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Personas als Methode des Usability Engineerings

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Wobei hilft mir eine Persona? Wie sollte eine Persona aussehen? Wann und wo kommt sie zum Einsatz?

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Personas als Methode des Usability Engineerings

  1. 1. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG ● ● Usability Michael Jendryschik Personas Quelle: German UPA Usability-Quartett
  2. 2. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Michael Jendryschik Leiter Usability Engineering  Seit 2008 bei der itemis AG  Diplom-Informatiker (FH), zertifizierter Usability Engineering (Fraunhofer), Mitglied der German UPA und der Webkrauts  Spezialist für die Konzeption und Entwicklung von Webseiten und Benutzeroberflächen  Arbeitsschwerpunkte: Usability Engineering und Webstandards ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG
  3. 3. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Personas Quelle: German UPA Usability-Quartett
  4. 4. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Quelle: http://whatmyfriendsthinkido.net/engineer/what-my-friends-think-i-do-what-i-actually-do-engineer/
  5. 5. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Quelle: http://www.geekfill.com/2011/10/19/how-users-see-the-programmers/
  6. 6. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas Definition  Hypothetischer Nutzer mit konkret ausgeprägten Eigenschaften und Vorlieben sowie einem konkreten Nutzungsverhalten.  Die ermittelten Personas begleiten das gesamte Projekt von der Anforderungsermittlung bis hin zur Implementierung und Wartung. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Quelle: http://1tag1mensch.wordpress.com/
  7. 7. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ●  Aufbau einer Persona ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG  Der vollständige Name und weitere persönliche Angaben, u.a. das Geschlecht und Alter.  Einstellung zum Produkt und Kenntnis vom Produkt.  Ein Foto der Persona.  Angaben zu Beruf, Funktion, Verantwortlichkeiten.  Angaben zu Aufgaben und Zielen.  Fachliche Ausbildung, Wissen und Fähigkeiten, sofern sie für das Produkt von Interesse sind. (Computerkenntnisse, IT-Know-how, ...)  Typische Verhaltensmuster und Vorgehensweisen, die Rückschlüsse darüber zulassen, wie die Persona in bestimmten Situationen reagiert. Personas Verfassen
  8. 8. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas: CURE Elderly-Personas Archetypische Senioren, älter als 60 Jahre Basieren realen Daten, die auf Studien basieren, die in 8 europäischen Ländern durchgeführt wurden (u.a. Deutschland) Sollen Forscher und Unternehmen bei der Gestaltung von Produkten und Dienstleistungen für ältere Nutzer unterstützen ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Quelle: http://elderlypersonas.cure.at/
  9. 9. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas Vorteile  Alle Projektbeteiligte (Management, Designer, Entwickler, …) ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG  können sich in Personas hineinversetzen und deren Erfordernisse verstehen.  können den gesamten Entwicklungsprozess auf die Erfordernisse ihrer Nutzer ausrichten;  spielen Nutzungsszenarien aus Sicht der Personas durch: »Wie würde Helmuth vorgehen, um den Bericht auszudrucken?«  haben konkrete Bezugspersonen, die ihrer Arbeit einen Sinn geben;  haben ein Werkzeug, um Anforderungen zu priorisieren.
  10. 10. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas Nachteil  Personas geringer Qualität können so real anmuten, dass die Entwicklung die tatsächlichen Nutzer aus den Augen verliert. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG
  11. 11. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Personas sind eine Usability-Engineering-Methode und basieren auf empirischen Daten! Quelle: Fotolia
  12. 12. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Personas Usability Engineering Vorgehensmodell
  13. 13. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Personas Nutzungskontext
  14. 14. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas Methodische Grundlage zur Bestimmung des Nutzungskontexts 1. Ermittlung der relevanten Nutzergruppen 2. Analyse des Nutzungskontexts mittels Interviews 3. Verfassen und Validieren von Kontextszenarien 4. Erstellung von Aufgabenmodellen und Nutzungsszenarien ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Quelle: DAkkS Leitfaden Usability 1.3
  15. 15. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas Ermittlung der relevanten Nutzergruppen Software für »Jedermann«  Erfahrung mit der Aufgabe  Sensomotorische Fähigkeiten (vor allem relevant für Alter über 50)  Erfahrung mit IT  Einstellung/Zutrauen zu IT Software für ein bestimmtes Klientel  Aufgaben, die am System ausgeführt werden  Vorbildung  Rollenbezeichnung im Unternehmen oder in der Organisation ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Quelle: DAkkS Leitfaden Usability 1.3, Fraunhofer FIT
  16. 16. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas Nutzungsanforderungen (Beispiele) Der Nutzer muss über das System E-Mails versenden können, ggfs. mit Anhang. Der Nutzer muss am System versendete E-Mail wiederfinden und einsehen können. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Quelle: DAkkS Leitfaden Usability 1.3
  17. 17. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas Aufgabenmodell (Beispiel)  Kernaufgabe: E-Mail verfassen  Teilaufgaben ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG 1. Empfänger auswählen 2. Inhalt verfassen 3. Dokumente anhängen 4. E-Mail versenden 5. Kopie speichern Quelle: DAkkS Leitfaden Usability 1.3
  18. 18. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Aufgabenmodell Benutzeraktion Systemreaktion Nutzungsanforderung Personas Beispiel-Nutzungsszenario Quelle: DAkkS Leitfaden Usability 1.3
  19. 19. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas Beispiel-Nutzungsszenario Aufgabenmodell Benutzeraktion Systemreaktion Nutzungsanforderung KA: E-Mail verfassen TA1: Empfänger auswählen TA2: Inhalt verfassen TA3: Dokumente anhängen TA4: E-Mail versenden TA5: Kopie speichern ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Quelle: DAkkS Leitfaden Usability 1.3
  20. 20. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Aufgabenmodell Benutzeraktion Systemreaktion Nutzungsanforderung KA: E-Mail verfassen Ausgangssituation: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Das System zur Eingabe von E-Mails ist gestartet. TA1: Empfänger auswählen Name oder E-Mail- Adresse eingeben oder auswählen Zeigt ausgewählte Empfänger TA2: Inhalt verfassen Betreff und Inhalt eingeben Zeigt Betreff und Inhalt TA3: Dokumente anhängen Aufruf der Funktion zum Anhängen von Dokumenten Zeigt eine Liste verfügbarer Dokumente Gewünschte Dokumente auswählen Zeigt ausgewählte Dokumente als Anhang TA4: E-Mail versenden Wählt »Senden« Zeigt den Versandstatus TA5: Kopie speichern Zeigt den Speicherort der Kopie Personas Beispiel-Nutzungsszenario Quelle: DAkkS Leitfaden Usability 1.3
  21. 21. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Aufgabenmodell Benutzeraktion Systemreaktion Nutzungsanforderung KA: E-Mail verfassen Ausgangssituation: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Das System zur Eingabe von E-Mails ist gestartet. Der Nutzer muss über das System E-Mails versenden können, ggfs. mit Anhang. TA1: Empfänger auswählen Name oder E-Mail- Adresse eingeben oder auswählen Zeigt ausgewählte Empfänger TA2: Inhalt verfassen Betreff und Inhalt eingeben Zeigt Betreff und Inhalt TA3: Dokumente anhängen Aufruf der Funktion zum Anhängen von Dokumenten Zeigt eine Liste verfügbarer Dokumente Gewünschte Dokumente auswählen Zeigt ausgewählte Dokumente als Anhang TA4: E-Mail versenden Wählt »Senden« Zeigt den Versandstatus TA5: Kopie speichern Zeigt den Speicherort der Kopie Der Nutzer muss am System versendete E-Mail wiederfinden und einsehen können. Personas Beispiel-Nutzungsszenario Quelle: DAkkS Leitfaden Usability 1.3
  22. 22. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas Ableitung der Personas  Erstellung mindestens einer Persona für jede Benutzergruppe  Berücksichtigung von Zielen, Aufgaben und Problemen, Erfordernissen und Nutzungsanforderungen, Eigenschaften und Einstellungen  Validierung der Personas ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG  Korrekt gezeichnet?  Für die Unternehmensziele relevant?  Sichtbar machen, z.B.  Poster, die bei den Projektbeteiligten in den Büros hängen  Dokumentation, Reports oder andere technische Dokumente
  23. 23. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Na komm, das ist schon ein bisschen aufwändig, oder? Was soll man das alles noch machen? Wer soll das bezahlen? ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Quelle: freydenker.com
  24. 24. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas Lean UX Methode  Erstellung von »Proto-Personas« durch das Produkt/Projekt-Team  Kreativ-Workshops, Brainstorming  Fokus auf Bedürfnisse und Ziele ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG
  25. 25. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas Lean UX Methode 1 2 3 4 ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Foto/Zeichnung Name und Alter Rolle Familienverhältnisse Persönliche Situation Generelle Einstellungen (zum Produkt) Bedürfnisse und Probleme Mögliche Lösungsansätze
  26. 26. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Personas Lean UX Methode Quelle: coschedule.com
  27. 27. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Personas Lean UX Methode  Wichtig: Annahmen im weiteren Projektverlauf permanent validieren und Personas ggfs. anpassen.  Das gilt auch für auf empirischem Weg ermittelte Personas. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG
  28. 28. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG Viel Spaß bei der Entwicklung eigener Personas! Quelle: http://1tag1mensch.wordpress.com/
  29. 29. ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● Kontakt: Michael Jendryschik michael.jendryschik@itemis.de https://twitter.com/jendryschik https://www.xing.com/profiles/Michael_Jendryschik ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● © itemis AG itemis AG | Am Brambusch 15-24 | D-44536 Lünen | www.itemis.de

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