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In this persentation I give a short description about ecology and the history of it. I also show the ecological crisis as well as environmental situation for ethical and social awareness.

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  1. 1. Ecology
  2. 2. What is Ecology? <ul><li>Ecology is the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>It is the science that seeks to describe and explain the relationship between living organisms and their environment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is Ecology? (Cont…) <ul><li>Ecology is describing the relationships between living organisms and their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecology comes from the Greek words </li></ul><ul><li>Oîkos= House </li></ul><ul><li>-λογία, -logia= Study of Life </li></ul><ul><li>Study of the “house/environment” in which we live. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factors of Ecology <ul><li>There is two factors that Ecology study: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Abiotic Factors (non-living components) are those inert factors of the ecosystem, as the light, the temperature, the chemical products, the water and the atmosphere. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors (living organisms) are all the living beings in an environment. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Ecology is study of interactions between <ul><li>non-living components in the environment … </li></ul><ul><ul><li>light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nutrients in soil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>solar radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>atmosphere, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>AND… </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Living organisms… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>microorganisms in soil, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Ernst Haeckel , a German zoologist coined the term Ecology in 1866. </li></ul><ul><li>After that…. </li></ul><ul><li>Danish botanist, Eugenius Warming elaborate the idea of Ecology. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Classification of Ecology <ul><li>Ecology is a broad discipline comprising many sub-disciplines. Under this system the subjects studies: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecophysiology examines how the physiological functions of organisms influence the way they interact with the environment, both biotic and abiotic. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral ecology examines the roles of behavior in enabling an animal to adapt to its environment. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Classification of Ecology (cont…) <ul><ul><li>Population ecology studies the dynamics of populations of a single species. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community ecology (or synecology) focuses on the interactions between species within an ecological community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem ecology studies the flows of energy and matter through the biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Classification of Ecology (cont…) <ul><ul><li>Systems ecology is an interdisciplinary field focusing on the study, development, and organization of ecological systems from a holistic perspective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landscape ecology examines processes and relationship in a spatially explicit manner, often across multiple ecosystems or very large geographic areas. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Classification of Ecology (cont…) <ul><ul><li>Evolutionary ecology studies ecology in a way that explicitly considers the evolutionary histories of species and their interactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political ecology connects politics and economy to problems of environmental control and ecological change. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Individual Population Population interactions Community Ecosystem Landscape Region = Biome Biosphere “ Levels” of Ecology
  13. 13. Levels of Ecology <ul><li>Biosphere </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface of the earth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is the whole portion of Earth colonized by living beings </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Levels of Ecology (cont…) <ul><li>Region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Group of ecosystems with the same climate and dominant communities. </li></ul></ul>Tropical rain forest Tropical dry forest Tropical savanna Temperate woodland and shrubland Desert Temperate grassland Boreal forest (Taiga) Northwestern coniferous forest Temperate forest Mountains and ice caps Tundra
  15. 15. Tropical Forest: Vertical stratification with trees in canopy blocking light to bottom strata. Many trees covered by epiphytes (plants that grow on other plants).
  16. 17. Desert: Sparse rainfall (< 30 cm per year), plants and animals adapted for water storage and conservation. Can be either very, very hot, or very cold (e.g. Antarctica )
  17. 18. Coniferous forest: Largest terrestial biome on earth, old growth forests rapidly disappearing, usually receives lots of moisture as rain or snow.
  18. 19. Tundra: Permafrost (Permanent frozen ground), bitter cold, high winds and thus no trees. Has 20% of land surface on earth.
  19. 20. Levels of Ecology (cont…) <ul><li>Landscape </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a group of ecosystems that may or may not interact in a given region </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Levels of Ecology (cont…) <ul><li>Ecosystem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of communities and the populations within them embedded in a common physical environment and tied together by physical processes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It refers to all the abiotic factors (physical and chemical constituents) and all the communities that established in a specific area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a collection of organisms that live in a place with the nonliving environment. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Levels of Ecology (cont…) <ul><li>Community </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of populations of different species occurring in one place; individuals of different species may interact with each other </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And all the living beings distributed into a specific geographical area. A community includes organisms of different species. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Levels of Ecology (cont…) <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of individuals of a given species that live in a specific geographic area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of organisms, all of the same species, which interbreed and live in the same area. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A group of individuals that collectively interact to give birth to new individuals and eventually die </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Levels of Ecology (cont…) <ul><li>Individual </li></ul><ul><li>Group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring </li></ul>
  24. 25. Ecosystem <ul><li>Ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and their non-living environment, interacting as a functional unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Every element of the environment have their own ecosystem. </li></ul><ul><li>A dynamic ecosystem makes the balance of nature. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Ecosystem (cont…) <ul><li>Example of Ecosystem: </li></ul>
  26. 27. Hydrologic (Water) Cycle
  27. 28. Status of Ecology <ul><li>Past Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calm and Quite </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Human don’t disturb the nature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecosystem had been going on its natural cycle </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Beautiful Nature
  29. 30. Status of Ecology (cont…) <ul><li>Present Status </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Population increasing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecological Crisis </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Ecological Crisis <ul><li>The main causes of Ecological Crisis are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over Population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environment Pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. Over Population <ul><li>Over population is a depletion of resources that occurs when too many of at least one kind of living thing inhabits an ecosystem. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Environment Pollution
  33. 34. Environment Pollution (cont…)
  34. 35. Environment Pollution (cont…)
  35. 36. Deforestation <ul><li>Deforestation is the logging or burning of trees in forested areas. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Ecological Crisis <ul><li>Major Ecological Crisis which are facing the World: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greenhouse Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Warming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Changes </li></ul></ul>
  37. 38. Green House Effect <ul><li>Greenhouse effect means the change in the thermal equilibrium temperature of a planet by the presence of an atmosphere containing gas that absorbs infrared radiation. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Green House Effect (cont…)
  39. 40. Global Warming <ul><li>Global warming is an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere. </li></ul>
  40. 41. Climate Changes <ul><li>Climate change means a long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences. Average weather may include average temperature, precipitation and wind patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>It causes natural disasters. </li></ul>
  41. 42. Natural Disasters
  42. 43. Conclusion <ul><li>Ecosystem is a natural cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem makes the balance of nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Human beings are an integral part of ecological systems and depend on nature for survival and quality of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Save Nature, survive ecosystem, safe ourselves. </li></ul>
  43. 44. The End