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Pilas y matrices (Stacks y Arrays) - Small Basic

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Pilas y matrices (Stacks y Arrays) en Small Basic
Materia: Práctica de Laboratorio II

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Pilas y matrices (Stacks y Arrays) - Small Basic

  1. 1. Microsoft® Small Basic Pilas y Matrices Tiempo estimado para completar esta lección: 1 hora
  2. 2. Pilas y Matrices En esta lección, usted aprenderá cómo: Utilizar operaciones diferentes del objeto Stack (Pilas). Utilizar las diferentes operaciones del objeto Array (Matrices).
  3. 3. Pilas y Matrices Antes de discutir los objetos Array y Stack, entendamos primero cuando podríamos usar estos objetos. Una matriz puede tener múltiples dimensiones, pero una pila tiene solamente una dimensión. Puedes acceder directamente a cualquier elemento de una matriz, pero se puede acceder sólo al elemento superior de la pila. En otras palabras, debes ir a través de todos los elementos de una pila para acceder a su último elemento.
  4. 4. El objeto Array Hasta ahora, has aprendido acerca de las variables que almacenan los valores individuales. Ahora, vamos a aprender acerca de un tipo especial de variable que se llama array (matriz). Un array puede almacenar más de un valor al mismo tiempo. Si desea almacenar los nombres de cinco usuarios, puede crear cinco variables, o puede crear una variable para almacenar todos los nombres juntos. Usas el método de indexación para almacenar varios valores en un array. Por ejemplo, puedes crear un array llamado nombre: nombre [1], nombre [2], nombre [3], nombre [4] y nombre [5]. Aquí, 1, 2, 3, 4 y 5 son los índices de la matriz nombre. El nombre [1], nombre [2]... pueden parecer etiquetas para identificar diferentes variables, pero todos ellos representan una sola variable.
  5. 5. Operaciones del objeto Array Ahora, vamos a discutir algunas operaciones del objeto Array, como IsArray, ContainsIndex y ContainsValue. Puedes determinar si la variable especificada es una matriz mediante la operación IsArray. Puedes determinar si una matriz contiene el índice especificado utilizando la operación ContainsIndex. Esta operación es útil si deseas determinar si un valor específico inicializa el índice de la matriz. Puedes determinar si la matriz contiene un valor que se especifica mediante la operación ContainsValue. Puedes utilizar esta operación para determinar si el valor de la matriz fue almacenado en el índice especificado.
  6. 6. Operaciones del objeto Array Vamos a ver cómo podemos utilizar estas operaciones en un programa. En este ejemplo, el array de Materias almacena los nombres de cinco materias. Puedes verificar si Materias es una matriz mediante la operación IsArray. También puedes verificar si el índice Materias [4] existe mediante la operación ContainsIndex. Puedes verificar si existe el valor "Matemáticas" en la matriz de Materias mediante la operación ContainsValue.
  7. 7. Operaciones del objeto Array El objeto Array también proporciona más operaciones útiles, tales como:  GetAllIndices  GetItemCount Mira este ejemplo para aprender a utilizar estas operaciones. En este ejemplo, no sabes los índices de la matriz Empleados, así que utilizas la operación GetAllIndices. A continuación, utiliza la operación GetItemCount en un bucle For para listar la información que se almacena en la matriz de empleado.
  8. 8. El objeto Stack Puedes utilizar el objeto Stack (pila) para almacenar datos de la misma manera que una pila. Este objeto funciona bajo el principio de último en entrar, primero en salir (LIFO). El objeto Stack contiene tres operaciones: Por ejemplo, si miras hacia abajo en una pila de fotos, ves sólo la foto superior. Para ver la siguiente foto, debes quitar la foto superior. No puedes ver una foto en el centro de la pila hasta quitar las fotos que están por encima de ella. PushValue PopValue GetCount Vamos a explorar cada una de estas operaciones.
  9. 9. Operaciones con el objeto Stack El objeto Stack almacena los datos como una pila de fotos. Echemos un vistazo a algunos ejemplos para entender cómo funciona este objeto. Usando la operación de PushValue es como agregar una foto a la parte superior de la pila. Mediante esta operación, se puede colocar un valor específico a la pila . Utilizando la operación de PopValue es como tomar una foto de la parte superior de la pila. Puedes utilizar esta operación para sacar un valor de la pila que se especifique. La operación GetCount proporciona el número total de fotos en la pila. Puedes utilizar esta operación para determinar cuántos elementos contiene una pila.
  10. 10. Operaciones con el objeto Stack Vamos a escribir un programa para entender mejor estas operaciones. En este ejemplo, se utiliza la operación PushValue para agregar 50 placas en un recipiente vacío. Luego toma ocho fotos de la pila mediante la operación PopValue. Ahora, utiliza la operación GetCount para obtener el número de fotos que permanecen. Puedes también visualizar el valor de la foto superior.
  11. 11. Vamos a resumir… ¡Felicidades! Ahora ya sabes cómo: Utilizar diferentes operaciones del objeto Stack. Utilizar diferentes operaciones del objeto Array .
  12. 12. Mostrar lo que sabes Mediante el objeto Array, escribí un programa de «vuelo-reserva» que puedas utilizar para realizar las siguientes acciones:  Reservar asientos para 10 pasajeros.  Mostrar el número de asiento y nombre de cada pasajero.  Mostrar cuántas plazas siguen estando disponibles.

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