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Dr Rajeev Rao Eashwari.

  1. A Progressive Healthcare industry How far has Africa come, the pitfalls and the milestones Dr Rajeev Rao Eashwari Director eHealth, Hospital Services Gauteng Provincial Department of Health eMail: gMail: Cell: 083 220 1037
  2. Agenda •Healthcare in Africa, a trip down memory lane •The challenges in the industry •Lack of funds and infrastructure : How technology is changing this scenario •What the future of public healthcare looks like with technology in the midst.
  3. Healthcare in Africa, a trip down memory lane In 1913 Albert Schweitzer founded one of the first modern hospitals in Africa dedicated to the health of the local population. The Albert Schweitzer Hospital is located in Lambaréné, a small town in Gabon (French Equatorial Africa). in 1952 He won the Nobel Prize for his work there. Schweitzer used the prize money to build a leper colony. in 1965 He managed the hospital until his death. In 2022 The Albert Schweitzer Hospital still faces huge obstacles: a million-dollar budget deficit, antiquated facilities, a rising burden of HIV and tuberculosis.
  4. Largest Hospital in Africa and the 8th largest in the world Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital (1942) is a hospital in Soweto, Johannesburg, South Africa, it is the largest hospital in Africa and eight largest hospital in the world. It has 6,760 staff members, 3,400 beds and occupies 70 ha (170 acres).
  5. Africa Population Whereas the population is expected to decrease somewhat until 2100 in Asia, Europe, and South America, it is predicted to grow significantly in Africa. While there were 1.4 billion inhabitants on the continent at the beginning of 2022, the number of inhabitants is expected to reach 3.9 billion by 2100. In total, the global population is expected to reach nearly 10.4 billions by 2100. Source: 1.4 billion in 2022 3.9 billion by 2100 African Continent 17.9% of World Population
  6. Healthcare Burden in Africa Source:
  7. Africa Healthcare Burden A Heavy Burden: The Productivity Cost of Illness in Africa • The diseases afflicting the African population are responsible for a substantial loss in health, estimated at 704 765 879 DALYs in 2015 alone. • In the WHO African Region, total losses amounted to 629 603 271 DALYs. • Out of that total, 416 671 978 DALYs (59.1%) were from communicable, maternal, perinatal and nutritional conditions; • 216 073 399 DALYs (30.7%) were from non- communicable diseases (NCDs) and • 71 551 401 DALYs (10.2%) were from injuries. • Five countries (the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa and the United Republic of Tanzania) accounted for almost 50% of the total DALYs accrued in the Region. Source:
  8. Africa COVID-9 Statistics Source: ps/dashboards/0c9b3a8b68d04 37a8cf28581e9c063a9
  9. A majority of Africans, mostly the poor and those in the middle-income bracket, rely on under-funded public health facilities while a small minority has access to well-funded, quality private health care. In 2001, African countries agreed to allocate at least 15% of their budgets to health care. Several African countries have made significant progress in healthcare with strategic health planning, public health reforms, and adopting new technologies. Healthcare in Africa, A situational analysis
  10. Healthcare in Africa, A situational analysis Africa has faced some of the worst pandemics in history like Ebola and Zika and is now fighting Coronavirus. People in Africa are living in fear and uncertainty over the rising viral infections, coupled with poor health service offerings. African communities and the African Government are continually striving to stop the spread of communicable and other infectious diseases. It is the No. 1 priority in public health is to identify the challenges in the healthcare system and overcome them. Some of the past studies and surveys have given us valuable inputs in this direction. Highlights from the African Epidemiological Association report aptly mentions the top three reasons why African healthcare is going through a massive crisis. • Worker Shortage • Inefficient Management • Counterfeit drugs
  11. Healthcare in African countries has a lot of room for improvement. Governments and NGOs are actively looking to fix that. For instance, countries like Zambia, Nigeria, Zimbabwe, Kenya, and South Africa have made significant strides to improve healthcare for their citizens by introducing Strategic health planning, public health reforms, and adopting new technology. Strategic health planning is employed to revamp the health sector of a country setting goals and creating objectives for areas where a state would like to improve on and then proceeded to construct a plan to accomplish these objectives. In the health sector, especially, healthcare planning must take into account potential government challenges faced by the people, technological advancements, policy changes, and economic trends that could change the countries’ operations in a significant way. Healthcare in Africa, A situational analysis
  12. üDynamic Medical Needs of the Public üA wide range of diseases is often challenging and require specific tactics to control. Besides, they are highly in need of medicine and medical support dynamically. And some other lesser-known issues. üInsufficient budget allocation to healthcare üMedical supplies are unaffordable prices and face disruptions in the supply üInefficient coordination between public and private healthcare sectors üMisunderstanding between policymakers in the changing health industry. Significant challenge for public health in Africa. Source:
  13. How Technology Is Changing Health Care Challenges to be addressed are: •Infrastructure issues •Shortage of health professionals and •Insufficient digital data
  14. What does infrastructure mean in healthcare? Hospitals and other healthcare facilities depend critically on A strong public health infrastructure that includes: • A capable and qualified workforce, • An up-to-date data and information systems, and agencies that can assess and respond to public health needs • Without power supply: • All critical equipment needs power. • Digitization of patient information is hampered
  15. Shortage of health professionals … Prolonged waiting time because of shortage of human resources Africa has less than one health worker per 1000 population compared to 10 per 1000 in Europe Insufficiency and inadequacy of health workers which is leading to • physical and mental exhaustion, leading to Burnout and in some cases • Increased litigation because of avoidable errors • Africa is experiencing a massive exodus of healthcare professionals to Western Europe and North America. The health problems in Africa are worsened by unequal distribution of health professionals • Between Countries • Between the provinces (some are better than the others). • Between the private and public sectors, (difference in remuneration) • Between urban and rural
  16. Lack of data in real-time due to Lack of electronic health records across the continuum of care Poor paper based record-keeping, causes unnecessary delays for patients. Patients’ folders are missing, misfiled or lost, Duplicate folder are created adding to the confusion The medical history of the patient is lost, which can create further complications leading to incorrect diagnosis and in some extreme cases death of the patient. Possibility of litigation costs erodes the healthcare budget
  17. On a positive note
  18. How Technology Is impacting Health Care Source: Artificial Intelligence Recently AI techniques have sent vast waves across healthcare, even fuelling an active discussion of whether AI doctors will eventually replace human physicians in the future. We believe that human physicians will not be replaced by machines in the foreseeable future, but AI can definitely assist physicians to make better clinical decisions or even replace human judgement in certain functional areas of healthcare (eg, radiology). AIDING SOFTWARE The interpretation of Portable chest radiographs can be asses using a new visualization method – the interpretation time is reduced by >60% versus the Standard reporting time.
  19. Artificial Intelligence AI solutions exist today that help reduce the time physicians spend taking notes, making patient-doctor interactions efficient and helping patients recall the key points of physician-patient interactions. These are examples of giving day-to-day tools a digital upgrade. True digital transformation spans people, process and technology. • The key role data, analytics and innovation leaders play in empowering organizations for better business outcomes. • A data-driven culture should be part of a successful strategy digital transformation. How Technology Is impacting Health Care
  20. How Technology Is impacting Health Care Source:
  21. How Technology Is impacting Health Care Source:
  22. How Technology Is impacting Health Care Source: Remote care- Hello Doctor While infrastructure can be poor, the number of mobile internet users in sub-Saharan Africa is growing rapidly. According to GSMA, the mobile industry’s trade body, smartphone connections in the region reached 302 million in 2018. GSMA expects this to rise to nearly 700 million by 2025. As a result, apps that enable remote access to medical advice and diagnosis are popping up across the continent. Hello Doctor, a South African app, provides essential healthcare information, access to advice and a call back from a doctor for 55 rand ($3) a month. You can dial *120*1019# or Download the Hello Doctor App for access once you have registered above.
  23. How Technology Is impacting Health Care Source: Remote care- Vula App VulaApp, a South African app, Get more accurate referrals, and treat the patients who really need your expertise. Quality referrals We’ve worked with specialists in academic hospitals to make sure the right clinical information for your speciality is captured in the referral. Educate and train The chat feedback about specific referrals can help primary health workers to up-skill in your speciality. You can dial *120*1019# or Download the Hello Doctor App for access once you have registered above.
  24. Mobile Applications in Personal Health Service.
  25. üImprove the Doctor-Patient Ratio. ... üCombat the Brain Drain Phenomenon. ... üBetter Medical Education. ... üIncrease the Budgetary Allocation. ... üBetter Collaboration. ... üImproved Coordination. ... üWidespread Public Awareness. ... üIncorporating Technology into Healthcare. Healthcare Challenges can be addressed
  26. How In Africa, the public healthcare system is tied with many NGO’s and independent organizations locally and from other nations who are providing aid to overcome the challenges in this direction. A public health program is an extensive plan covering various aspects beyond the physical wellbeing of people. It responds to issues like any injury, violence in the community, various vaccination programs, and infectious diseases. A graduate of the master’s in public health speaks a ton about your commitment to improving wellbeing. After completing a master’s in public health, here are some of the ways you can contribute to the public: • Study the disparities in the access to healthcare and its reach to different parts in the African nation and formulate a plan of action • Counsel communities and individuals of the law for better healthcare for everyone • Carefully study the health issues that are impacting the lives of many in Africa and other countries, and prevent the spread of such diseases • Suggest changes and implement new health policies that benefit those who are in a dire need • Improve and form new community partnerships and associations with foreign NGOs • Discover technology-based solutions through research and implement them for better medical care for the public • Administrative and political support Encourage innovation, and support start ups- Education Can Resolve Healthcare Challenges…
  27. Conclusion The system needs to improve the doctor-patient ratio, quality of medical education, budget allocation, adapt to digital platforms and set up R&D centres, access to information, and reduce brain drain. There has to be a close collaboration, partnerships, associations and implement appropriate solutions across all agencies. • Between African countries with WHO and UN on framing people-friendly policies • Collaboration between Governments, Industry, Academics, NGOs, and Funders • Coordination of public and private healthcare sector. All these measures will help meet the challenges in healthcare and education which play an important role.
  28. Dr Rajeev Rao Eashwari eMail: gMail: Cell: 083 220 1037