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Introduction to Open Access and How you can get involved

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Introduction to Open Access and How you can get involved

  1. 1. Introduction to Open Access and How you can get involved Iryna Kuchma EIFL Open Access Programme Manager Presentation at “Open Access, Knowledge Sharing and Sustainable Scholarly Communication in Mongolia” seminar, December 11, 2014, Open Society Forum www.eifl.net Attribution 4.0 International
  2. 2. Technology enabled networking & collaboration Over 35% of articles published in journals are based on international collaboration (compared with 25% 15 years ago) Science is increasingly interdisciplinary Novel communication technologies permit modes of interaction that exploit the collective intelligence of the scientific community
  3. 3. “It felt like the difference between driving a car and pushing it” (Tim Gowers)
  4. 4. Open access (OA) is free, immediate, online access to the results of research, coupled with the right to use those results in new and innovative ways
  5. 5. OA for researchers increased visibility usage & impact for their work new contacts & research partnerships
  6. 6. OA for research institutions publicises University's research strengths complete record of the research output in easily accessible form new tools to manage University's impact
  7. 7. OA for publishers increased readership & citations visibility & impact the best possible dissemination service for research
  8. 8. “As of April 2014, more than 50% of the scientific papers published in 2007-2012 can be downloaded for free on the Internet.” Proportion of Open Access Papers Published in Peer-Reviewed Journals at the European and World Levels—1996–2013: http://www.science- metrix.com/en/publications/reports#/en/publications/reports /proportion-of-open-access-papers-published-in-peer- reviewed-journals-at-the
  9. 9. Strategies to achieve OA
  10. 10. OA journals
  11. 11. OA monographs
  12. 12. OA repositories
  13. 13. OA repositories FOSS to set up, free technical support. Low installation and maintenance costs, quick to set up and gain benefits. Institutions can mandate OA, speeding development.
  14. 14. Open access policies worldwide
  15. 15. @bernardrentier: - University that doesn't know what papers its faculty publishes is like a factory that doesn't know what it produces - An empty repository is useless; a partly filled repository is partly useless; there is a need for an institutional OA policy
  16. 16. @bernardrentier: - Don't impose, just inform researchers that only publications in the repository will be considered for evaluation - Mandate, keep authors at the core, communicate permanently, be coherent, reduce constraints - @ORBi_ULg – a personal workspace, provides statistics and has a widget to generate publications lists – content in personal/faculties webpages
  17. 17. 800+scholarly societies embrace OA (Peter Suber & Caroline Sutton)
  18. 18. publishes in OA journals or in journals that sell subscriptions and also offer the possibility of making individual articles openly accessible (hybrid journals) publishes in subscriptions journals deposits a machine-readable e-copy of the published version/a final peer- reviewed manuscript accepted for publication in institutional/subject- based/Zenodo repository as soon as possible and at the latest on publication ensures open access via the repository within six months of publication (12 months for publications in the social sciences & humanities) deposits as soon as possible and at the latest on publication, if an electronic version is available for free via the publisher
  19. 19. Máire Geoghegan-Quinn, European Commissioner for Research, Innovation & Science: “Putting research results in the public sphere makes science better & strengthens our knowledge-based economy. The European taxpayer should not have to pay twice for publicly funded research. That is why we have made OA to publications the default setting for Horizon 2020, the EU research & innovation funding programme."
  20. 20. “Policies on OA to scientific research results should apply to all research that receives public funds. Such policies are expected to improve conditions for conducting research by reducing duplication of efforts and by minimising the time spent searching for information and accessing it. This will speed up scientific progress and make it easier to cooperate across and beyond the EU. Such policies will also respond to calls within the scientific community for greater access to scientific information.” http://bit.ly/Q3sDJ9
  21. 21. “Enabling societal actors to interact in the research cycle improves the quality, relevance, acceptability and sustainability of innovation outcomes by integrating society’s expectations, needs, interests and values. Open access is a key feature of Member States’ policies for responsible research and innovation by making the results of research available to all and by facilitating societal engagement.”. http://bit.ly/Q3sDJ9 Why?
  22. 22. “Businesses will also benefit from wider access to scientific research results. Small and medium-sized enterprises in particular will improve their capacity to innovate. Policies on access to scientific information should therefore also facilitate access to scientific information for private companies...” http://bit.ly/Q3sDJ9 Why? (2)
  23. 23. “The Internet has fundamentally changed the world of science and research. For instance, research communities have been experimenting with new ways to register, certify, disseminate and preserve scientific publications. Research and funding policies need to adapt to this new environment. It should be recommended to Member States to adapt and develop their policies on OA to scientific publications.”http://bit.ly/Q3sDJ9
  24. 24. OpenAIRE Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe
  25. 25. Open access (OA) policies in China and Latin America
  26. 26. OA is required by law in Argentina
  27. 27. and in Peru
  28. 28. and in Mexico
  29. 29. USA
  30. 30. How OA benefits your work and career Distribution and usage Immediate access to your research output for everyone upon official publication More visibility & usage Immediate impact of your work Intensification of research through fast dissemination and use of research; Possibly a citation advantage as well
  31. 31. Swan, Alma
  32. 32. How OA benefits your work and career (2) Plus: Monitoring of your research output Preservation of your research output by your library Keep your rights instead of signing them away
  33. 33. “Michael Faraday’s advice to his junior colleague to: “Work. Finish. Publish.” needs to be revised. It shouldn’t be enough to publish a paper anymore. If we want open science to flourish, we should raise our expectations to: “Work. Finish. Publish. Release.” That is, your research shouldn’t be considered complete until the data and meta-data is put up on the web for other people to use, until the code is documented and released, and until the comments start coming in to your blog post announcing the paper. If our general expectations of what it means to complete a project are raised to this level, the scientific community will start doing these activities as a matter of course.” (What, exactly, is Open Science? by Dan Gezelter: http://www.openscience.org/blog/?p=269 )
  34. 34. Discussions & Recommendations Ten years on from the Budapest OA Initiative: Setting the default to open
  35. 35. On policy Every institution of higher education should have a policy assuring that peer-reviewed versions of all future scholarly articles by faculty members are deposited in the institution’s designated repository
  36. 36. On policy (2) University policies should respect faculty freedom to submit new work to the journals of their choice. University policies should encourage but not require publication in OA journals, and should help faculty understand the difference between depositing in an OA repository and publishing in an OA journal.
  37. 37. On policy (3) Every institution of higher education offering advanced degrees should have a policy assuring that future theses and dissertations are deposited upon acceptance in the institution's OA repository. At the request of students who want to publish their work, or seek a patent on a patentable discovery, policies should grant reasonable delays rather than permanent exemptions.
  38. 38. On policy (4) Every research funding agency, public or private, should have a policy assuring that peer-reviewed versions of all future scholarly articles reporting funded research are deposited in a suitable repository and made OA as soon as practicable.
  39. 39. On policy (5) Universities with institutional repositories should require deposit in the repository for all research articles to be considered for promotion, tenure, or other forms of internal assessment and review.
  40. 40. On policy (6) Insofar as universities, funding agencies, and research assessment programs need to measure the impact of individual articles, they should use article-level metrics, not journal-level metrics
  41. 41. 1. Do not use journal-based metrics, such as Journal Impact Factors, as a surrogate measure of the quality of individual research articles, to assess an individual scientist's contributions, or in hiring, promotion, or funding decisions. The San Francisco Declaration on Research Assessment (DORA) http://am.ascb.org/dora/
  42. 42. Funders and universities, too, have a role to play. They must tell the committees that decide on grants and positions not to judge papers by where they are published. It is the quality of the science, not the journal's brand, that matters. (How journals like Nature, Cell and Science are damaging science by Randy Schekman: http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2013/dec/09/how-journals-nature-science-cell-damage-science)
  43. 43. On policy (7) Similarly, governments performing research assessment should require deposit in OA repositories for all research articles to be reviewed for national assessment purposes.
  44. 44. Legal basis: Two options 1. Seek permission from publishers, and only distribute OA copies when succeed in obtaining it. 2. Ask faculty to retain the right to provide OA on the university's terms (and grant the university non-exclusive permission to provide that OA), even if faculty transfer all their other rights to publishers.
  45. 45. Plagiarism If articles are easily available, then plagiarism will be made easier? On the contrary. OA might make plagiarism easier to commit, for people trolling for text to cut and paste. But for the same reason, OA makes plagiarism more hazardous to commit. Insofar as OA makes plagiarism easier, it's only for plagiarism from OA sources. But plagiarism from OA sources is the easiest kind to detect. (From OA and quality by Peter Suber, SPARC OA Newsletter, issue #102: http://bit.ly/qZUQo7)
  46. 46. Plagiarism (2) In fact, plagiarism is diminished as a problem. It is far easier to detect if the original, date- stamped material is freely accessible to all, rather than being hidden in an obscure journal. (From the OA Frequently Asked Questions, DRIVER — Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research http://www.driver-support.eu/faq/oafaq.html)
  47. 47. What Faculty & Students Can Do Submit your research articles to OA journals, when there are appropriate OA journals in your field. Deposit your research output in an OA repository. When asked by a colleague to send a copy of one of your articles, self-archive the article instead (see above). (Peter Suber)
  48. 48. What Faculty & Students Can Do (2) Ask journals to let you retain the rights you need to consent to OA. Deposit your data files in an OA repositories along with the articles built on them. Negotiate with conventional journals of experimenting with OA. (Peter Suber)
  49. 49. What libraries can do
  50. 50. Training on open access, open research data and open science
  51. 51. Thank you! Questions? iryna.kuchma@eifl.net www.eifl.net