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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 04 Issue: 07 | July -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 500
The utility based AHP& TOPSIS methods for smooth handover in
wireless networks
Heena Sharma1, Raman Kumar Goyal2,
1Maharaja Agrasen University, Student, Pin code: 174103, Baddi, India
2Maharaja Agrasen University, Assistant Professor, Pin code: 174103, Baddi, India
---------------------------------------------------------------------***---------------------------------------------------------------------
Abstract – The Utility based AHP & TOPSIS methods for
smooth handover in wireless networks is presented in this
paper. In the future, people have even more flexibility when
true wireless internet and real-time multimedia are provided
seamlessly over heterogeneous wireless network. Also, various
applications demand different quality of service (QoS)
parameters. The goal is to select the best network that can
support the required service(s) and avoid excessive switching
among different networks in order to minimize service
interruptions and power consumption. The vertical handover
scheme is proposed for conversational, streaming and
interactive applications. In this multi- hierarchy decision
making process the best suited Analytical Hierarchy
Process(AHP) is applied for the decision making process in
vertical handover. Utility functions are applied to MADM
methods for network selection. TOPSIS (The Technique for
Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and AHP
(Analytic hierarchy process) scores are then calculated
Obtained results show that our strategy outperforms other
handover decision schemes, which confirm the suitability and
the efficiency of our solution.
Key Words: QoS, AHP, TOPSIS, Utility functions,Handover,
Smooth handover.
1. INTRODUCTION
Wireless communication has increased rapidly in recent
years. Wireless technology has helped to simplify
networking by enabling multiple computer uses to
simultaneously share resources in a home or business with
additional or intrusive wiring. Wireless networks allow you
to access the internet while on the move; you can remain
online while moving one area to another, without a
disconnection or loss in coverage. So, user wants to connect
to another network that provides better services. The
process of switching from one network to another network
is called handover. In this paper, Analytic Hierarchy Process
(AHP)based network selectiontechnique andTheTechnique
for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal
Solution(TOPSIS) is presented in heterogeneous wireless
networks for conversational, interactive, and streaming
applications. Also, with the utility-based MADM methods
unnecessary handovers can be avoided as in comparison
with traditional MADM methods. Also, utility functions are
applied to AHP and TOPSIS methods.
2. Related Work
Tran and Boukhatem[1] considered the caseofmulti-homed
terminals in heterogeneous wireless environment where
instead of switching from one network to another, the
mobile terminal is using simultaneously, several interfaces
for different applications according to the application
characteristics, the network characteristics and user
preferences. P. Bellavista et al.[2] have recommended that
signal strength, other factors like handover awareness, QoS
awareness and location awareness are also some of the
crucial factors to be considered for handover decision. But
more parameters introduce more delay, which may not be
very suitable for applications likevideostreaming.Kang et al
[3] seek to improve QoS service continuity and mitigate
interruptions by taking user’s context in different
applications that may arise duringvertical handoffsbetween
heterogeneous wireless networks. Dwell time[4]calculation
has been proposed depending on the user speedandmoving
patterns as a selection metric. It outperformed in reducing
the number of vertical handoffs and quality of service.
Sharma and Khola [5] presented a network selection
algorithm based on the TOPSIS algorithm. The proposed
algorithm besides the usual parameters it also takes a
prediction of the ReceivedSignal Strength(RSS)intoaccount
for the network selection. Sanjay Dhar Roy et al.[6] have
proposed received signal strength (RSS) based strategy for
handover in heterogeneous networks which considers RSS
and bandwidth. Further these strategies have beenmodified
by considering averaging of RSS. For comparison purposes,
the performance of the VHO algorithm also considers
hysteresis and dwell timer. Raman Kumar Goyal and Sakshi
Kaushal [7] have proposed analytic hierarchy process(AHP)
method has been used for network selection in
heterogeneous environments for moving vehicles. The
method has been applied for various types of applications
like conversational, streaming, interactive, and background
applications. From the results,ithasbeenfoundthat WLAN’s
performance degrades significantly when the vehicles are
moving at higher velocities while Universal Mobile
Telecommunication Systems (UMTS) performs best for fast
moving vehicles. Detailed network selection scheme is
presented in Sect. 3.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 04 Issue: 07 | July -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 501
3. Proposed AHP & Topsis Based on Utility
Functions
AHP method was proposed by Saaty [8] We have used AHP
& TOPSIS for best network selection. The network selection
is based on four attributes namely data rate, cost, delay and
jitter. Three networks are considered for network selection,
i.e., network 1, network 2 and network 3. Three types of
applications are considered namely, conversational,
interactive and streaming The AHP process for the network
selection process is as follows [7,8].
Step 1: Determine the objective and evaluation parameters.
Select the attributes and alternatives. In our problem
following are the attribute values correspond to different
types of networks as shown in Table 1.
Table.1:The Networks and their parameters
NETWORK DATA RATE COST DELAY JITTER
NETWORK 1 4 5 35 10
NETWORK 2 25 3 110 3
NETWORK 3 50 1 120 4
Obtain the normalized matrix by dividing with the value of
beneficial attribute (data rate) and dividing the non-
beneficial attribute (cost, delay, and jitter) with the value of
attribute.
Step 2: Construct a pairedcomparison matrix using a scaleof
relative importance. An attribute compared with itself is
given a value of 1 and the values 3, 5,7 and 9 corresponds to
moderate importance, strong importance, very strong
importance and absolute importance. While, 2,4,6 and 8
compromise between these values. Relative importance
matrices for different type of applications are shown in
Tables 2-4
Step 3: Find the relativenormalizedweightforeachattribute
by calculating the geometric mean of the each row in the
comparison matrix and normalize the geometric means of
rows.
Step 4: Calculate the maximum Eigen value
Step 5: Calculate the consistency index CI.
Table 2: Relative importance of different attributes in
conversational applications
Conversational Data rate Cost Delay Jitter
Data rate 1 ½ ½ 1/2
Cost 2 1 1 2
Delay 2 1 1 2
Jitter 2 ½ ½ 1
Table 3: Relative importance of different attributes in
interactive applications
Interactive Data rate Cost Delay Jitter
Data rate 1 2 1/3 1/3
Cost ½ 1 1/5 1/5
Delay 3 5 1 1
Jitter 3 5 1 1
Table 4: Relative importance of different attributes in
streaming applications
Streaming Data rate Cost Delay Jitter
Data rate 1 2 3 3
Cost ½ 1 1/3 1/4
Delay 1/3 3 1 1
Jitter 1/3 4 1 1
Step 6: Obtain the Random Index (RI) for the number of
attributes used in decision making.
Step 7: Calculate the consistency ratio CR= CI/RI. A CR of 0.1
or less is acceptable.
Step 8: Calculate the overall AHP score by multiplying the
normalized weight of the attribute.
TOPSIS (for the Technique for Order Preference by Similarly
to Ideal Solution) was developed by Hwang and Yoon [8] in
1980 as an alternative to the ELECTRE method and can be
considered as one of its most widely accepted variants.
TOPSIS method isa popularapproachtoMADMandhasbeen
widely used in the literature.TOPSIS simulation considerthe
distances to the ideal solution and negative ideal solution
regarding each alternative and select the most relative
closeness to the ideal solution as the best alternative. That is
the best alternative is the nearest one to the ideal solution
and the farthest one from the negative ideal solution. The
TOPSIS method assumes thateachcriterionhasatendencyof
monotonically increasingordecreasingutility.Therefore,itis
easy to define the ideal and negative-ideal solutions. TOPSIS
is a practical and usefultechniqueforrankingandselectionof
a number of alternatives determined through distance
measures.
Generally A+ indicates the most preferablealternativeor the
ideal solution. Similarly, alternative A- indicates the least
preferable alternative or the negative ideal solution.Further
procedure can be described in 6 steps, as follows:
Step 1: Calculate the normalized decision matrix. The
normalized value ij
r is calculated as follows:
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 04 Issue: 07 | July -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 502



m
i
ij
ij
ij x
x
r
1
2
i =1, 2, ..., m and j = 1, 2, ..., n.
Step 2: Calculate the weighted normalized decision matrix.
The weighted normalized value vij
is calculated as follows:
w
r
v j
ij
ij

 i =1, 2,..., m and j = 1, 2, ..., n. (1)
where wj
is the weight of the j
th
criterion or attribute
and 


n
j
j
w
1
1.
Step 3: Determine the ideal ( A
*
) and negative ideal ( A

)
solutions.
}
,...,
2
,
1
|
{
)}
|
min
(
),
|
max
{(
*
*
m
j
j
j v
C
v
C
v
A j
c
ij
i
b
ij
i




 (2)
}
,...,
2
,
1
|
{
)}
|
max
(
),
|
min
{( m
j
j
j v
C
v
C
v
A j
c
ij
i
b
ij
i






 (3)
Step 4: Calculate the separation measures using the m-
dimensional Euclidean distance. Theseparationmeasuresof
each alternative from the positive ideal solution and the
negative ideal solution, respectively, are as follows:





m
j
j
ij
i
m
j
v
v
S 1
2
*
*
,...,
2
,
1
,
)
( (4)







m
j
j
ij
i
m
j
v
v
S 1
2
,...,
2
,
1
,
)
( (5)
Step 5: Calculate the relative closeness to the ideal solution.
The relative closeness of the alternative Ai
with respect to
A
*
is defined as follows:
m
i
S
S
S
RC
i
i
i
i
,...,
2
,
1
,
*
*


 

(6)
Step 6: Rank the preference order.
Utility functions are used to obtain the actual utility value of
an attribute as shown by Goyal et al [10].Therequirement of
attributes for different applications is illustrated in Table 5.
Table 5: Requirements of network attributes for the
three applications
The utility values obtained for network attributes for the
three applications are shown in Tables 6 -8.
Table 6: Utility values for Conversational applications
Data
Rate
Delay Jitter Cost
N1 1 0.9996 0.9996 0.9
N2 1 0.5622 0.9999 0.94
N3 1 0.3208 0.9999 0.98
Table 7: Utility values for Streaming applications
Data Rate Delay Jitter Cost
N1 0.9975 0.9996 0.9996 0.9
N2 1 0.5622 0.9999 0.94
N3 1 0.3208 0.9999 0.98
Table 8: Utility values for Interactive applications
Data Rate Delay Jitter Cost
N1 0.9975 0.9996 0.9996 0.9
N2 1 0.5622 0.9999 0.94
N3 1 0.3208 0.9999 0.98
4. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS
AHP score is calculated as discussed in Sect. 3. The
performance of these networks for streaming,
conversational and interactive applications of the basis of
AHP and TOPSIS is shown in Figures. AHP-TOPSISmethodis
also applied for the same network selection problem. Based
on the ratios obtained from AHP-TOPSIS method, handover
decision is made. Results with TOPSIS method is almost
same as with the AHP method.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 04 Issue: 07 | July -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 503
Fig.1: AHP Scores of networks for conversational
applications
Fig.2: AHP Scores of networks for interactive
applications
Fig.3 :AHP Scores of networks for streaming
applications
Fig.4:TOPSIS Scores of networks for conversational
applications
Fig.5: TOPSIS Scores of networks for interactive
applications
Fig.6: TOPSIS Scores of networks for streaming
applications
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 04 Issue: 07 | July -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 504
Fig 7: UTILITY Scores for conversational applications
for TOPSIS
Fig 8: UTILITY Scores for interactive applications for
TOPSIS
Fig 9: UTILITY Scores for streaming applications for
TOPSIS
Fig 10: UTILITY Scores for conversational applications
for AHP
Fig 11: UTILITY Scores for interactive applications for
AHP
Fig.12: UTILITY Scores for streaming applications for
AHP
The results shows that the with the utility functions,
rankings are more balanced. Also, with the utility-based
MADM methods unnecessaryhandoverscanbeavoidedasin
comparison with traditional MADM methods.
International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056
Volume: 04 Issue: 07 | July -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072
© 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 505
5. CONCLUSIONS
The main objective of this paper to developed schemes is to
minimize the number of unnecessary handoffs, while
maximizing the time with a preferred network, resulting in
increased end-user’ssatisfactionlevel.Networkselection,the
decision to select the best network among the available
candidates, also plays an important role to maximize the
end’s user satisfaction levels. The scheme utilizes the
parameters, such as, Data rate, Cost,Delay,Jitter,Throughput
of the network. Three types of applications: Conversational,
Streaming, Interactive, are utilized in evaluating the
performance of the proposedscheme. The networkselection
algorithm finds out the best available network that can
support the continuity and quality of current service. It is
observed that most of the researchworkdealswiththetarget
network selection, ignoring the handoff and necessity
estimation, that are of equal importance, as handoff and its
necessity estimation play a vital role in maximizing the end-
user’s satisfaction. This suggests that more work needs to be
done in this area. This algorithm outperforms the other
methods by providingless number of handoffs,alowhandoff
failure rate, the best network, and high network utilization.
Utility functions are further used to obtain the actual utility
value of each network attribute. Also, with the utility-based
MADM methods unnecessaryhandovers can beavoidedasin
comparison with traditional MADM methods.
REFERENCES
[1] Tran, P. N., & Boukhatem, N. (2008, October). The
distance to the ideal alternative(DiA)algorithmforinterface
selection in heterogeneous wireless networks.
In Proceedings of the 6th ACM international symposium on
Mobility management and wireless access (pp. 61-68)..
[2] Bellavista, P., Corradi, A., & Foschini, L. (2007). Context-
aware handoff middleware for transparent service
continuity in wireless networks. Pervasive and mobile
computing, 3(4), 439-466.
[3] Kang, J. M., Ju, H. T., & Hong, J. W. K. (2006). Towards
autonomic handover decision management in 4G networks.
In Autonomic Managementof MobileMultimediaServices: 9th
IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Management of
Multimedia and Mobile Networks and Services, MMNS 2006,
Dublin, Ireland, October 25-27, 2006. Proceedings 9 (pp. 145-
157). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
[4Hussain, R., Malik, S. A., Abrar, S., Riaz, R. A., Ahmed, H., &
Khan, S. A. (2013). Vertical handover necessity estimation
based on a new dwell time prediction model for minimizing
unnecessary handovers to a WLAN cell. Wireless personal
communications, 71, 1217-1230.
[5] Sharma, M., & Khola, R. K. (2012). Pre decision based
handoff in multi network environment. In Advances in
Computer Science, Engineering & Applications:Proceedings of
the Second International Conference on Computer Science,
Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA 2012), May 25-27, 2012,
New Delhi, India. Volume 2 (pp. 609-616). Springer Berlin
Heidelberg.
[6] Dhar Roy, S., & Vamshidhar Reddy, S. R. (2014). Signal
strength ratio based vertical handoff decision algorithms in
integrated heterogeneous networks. Wireless personal
communications, 77, 2565-2585.
[7] Goyal, R. K., & Kaushal, S. (2016).Network selectionusing
AHP for fast moving vehicles in heterogeneous
networks. Advanced Computing and Systems for Security:
Volume 1, 235-243.
[8] Saaty, T.L. (1980) The Analytic Hierarchy Process.
McGraw-Hill, New York.
[9] Hwang, C. L., & Yoon, K. (1981). Multiple attribute
decision making: Methods and applications.Berlin:Springer
[10] Goyal, R. K., Kaushal, S., & Sangaiah, A. K. (2017). The
utility based non-linear fuzzy AHP optimization model for
network selection in heterogeneous wireless
networks. Applied Soft Computing.
doi: 10.1016/j.asoc.2017.05.026

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The utility based AHP& TOPSIS methods for smooth handover in wireless networks

  • 1. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 04 Issue: 07 | July -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 500 The utility based AHP& TOPSIS methods for smooth handover in wireless networks Heena Sharma1, Raman Kumar Goyal2, 1Maharaja Agrasen University, Student, Pin code: 174103, Baddi, India 2Maharaja Agrasen University, Assistant Professor, Pin code: 174103, Baddi, India ---------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract – The Utility based AHP & TOPSIS methods for smooth handover in wireless networks is presented in this paper. In the future, people have even more flexibility when true wireless internet and real-time multimedia are provided seamlessly over heterogeneous wireless network. Also, various applications demand different quality of service (QoS) parameters. The goal is to select the best network that can support the required service(s) and avoid excessive switching among different networks in order to minimize service interruptions and power consumption. The vertical handover scheme is proposed for conversational, streaming and interactive applications. In this multi- hierarchy decision making process the best suited Analytical Hierarchy Process(AHP) is applied for the decision making process in vertical handover. Utility functions are applied to MADM methods for network selection. TOPSIS (The Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution) and AHP (Analytic hierarchy process) scores are then calculated Obtained results show that our strategy outperforms other handover decision schemes, which confirm the suitability and the efficiency of our solution. Key Words: QoS, AHP, TOPSIS, Utility functions,Handover, Smooth handover. 1. INTRODUCTION Wireless communication has increased rapidly in recent years. Wireless technology has helped to simplify networking by enabling multiple computer uses to simultaneously share resources in a home or business with additional or intrusive wiring. Wireless networks allow you to access the internet while on the move; you can remain online while moving one area to another, without a disconnection or loss in coverage. So, user wants to connect to another network that provides better services. The process of switching from one network to another network is called handover. In this paper, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP)based network selectiontechnique andTheTechnique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution(TOPSIS) is presented in heterogeneous wireless networks for conversational, interactive, and streaming applications. Also, with the utility-based MADM methods unnecessary handovers can be avoided as in comparison with traditional MADM methods. Also, utility functions are applied to AHP and TOPSIS methods. 2. Related Work Tran and Boukhatem[1] considered the caseofmulti-homed terminals in heterogeneous wireless environment where instead of switching from one network to another, the mobile terminal is using simultaneously, several interfaces for different applications according to the application characteristics, the network characteristics and user preferences. P. Bellavista et al.[2] have recommended that signal strength, other factors like handover awareness, QoS awareness and location awareness are also some of the crucial factors to be considered for handover decision. But more parameters introduce more delay, which may not be very suitable for applications likevideostreaming.Kang et al [3] seek to improve QoS service continuity and mitigate interruptions by taking user’s context in different applications that may arise duringvertical handoffsbetween heterogeneous wireless networks. Dwell time[4]calculation has been proposed depending on the user speedandmoving patterns as a selection metric. It outperformed in reducing the number of vertical handoffs and quality of service. Sharma and Khola [5] presented a network selection algorithm based on the TOPSIS algorithm. The proposed algorithm besides the usual parameters it also takes a prediction of the ReceivedSignal Strength(RSS)intoaccount for the network selection. Sanjay Dhar Roy et al.[6] have proposed received signal strength (RSS) based strategy for handover in heterogeneous networks which considers RSS and bandwidth. Further these strategies have beenmodified by considering averaging of RSS. For comparison purposes, the performance of the VHO algorithm also considers hysteresis and dwell timer. Raman Kumar Goyal and Sakshi Kaushal [7] have proposed analytic hierarchy process(AHP) method has been used for network selection in heterogeneous environments for moving vehicles. The method has been applied for various types of applications like conversational, streaming, interactive, and background applications. From the results,ithasbeenfoundthat WLAN’s performance degrades significantly when the vehicles are moving at higher velocities while Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS) performs best for fast moving vehicles. Detailed network selection scheme is presented in Sect. 3.
  • 2. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 04 Issue: 07 | July -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 501 3. Proposed AHP & Topsis Based on Utility Functions AHP method was proposed by Saaty [8] We have used AHP & TOPSIS for best network selection. The network selection is based on four attributes namely data rate, cost, delay and jitter. Three networks are considered for network selection, i.e., network 1, network 2 and network 3. Three types of applications are considered namely, conversational, interactive and streaming The AHP process for the network selection process is as follows [7,8]. Step 1: Determine the objective and evaluation parameters. Select the attributes and alternatives. In our problem following are the attribute values correspond to different types of networks as shown in Table 1. Table.1:The Networks and their parameters NETWORK DATA RATE COST DELAY JITTER NETWORK 1 4 5 35 10 NETWORK 2 25 3 110 3 NETWORK 3 50 1 120 4 Obtain the normalized matrix by dividing with the value of beneficial attribute (data rate) and dividing the non- beneficial attribute (cost, delay, and jitter) with the value of attribute. Step 2: Construct a pairedcomparison matrix using a scaleof relative importance. An attribute compared with itself is given a value of 1 and the values 3, 5,7 and 9 corresponds to moderate importance, strong importance, very strong importance and absolute importance. While, 2,4,6 and 8 compromise between these values. Relative importance matrices for different type of applications are shown in Tables 2-4 Step 3: Find the relativenormalizedweightforeachattribute by calculating the geometric mean of the each row in the comparison matrix and normalize the geometric means of rows. Step 4: Calculate the maximum Eigen value Step 5: Calculate the consistency index CI. Table 2: Relative importance of different attributes in conversational applications Conversational Data rate Cost Delay Jitter Data rate 1 ½ ½ 1/2 Cost 2 1 1 2 Delay 2 1 1 2 Jitter 2 ½ ½ 1 Table 3: Relative importance of different attributes in interactive applications Interactive Data rate Cost Delay Jitter Data rate 1 2 1/3 1/3 Cost ½ 1 1/5 1/5 Delay 3 5 1 1 Jitter 3 5 1 1 Table 4: Relative importance of different attributes in streaming applications Streaming Data rate Cost Delay Jitter Data rate 1 2 3 3 Cost ½ 1 1/3 1/4 Delay 1/3 3 1 1 Jitter 1/3 4 1 1 Step 6: Obtain the Random Index (RI) for the number of attributes used in decision making. Step 7: Calculate the consistency ratio CR= CI/RI. A CR of 0.1 or less is acceptable. Step 8: Calculate the overall AHP score by multiplying the normalized weight of the attribute. TOPSIS (for the Technique for Order Preference by Similarly to Ideal Solution) was developed by Hwang and Yoon [8] in 1980 as an alternative to the ELECTRE method and can be considered as one of its most widely accepted variants. TOPSIS method isa popularapproachtoMADMandhasbeen widely used in the literature.TOPSIS simulation considerthe distances to the ideal solution and negative ideal solution regarding each alternative and select the most relative closeness to the ideal solution as the best alternative. That is the best alternative is the nearest one to the ideal solution and the farthest one from the negative ideal solution. The TOPSIS method assumes thateachcriterionhasatendencyof monotonically increasingordecreasingutility.Therefore,itis easy to define the ideal and negative-ideal solutions. TOPSIS is a practical and usefultechniqueforrankingandselectionof a number of alternatives determined through distance measures. Generally A+ indicates the most preferablealternativeor the ideal solution. Similarly, alternative A- indicates the least preferable alternative or the negative ideal solution.Further procedure can be described in 6 steps, as follows: Step 1: Calculate the normalized decision matrix. The normalized value ij r is calculated as follows:
  • 3. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 04 Issue: 07 | July -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 502    m i ij ij ij x x r 1 2 i =1, 2, ..., m and j = 1, 2, ..., n. Step 2: Calculate the weighted normalized decision matrix. The weighted normalized value vij is calculated as follows: w r v j ij ij   i =1, 2,..., m and j = 1, 2, ..., n. (1) where wj is the weight of the j th criterion or attribute and    n j j w 1 1. Step 3: Determine the ideal ( A * ) and negative ideal ( A  ) solutions. } ,..., 2 , 1 | { )} | min ( ), | max {( * * m j j j v C v C v A j c ij i b ij i      (2) } ,..., 2 , 1 | { )} | max ( ), | min {( m j j j v C v C v A j c ij i b ij i        (3) Step 4: Calculate the separation measures using the m- dimensional Euclidean distance. Theseparationmeasuresof each alternative from the positive ideal solution and the negative ideal solution, respectively, are as follows:      m j j ij i m j v v S 1 2 * * ,..., 2 , 1 , ) ( (4)        m j j ij i m j v v S 1 2 ,..., 2 , 1 , ) ( (5) Step 5: Calculate the relative closeness to the ideal solution. The relative closeness of the alternative Ai with respect to A * is defined as follows: m i S S S RC i i i i ,..., 2 , 1 , * *      (6) Step 6: Rank the preference order. Utility functions are used to obtain the actual utility value of an attribute as shown by Goyal et al [10].Therequirement of attributes for different applications is illustrated in Table 5. Table 5: Requirements of network attributes for the three applications The utility values obtained for network attributes for the three applications are shown in Tables 6 -8. Table 6: Utility values for Conversational applications Data Rate Delay Jitter Cost N1 1 0.9996 0.9996 0.9 N2 1 0.5622 0.9999 0.94 N3 1 0.3208 0.9999 0.98 Table 7: Utility values for Streaming applications Data Rate Delay Jitter Cost N1 0.9975 0.9996 0.9996 0.9 N2 1 0.5622 0.9999 0.94 N3 1 0.3208 0.9999 0.98 Table 8: Utility values for Interactive applications Data Rate Delay Jitter Cost N1 0.9975 0.9996 0.9996 0.9 N2 1 0.5622 0.9999 0.94 N3 1 0.3208 0.9999 0.98 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSIONS AHP score is calculated as discussed in Sect. 3. The performance of these networks for streaming, conversational and interactive applications of the basis of AHP and TOPSIS is shown in Figures. AHP-TOPSISmethodis also applied for the same network selection problem. Based on the ratios obtained from AHP-TOPSIS method, handover decision is made. Results with TOPSIS method is almost same as with the AHP method.
  • 4. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 04 Issue: 07 | July -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 503 Fig.1: AHP Scores of networks for conversational applications Fig.2: AHP Scores of networks for interactive applications Fig.3 :AHP Scores of networks for streaming applications Fig.4:TOPSIS Scores of networks for conversational applications Fig.5: TOPSIS Scores of networks for interactive applications Fig.6: TOPSIS Scores of networks for streaming applications
  • 5. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 04 Issue: 07 | July -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 504 Fig 7: UTILITY Scores for conversational applications for TOPSIS Fig 8: UTILITY Scores for interactive applications for TOPSIS Fig 9: UTILITY Scores for streaming applications for TOPSIS Fig 10: UTILITY Scores for conversational applications for AHP Fig 11: UTILITY Scores for interactive applications for AHP Fig.12: UTILITY Scores for streaming applications for AHP The results shows that the with the utility functions, rankings are more balanced. Also, with the utility-based MADM methods unnecessaryhandoverscanbeavoidedasin comparison with traditional MADM methods.
  • 6. International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056 Volume: 04 Issue: 07 | July -2017 www.irjet.net p-ISSN: 2395-0072 © 2017, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 5.181 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 505 5. CONCLUSIONS The main objective of this paper to developed schemes is to minimize the number of unnecessary handoffs, while maximizing the time with a preferred network, resulting in increased end-user’ssatisfactionlevel.Networkselection,the decision to select the best network among the available candidates, also plays an important role to maximize the end’s user satisfaction levels. The scheme utilizes the parameters, such as, Data rate, Cost,Delay,Jitter,Throughput of the network. Three types of applications: Conversational, Streaming, Interactive, are utilized in evaluating the performance of the proposedscheme. The networkselection algorithm finds out the best available network that can support the continuity and quality of current service. It is observed that most of the researchworkdealswiththetarget network selection, ignoring the handoff and necessity estimation, that are of equal importance, as handoff and its necessity estimation play a vital role in maximizing the end- user’s satisfaction. This suggests that more work needs to be done in this area. This algorithm outperforms the other methods by providingless number of handoffs,alowhandoff failure rate, the best network, and high network utilization. Utility functions are further used to obtain the actual utility value of each network attribute. Also, with the utility-based MADM methods unnecessaryhandovers can beavoidedasin comparison with traditional MADM methods. REFERENCES [1] Tran, P. N., & Boukhatem, N. (2008, October). The distance to the ideal alternative(DiA)algorithmforinterface selection in heterogeneous wireless networks. In Proceedings of the 6th ACM international symposium on Mobility management and wireless access (pp. 61-68).. [2] Bellavista, P., Corradi, A., & Foschini, L. (2007). Context- aware handoff middleware for transparent service continuity in wireless networks. Pervasive and mobile computing, 3(4), 439-466. [3] Kang, J. M., Ju, H. T., & Hong, J. W. K. (2006). Towards autonomic handover decision management in 4G networks. In Autonomic Managementof MobileMultimediaServices: 9th IFIP/IEEE International Conference on Management of Multimedia and Mobile Networks and Services, MMNS 2006, Dublin, Ireland, October 25-27, 2006. Proceedings 9 (pp. 145- 157). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. [4Hussain, R., Malik, S. A., Abrar, S., Riaz, R. A., Ahmed, H., & Khan, S. A. (2013). Vertical handover necessity estimation based on a new dwell time prediction model for minimizing unnecessary handovers to a WLAN cell. Wireless personal communications, 71, 1217-1230. [5] Sharma, M., & Khola, R. K. (2012). Pre decision based handoff in multi network environment. In Advances in Computer Science, Engineering & Applications:Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computer Science, Engineering & Applications (ICCSEA 2012), May 25-27, 2012, New Delhi, India. Volume 2 (pp. 609-616). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. [6] Dhar Roy, S., & Vamshidhar Reddy, S. R. (2014). Signal strength ratio based vertical handoff decision algorithms in integrated heterogeneous networks. Wireless personal communications, 77, 2565-2585. [7] Goyal, R. K., & Kaushal, S. (2016).Network selectionusing AHP for fast moving vehicles in heterogeneous networks. Advanced Computing and Systems for Security: Volume 1, 235-243. [8] Saaty, T.L. (1980) The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw-Hill, New York. [9] Hwang, C. L., & Yoon, K. (1981). Multiple attribute decision making: Methods and applications.Berlin:Springer [10] Goyal, R. K., Kaushal, S., & Sangaiah, A. K. (2017). The utility based non-linear fuzzy AHP optimization model for network selection in heterogeneous wireless networks. Applied Soft Computing. doi: 10.1016/j.asoc.2017.05.026