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Report on Redox Flow Batteries – Power sector
June 2014
Future demand assesment & emerging trends
Report by Mr. Irish Pere...
 Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction
 Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot
 RFB in Power sector - Regi...
RFB being a modular and highly flexible technology with very rapid
response, little environmental impact…
3
 A flow batte...
… huge potential for cutting costs and hence are emerging as a very
promising option for stationary storage in general…
4
...
…and for renewable applications in particular
55
UPS
Load
balancing
Power
conversion
Stand-alone
power system
Electric
veh...
 Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction
 Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot
 RFB in Power sector - Regi...
With a humble beginning of adoption since late 2000’s, the flow
battery technology…
Source: International Energy Agency Re...
… is expected to be significantly adopted technology by 2025
8
In ESS (Energy Storage System) technologies, flow battery t...
 Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction
 Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot
 RFB in Power sector -Regio...
Lithium-ion batteries which dominated the power applications
market till 2012…
10
Lux research predicts increased adoption...
…is expected to lose its share to Vanadium Redox Batteries till 2017
11
Redox flow battery – Applications in grid-storage ...
 Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction
 Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot
 RFB in Power sector -Regio...
Lux Research report 2012 states that Japan, China…
13
Japan – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries
China – Current & Pla...
…State of Arizona – United States along with the United Kingdom…
14
US – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries
Sr. No Pro...
…and Germany will be the top five regions for grid storage and…
15
US Continued…
13
Premium Power DESS,
SMUD HQ
Zinc Bromi...
…collectively account for about 58% of global demand in 2017
16
US Continued…
Europe – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batter...
 Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction
 Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot
 RFB in Power sector - Regi...
Innovations in chemistry, design and engineering could decrease costs
further making all future grid-scale energy storage ...
 Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction
 Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot
 RFB in Power sector - Regi...
Bibliography
Databases/Reports
 Flow Batteries report- https://www.electrochem.org/dl/interface/fal/fal10/fal10_p054-056....
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Redox flow battery - Power Sector

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By Mr. Irish Pereira The current and expected usage of redox flow batteries across the World.
Includes usage of redox batteries in power generation sectors, including market trends.

Veröffentlicht in: Ingenieurwesen
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Redox flow battery - Power Sector

  1. 1. Report on Redox Flow Batteries – Power sector June 2014 Future demand assesment & emerging trends Report by Mr. Irish Pereira
  2. 2.  Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction  Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot  RFB in Power sector - Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & EuropeS  Way forward…  Bibliography Table of Contents 2
  3. 3. RFB being a modular and highly flexible technology with very rapid response, little environmental impact… 3  A flow battery is an electrochemical device that converts the chemical energy in the electro-active materials directly to electrical energy and is similar to a conventional battery and fuel cells  The electro-active materials in a flow battery however are stored mostly externally in an electrolyte and are introduced into the device only during operation  Flow batteries are classified into redox flow batteries and hybrid flow batteries  In Redox Flow Batteries (RFB) - two liquid electrolyte dissolutions containing dissolved metal ions as active masses are pumped to the opposite sides of the electrochemical cell e.g. Vanadium-vanadium, Vanadium-bromine, Polysulfid-bromine, Iron-chrome  In a hybrid flow battery (HFB) - one of the active masses is internally stored within the electrochemical cell, whereas the other remains in the liquid electrolyte and is stored externally in a tank. E.g. Zinc-bromine, Zinc-cerium, Lead-acid  Of various types of flow batteries, Vanadium and zinc flow batteries are mostly adopted technologies Source: Flow Batteries report by by Trung Nguyen and Robert F. Savinell & Redox Flow Battery by FRAUNHoFER-INSTITUT FÜR CHEmISCHE TECHNologIE ICT Report tIled „Status and Potential of Redox Flow Batteries” Schematic of a redox flow battery system
  4. 4. … huge potential for cutting costs and hence are emerging as a very promising option for stationary storage in general… 4 Vanadium redox battery (VRB) offers significant benefits over Lithium-ion battery which is currently the most used storage battery worldwide  Independent system design for power and capacity  Output Power Range: kW -- MW;  Energy Storage Capacity : kWh -- 10MWh  High efficiency (>75%)  Long lifetime  Deep discharge ability, Low self-- discharge, fast response  Environmental friendly  Operation safety Advantages of Redox Flow Battery Source: DICP CAS report titled “Redox Flow Battery Technology for Electricity Storage “ & Energy & Capital report  Poor electrolyte stability and less solubility lead to low energy density  Low selectivity to the vanadium ions lead to the Unbalance of vanadium ions and water , and the capacity degradation after long operation time  Low rated operation current density lead to high material cost  High cost of the ion exchange membrane Challenges of VRB for commercialization
  5. 5. …and for renewable applications in particular 55 UPS Load balancing Power conversion Stand-alone power system Electric vehicles Major Applicatons – Redox Flow Battery  Where the battery is connected to an electrical grid to store excess electrical power during off-peak hours and release electrical power during peak demand periods.  Storing energy from renewable sources such as wind or solar for discharge during periods of peak demand  As flow batteries can be rapidly "recharged" by replacing the electrolyte, they can be used for applications where the vehicle needs to take on energy as fast as a combustion engine vehicle  Currently used in telecom industry for use in cellphone base stations where there is no grid power available.  The battery can be used alongside solar or wind power sources to compensate for their fluctuating power levels and alongside a generator to make the most efficient use of it to save fuel  As the voltage of the battery is proportional to the number of cells used the battery can therefore act as a very powerful DC/DC converter. In addition, if the number of cells is continuously changed (on the input and/or output side) power conversion can also be AC/DC, AC/AC, or DC/AC with the frequency limited by that of the switching gear Source: Wikipedia and others  where the battery is used if the main power fails to provide an uninterrupted supply
  6. 6.  Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction  Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot  RFB in Power sector - Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & Europe  Way forward…  Bibliography Table of Contents 6
  7. 7. With a humble beginning of adoption since late 2000’s, the flow battery technology… Source: International Energy Agency Report titled “Energy Storage Technology Roadmap - Technology Annex ” dated 19 March 2014 International Energy Agency (IEA) positions the Flow Battery Technology at Early “Demonstration to deployment” phase in their Energy Storage technology maturity curve Maturityofenergystoragetechnologies
  8. 8. … is expected to be significantly adopted technology by 2025 8 In ESS (Energy Storage System) technologies, flow battery technology shows high potential and is expected to be applied in various application markets in the future Source: Sino-report ESS market Research Center Report titled “Analysis of ESS Business - Flow Battery Tech. & Market” dated May 2014  About 85 flow batteries (small-scale batteries excluded) were installed in the world until 2012 which is above 343MWh in capacity  The installation market for flow battery is becoming more active in recent years. Flow batteries are mainly used for  Load levelling,  Renewable capacity firming,  Micro grid system,  UPS  Frequency regulation  In 2012 the flow battery (redox flow batteries and hybrid flow batteries) occupied approximately 0.5% of the ESS market however Sino-report expects the market to increase to 25% by 2020 Flow Battery Market Demand Forecast (MWh)
  9. 9.  Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction  Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot  RFB in Power sector -Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & Europe  Way forward…  Bibliography Table of Contents 9
  10. 10. Lithium-ion batteries which dominated the power applications market till 2012… 10 Lux research predicts increased adoption of Redox Flow Batteries in grid-scale energy storage till 2017 namely vanadium redox batteries (VRB) and zinc bromine flow batteries in particular Global Grid-scale batteries Market Demand Forecast 33% 19% 15% 19% 13% 1% Vanadium Redox Batteries Sodium Sulfur Sodium Nickel Chloride Zinc Bromine Flow Batteries Li- ion Batteries Flywheel Batteries  Lux Research report predicts that annual global demand for grid-scale energy storage will reach an astounding 185.4 gigawatt- hours (GWh) by 2017 and represent a $113.5 billion market  Li-ion batteries for power applications account for around 80% of the market in 2012 are expected to quickly fade as cheaper molten-salt and flow batteries become available in the ensuing years  Currently, Li-ion batteries are sought-after due to their availability and proven performance.  Flow batteries and molten salt batteries, both of which perform well for longer discharge applications, have shown comparable performance to Li-ion batteries at a fraction of the cost and are currently limited by their availability and proven reliability Source: Lux Research Report titled “"Grid Storage under the Microscope: Using Local Knowledge to Forecast Global Demand” dated 2012
  11. 11. …is expected to lose its share to Vanadium Redox Batteries till 2017 11 Redox flow battery – Applications in grid-storage (Power sector) Source: Springer Report titled “Redox flow batteries: a review” dated July 2011 Sumitomo Redox battery - Japan Enervault Redox battery - US
  12. 12.  Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction  Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot  RFB in Power sector -Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & Europe  Way forward…  Bibliography Table of Contents 12
  13. 13. Lux Research report 2012 states that Japan, China… 13 Japan – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries China – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries Sr. No Project Name Technology Type Rated Power (kW) Status Application/ Usage City State/Province Ownership Model 1 Sumitomo Densetsu Office Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 3000 Operational Electric Bill Management Osaka Kansai Customer-Owned 2 Yokohama Works Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 1000 Operational Onsite Renewable Generation Shifting, Electric Supply Capacity Yokohama Kanagawa Customer-Owned 3 Tomamae Wind Farm Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 4000 Operational Electric Energy Time Shift Totomamae Hokkaido Prefecture Utility-Owned 4 Minami Hayakita Substation Vanadium Redox Flow Battery Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 15000 Announced Renewables Capacity Firming, Renewables Energy Time Shift, Voltage Support Abira Hokkaido Utility-Owned Sr. No Project Name Technology Type Rated Power (kW) Status Application/ Usage City State/Province Ownership Model 1 Zhangbei National Wind and Solar Energy Storage and Transmission Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 2000 Operational Renewables Energy Time Shift, Renewables Capacity Firming, Frequency Regulation, Ramping Zhangbei Hebei Utility-Owned 2 Prudent Energy Corporation/CEPRI Vanadium Redox Battery Energy Storage System Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 500 Operational Renewables Energy Time Shift, Renewables Capacity Firming, Load Following (Tertiary Balancing), Voltage Support Zhangbei Hebei Utility-Owned Source: DOE Global Energy Storage Database
  14. 14. …State of Arizona – United States along with the United Kingdom… 14 US – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries Sr. No Project Name Technology Type Rated Power (kW) Status Application/ Usage City State/Province Ownership Model 1 Prudent Energy VRB-ESS® - Gills Onions, California Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 600 Operational Grid-Connected Commercial (Reliability & Quality) Oxnard California Third-Party-Owned 2 Primus Power Corporation Wind Firming EnergyFarm™ Zinc Chlorine Redox Flow Battery 25000 Under Construction Renewables Capacity Firming Modesto California Utility-Owned 3 National Grid Distributed Energy Storage Systems Demonstration, Everette, MA Zinc Bromine Redox Flow Battery 500 Contracted Electric Energy Time Shift Everett Massachusetts Utility-Owned 4 City of Painesville Municipal Power Vanadium Redox Battery Demonstration Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 1080 Contracted Load Following (Tertiary Balancing) Painesville Ohio Utility-Owned 5 Fort Sill - U.S. Army Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 250 De-Commissioned Renewables Capacity Firming Fort Sill Oklahoma Customer-Owned 6 Illinois Institute of Technology RDSI Perfect Power Demonstration Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 250 Under Construction Black Start Chicago Illinois Customer-Owned 7 Port Hueneme Naval Facility Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 25 Under Construction Renewables Capacity Firming Port Hueneme California Customer-Owned 8 Pualani Manor Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 60 Operational Renewables Capacity Firming Honolulu Hawaii Customer-Owned 9 San Nicholas Island Naval Facility Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 500 Under Construction Renewables Capacity Firming San Nicholas Island California Customer-Owned 10 St. Petersburg Solar Parks Project Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 25 Under Construction Electric Bill Management with Renewables St. Petersburg Florida Customer-Owned 11 EnerVault Redox Flow Battery Demo Project Iron Chromium Redox Flow Battery 250 Operational Electric Energy Time Shift Turlock California Third-Party-Owned 12 UC San Diego ZBB / Sunpower Energy Storage CSI 2 Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 100 Under Construction Electric Bill Management San Diego California Customer-Owned Source: DOE Global Energy Storage Database
  15. 15. …and Germany will be the top five regions for grid storage and… 15 US Continued… 13 Premium Power DESS, SMUD HQ Zinc Bromine Redox Flow Battery 500 Under Construction Electric Supply Capacity Sacramento California Utility-Owned 14 National Grid Distributed Energy Storage Systems Demonstration, Worcester, MA Zinc Bromine Redox Flow Battery 500 Contracted Renewables Energy Time Shift Worcester Massachusetts Utility-Owned 15 UEP CCNY Demonstration Zinc-Nickel Oxide Redox Flow Battery 100 Operational Electric Bill Management New York New York Third-Party-Owned 16 DOD Marine Corps Air Station Miramar Microgrid Energy Storage System Zinc Bromine Redox Flow Battery 250 Under Construction Renewables Capacity Firming San Diego California Customer-Owned 17 Crescent Valley Project Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 250 Operational Electric Energy Time Shift Moab Utah Utility-Owned 18 PV and EV Charging Systems at Sporting Venue Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 25 Under Construction Onsite Renewable Generation Shifting Phoenix Arizona Customer-Owned 19 Joint Base Pearl Harbor Hickam (JBPHH) U.S. Military Base Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 125 Under Construction Black Start Honolulu Hawaii Customer-Owned 20 VISA (Data Processing Center) Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 25 Operational On-Site Power Ashburg Virginia Customer-Owned 21 Bainbridge Island Storage Project Zinc Bromine Redox Flow Battery 500 Contracted Stationary Transmission/Distribution Upgrade Deferral Bainbridge Island Washington Utility-Owned 22 MCAS Miramar Microgrid Zinc Bromide Redox Flow Battery 250 Announced Electric Bill Management with Renewables San Diego California Third-Party-Owned 23 Wind-Firming Energy Farm Zinc Bromide Redox Flow Battery 28000 Announced Renewables Capacity Firming Modesto California Third-Party-Owned 24 Energy Storage for Demand Response (Seattle) Zinc Bromide Redox Flow Battery 500 Announced Transportable Transmission/Distribution Upgrade Deferral Seattle Washington Utility-Owned Source: DOE Global Energy Storage Database
  16. 16. …collectively account for about 58% of global demand in 2017 16 US Continued… Europe – Current & Planned Redox Flow Batteries 25 American Vanadium Corp. MTA CellCube Installation Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 90 Under Construction Grid-Connected Commercial (Reliability & Quality) New York New York Customer-Owned 26 Premium Power DESS, SMUD Anatolia SolarSmart Homes Project Zinc Bromide Redox Flow Battery 500 Under Construction Renewables Energy Time Shift Rancho Cordova California Utility-Owned Sr. No Project Name Technology Type Rated Power (kW) Status Application/ Usage City Country Ownership Model 1 CENER VRB Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 50 Operational Electric Energy Time Shift Sarriguren Spain Customer-Owned 2 RISO Syslab Redox Flow Battery Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 15 Operational Renewables Capacity Firming Kongens Lyngby Denmark Third-Party-Owned 3 PVCROPS Evora Demonstration Flow Battery Project Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 5 Operational Renewables Capacity Firming Valverde Portugal Customer-Owned 4 Gigha Wind Farm Battery Project Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 100 Announced Renewables Energy Time Shift Gigha United Kingdom Customer-Owned 5 ENEL Vanadium Redox Battery Testing Station Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 10 Operational Renewables Capacity Firming Livorno Italy Third-Party-Owned 6 Tetiaroa Brando Resort Zinc Bromide Flow Battery 1000 Under Construction Renewables Capacity Firming Tetiaroa French Polynesia Customer-Owned 7 SmartRegion Pellworm (Vanadium Redox Flow) Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 200 Operational Renewables Energy Time Shift Island Pellworm Germany Utility-Owned 8 Fotonenboer 't Spieker Dairy Farm Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 10 Operational On-Site Power Vierakker Netherlands Customer-Owned 9 Swiss Dual-Circuit Redox Flow Battery Vanadium Redox Flow Battery 10 Under Construction Renewables Energy Time Shift Martigny Switzerland Customer-Owned Source: DOE Global Energy Storage Database
  17. 17.  Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction  Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot  RFB in Power sector - Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & EuropeS  Way forward…  Bibliography Table of Contents 17
  18. 18. Innovations in chemistry, design and engineering could decrease costs further making all future grid-scale energy storage to adopt redox flow 18 The redox flow batteries market is currently dominated by vanadium redox flow batteries US based Prudent Energy dominates the redox flow battery field for larger projects and largest operational facility is currently a mere 4MW The Redox flow projects are getting ambitious in terms of capacity and chemistry. Two large projects -28MW project has been announced in Modesto California US & Minami Hayakita Hokkaido Japan is planning 15MW storage. Both projects are using Zinc as key electrolyte Focus is on developing alternative to Vanadium due scarce supply and monopolistic ownership with China Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) has developed a battery that used laminar flow to keep its electrolytes separate, thus avoiding the need for a membrane, which is often the most costly part of a redox flow system thereby increasing its adoption Vanadium dominates Redox Batteries currently Key Technology Vendor Increasing Redox flow batteries capacities Alternative to Vanadium Membrane Free system to avoid cost Redoxflowbatteriesforenergystorage Source: Energy Storage Report dated 11 June 2014
  19. 19.  Redox Flow Battery – Brief introduction  Global demand for Redox Flow Batteries - Snapshot  RFB in Power sector - Region wise demand -Japan, China, US & EuropeS  Way forward…  Bibliography Table of Contents 19
  20. 20. Bibliography Databases/Reports  Flow Batteries report- https://www.electrochem.org/dl/interface/fal/fal10/fal10_p054-056.pdf  FRAUNHOFER-INSTITUTE - http://www.ict.fraunhofer.de/content/dam/ict/en/documents/brochures/Redox-flow-battery.pdf  Energy & Capital website - http://www.energyandcapital.com/articles/the-best-thing-since-lithium/1531  DICP CAS report - http://www.raeng.org.uk/news/releases/pdf/Chinese_Academy_of_Sciences/Huamin_Zhang.pdf  Sino – Report - http://www.sino-report.com/b/dianzi/dianchijiyuanliao/20130407/1236.html  IEA Report - http://www.iea.org/media/freepublications/technologyroadmaps/AnnexA_TechnologyAnnexforweb.pdf  Energy Storage Report - http://energystoragereport.info/redox-flow-batteries-for-energy-storage/  Springer report - http://ecpower.utk.edu/Publications/docs/Redox%20flow%20batteries%20a%20review.pdf Websites  Lux Research - http://www.altenergystocks.com/archives/2012/04/gridscale_energy_storage_lux_predicts_1135_billion_in_global_demand_by_2017.html  DOE Global Energy Storage Database http://www.energystorageexchange.org/  Enervault - http://www.nanalyze.com/2014/06/worlds-largest-iron-chromium-flow-battery-from-enervault/  Sumitomo - http://global-sei.com/president_blog/2012/08/completion_of_demonstration_fa.html 20

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