or breakdowns - needs to identify areas for data collection - wants to study why a process is not performing properly or producing the desired results
6. 6. Tools on Fishbone diagrams  The 4 W's of the Fishbone diagram should be considered. The 4 W's are: 1. What - refers to questions concerning objects such as machines and materials, 2. Why - which is concerned with questions on the conditions such as motivation, 3. When - refers to problems concerning the time sequence in the process such as the time of day or sequence in production, 4. Where - is concerned with the effects associated with place, such as a production line, branch office, or loading dock.
7. 7. Tools on Fishbone diagrams  For manufacturing problems, the 5 M's are a useful tool in finding possible causes to a problem.  The 5 M's are characterized as - manpower, - materials, - methods, - machines, and - measurements.
8. 8. Tools on Fishbone diagrams  For problems that are being examined in the service industry, the 5 P's can be used to develop the Cause Effect (CE)/Fishbone diagram: - People (employees) - Provisions (supplies) - Procedures (processes) - Place (environment) - Patrons (customers)
9. 9. How does it look like? An example…  Situation: The goal of not meeting a deadline is influenced by a number of factors.  The diagram (that follows) depicts 4 broad categories under which are grouped causes that we have identified as driving forces or obstacles.
10. 10. Rules/Techniques of Fishbone Analysis  Basic Steps: 1. Draw the fishbone diagram.... 2. List the problem/issue/goal to be studied in the "head of the fish". (1st level – main line) 3. Label each "bone" of the "fish". (2nd level). List each 2nd level cause to the 1st level. 4. The major categories for the 2nd level are typically utilized as:
11. 11. An example of a fishbone diagram  An example: Problem - Not meeting deadline
12. 12. Fishbone diagram in Manufacturing environments FISHBONE DIAGRAM Goal Measurement Materials Methods Environment People Machines Broad category
13. 13. Rules/Techniques of Fishbone Analysis 5. Use an idea-generating technique (e.g., brainstorming) to identify the factors within each category that may be affecting the problem/issue and/or effect being studied.This is known as the 3rd level. The team should ask... "What are the machine issues affecting/causing..."
14. 14. Rules/Techniques of Fishbone Analysis 6. Repeat this procedure with each factor under the category to produce sub-factors. Continue asking, "Why is this happening?“ (4th level) and put additional segments in each factor and subsequently under each sub-factor. 7. Continue until you no longer get useful information as you ask, "Why is that happening?"
15. 15. Rules/Techniques of Fishbone Analysis 8. Analyze the results of the fishbone after team members agree that an adequate amount of detail has been provided under each major category. Do this by looking for those items that appear in more than one category. These become the 'most likely causes".
16. 16. Rules/Techniques of Fishbone Analysis 9. For those items identified as the "most likely causes", the team should reach consensus on listing those items in priority order with the first item being the most “probable” cause.  Two examples of fish diagrams follow which includes an analysis of a company’s performance.
17. 17. Decrease cost Overhead Distribution Product Financing Increase Margin Increase Price Add Value Increase Demand Increase Gross Revenue Increase Existing Product Volume Differentiate Product Increased Feature/Function Real Feature/Function Product Distribution Quality Features Options Warranties Sizes Channels Locations Inventory Transport Government Compliance Decision Support Communications Increase Human Productivity Improve Process Reduce Waste Increase Quality Increase Speed Increase SpeedIncrease Quality Reduce Waste Channel LengthStorage Scheduling Info Purchasing Power Cost Engineering Scale Economics Sales Increase Need Territory Management Product Lines Segment Market Increase Present Use Increase Perceived Need Invent New Uses Promotion Increase Companion Products Use Invent New Uses Demographic Eliminate Competition Geographic Perceived Feature/Function Reduce Supply Decrease Price Perceived Price Brand Promotion Packaging Joint Venture Style Franchising Acquisition Merge Acquire Product Price Introduce New Product Increase Market Share New Industry Current Industry Compliment Substitute New Product New Product Substitute Compliment Impair Competition Existing Potential entry/exit barriers Market Power Scale Economics Volumes Learning Curves Vertical Supplier Power Buyer Power Horizontal Pre-emptive Strike Buyout Competition Increase Net Revenue Figure 1 - Strategic Fishbone Adapted from Nolan, Norton & Company (Bold Type indicates significance)
18. 18. FISHBONE ANALYSIS 1. Identifying the Problem CAUSE EFFECT Reports not printed within timeframe PROBLEM
19. 19. 2. Determine the Main Causes Reports not printed within timeframe Materials Machinery Manpower Methodology
20. 20. 3. Determine the Minor Causes Reports not printed within time- frame Materials Machinery Manpower Methodology Insufficient supplies Not enough funds Manpower shortage No training Poor proof-reading Bad attitude Power supply interruptions Insufficient machines Frequent breakdowns Report received late Late proof-reading/setting Changes during processing
21. 21. 4. Determine the Actual Causes Reports not printed within time- frame Materials Machinery Manpower Methodology Insufficient supplies NOT ENOUGH FUNDS Manpower shortage No training POOR PROOF- READING Bad attitude Power supply interruptions Insufficient machines FREQUENT BREAKDOWNS Report received late LATE PROOF-READING/SETTING Changes during processing
22. 22. 5. Arrange Causes According to Priority Reports not printed within time- frame Materials Machinery Manpower Methodology Poor proof- reading Frequent break- downs Late proof- reading/ setting Not enough funds