A number of studies have reported successful cultivation of several species of microalgae such as Chlorella, Scenedesmus, Phormidium, Botryococcus, Chlamydomonas, and Arthrospira for wastewater treatment and the efficacy of this method is promising
1. A BIOREFINERY BASED ZERO-WASTE
UTILIZATION OF NON-EDIBLE OILSEEDS
FOR BIODIESELAND BIOFUEL
PRODUCTION ALONG WITH CHEMICALS
PRESENTED BY : HIRAASHFAQ (16634)
• The global energy consuption from the non-renewable resources, such as
from combustion of fossil fuels and their drastic effects on environment
is a major problem.
• Energy is one of the most essential building blocks for human
development and as such acts as a crucial factor in determining the
socio-economic as well as human welfare of a country.
• Assuring everyone has sufficient access to continuous energy to sustain a
high living standard is an ongoing and pressing challenge for global
• Development of Eco-friendly Renewable Resources.
• Biorefinery based Zero waste utilization of non-edible oil seeds.
• Utilization of Biomass and chemicals for production of energy
• The biorefinery concept is akin to the traditional petroleum refineries
which include the assimilation of different processing techniques and
biomass treatments into a single arrangement, and as such leading to the
generation of several compounds from the same parent biomass.
• Raw materials applied
• Conversion methods adopted
• Technology adopted
• Intermediates generated
5. PROCESSING IN BIOREFINARY
• transesterification process using non-edible oilseeds, produces huge
amounts of biowastes in the form of seed cover and de-oiled seed cake,
which are lignocellulosic in nature.
6. BIOREFINARY APPROACH
• The biorefinery approach for biodiesel production from non-edible
oilseed by integrating various processes to generate various high-value
products from the biowastes can lower the present high production cost
of biodiesel compared to petroleum fuels and the first-generation
biofuels. It is projected that the biorefinery approach would (1) enhance
the overall economy of biodiesel generation, (2) generate biofuel and
chemical, (3) improve the sustainability and viability of the biodiesel
production, (4) minimize the emissions of greenhouse gases, and (5)
generate prospects of employment and (6) overall impact on
7. BIODIESEL: A POTENTIAL
• Biodiesel, regarded as a substitute to diesel, is derived from the
biological renewable sources like animal fats or vegetable oils.
• The methods used for producing biodiesel can be categorized into four
classes, namely micro-emulsions, thermal cracking, direct use and
blending, and transesterification.
• Transesterification is considered as the most distinguished method
for biodiesel production as it reduces the viscosity of biodiesel to make it
comparable with diesel and thus improving the combustion quality of
8. TRANSESTERIFICATION OF
• In transesterification
and ethanol) reacts
with triglycerides to
form biodiesel and
glycerol which is
produced as a by-
product. Owing to its
lower cost, methanol
is preferred over other
9. BIODIESEL FEEDSTOCK
• More than 400 oil-bearing tree species available worldwide are recognized as the
prospective feedstocks for the production of biodiesel.
• biodiesel feedstocks can be generally categorized into four classes as given
• 1. Edible oil or first-generation feedstock: this includes coconut oil, palm, rapeseed,
soybean, peanut, sunflower, etc.
• 2. Non-edible oil or second-generation feedstock: karanja, nahar, karabi, jatropha, etc.
• 3. Third-generation feedstock or algae.
• 4. Others include animal fats (e.g. chicken fat, tallow, etc.), by-products of fish oil, recycled
or waste oil, yellow grease, etc.
11. STATUS OF NON-EDIBLE OILSEED
• Depending on availability, numerous oils have been used as raw
materials for biodiesel production in countries throughout the world. For
example, in the US soybean oil is predominantly utilized as a feedstock
for biodiesel production. Similarly, rapeseed oil in Europe, coconut and
palm oils in Indonesia and Malaysia are used for biodiesel production.
• Recently algae, an aquatic plant, is gaining importance as a prospective
raw material for the generation of biodiesel owing to high oil content.
12. BIODIESEL FROM WASTE COOKING OIL OR RECYCLED OIL
HAS BEEN GAINING PROMINENCE DUE TO ITS LOW COST
COMPARED TO FRESH VEGETABLE OIL.
13. THE GLOBAL SCENARIO
• The utilization of non-edible oilseed for biodiesel production in the
developing countries is notable owing to the immense demand of edible
oils as foodstuff. Moreover, the cost of edible oil is very high in order to
be used as feedstock for generating 2 A Biorefinery Based Zero-Waste
Utilization of Non-edible Oilseeds for Biodiesel... 27 biodiesel. In
contrast, the non-edible oils are not fit for human intake owing to the
presence of various noxious elements in them.
• Globally, there exists quite a good number of non-edible oil yielding
plants naturally which are explored for biodiesel production.
14. AN INDIAN PERSPECTIVE
• In an agriculture based economy like India, the use of non-edible oilseed
for generating biodiesel could become a significant platform for
mitigating poverty besides offering energy security and improving the
rural non-agricultural sector.
• It has been found that most of the forest trees produce a large amount of
seeds, a bulk of which are wasted as unutilized.
• It is reported that in India about 400 non-edible oilseeds yielding plants
are known that can be explored as raw materials for biodiesel production
or in various industries such as varnish, candles, paints, cosmetics,
15. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE
• The fuel quality is one of the major
concerns in the area of biodiesel
research. The most important
compositional difference between
diesel and biodiesel is the amount
of oxygen present in the fuel.
Biodiesel comprises of 10–12%
(wt.%) oxygen that reduces its
heating value as well as lowers the
emission of particulate matters.
17. UTILIZATION OF BY-PRODUCTS FOR
• The valorization of lignocellulosic biowaste such as de-oiled cake, seed
cover, agricultural waste, corn stalk, wheat stock, etc. has gained
prominence as it serves the dual advantage of producing energy and
biomaterials/ chemicals as well as mitigating environmental concerns.
• Biofuel production from biowastes through thermochemical conversion
technique promotes waste management as well as energy and chemical
20. UTILIZATION OF DE-OILED SEED
• De-oiled seed cake is
obtained from the seed
kernel after the oil extraction
process is performed for
biodiesel production and
termed as a biowaste.
However, owing to its
lignocellulosic nature the
de-oiled seed cakes find
application as raw materials
for the pyrolysis process.
21. UTILIZATION OF CO-PRODUCTS OF
• Biochar is produced as the solid co-product of pyrolysis.
• Biochar can be used in numerous industrial processes depending on the
physical properties and its composition. For example, biochar can be
used for the production of carbon nanotubes, activated carbon and
hydrogen rich gas, and also as a solid fuel in boilers.
22. CASCADING OF APPROACHES FOR
• Over the past few years non-
edible oilseeds have emerged
as a prospective feedstock for
the generation of biodiesel
due to the ready availability,
low cost, higher production
rate, and environment
23. A biorefinery
approach for biodiesel
production along with
chemicals and value
added products for the
of non-edible oilseeds
24. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES
• this bioenergy production process would also generate a huge amount of
biowastes, i.e. de-oiled seed cake and seed covers throughout the
• Proper utilization and management of these biowastes will not only
improve the overall economy of biodiesel production but also mitigate
environmental concern related to waste dumping
• valorization of the wastes generated during biodiesel production could
be an attractive option in enhancing the overall economy of the biodiesel
25. • It has been reported that apart from producing biofuel, the non-edible
seeds can also produce various significant products. Jatropha curcas
seeds can be used to obtain activated carbon with excellent regeneration,
surface, and thermal properties.
• The activated carbon can also be utilized for water treatment,
purification, dye removals, etc. Similarly, castor seeds can be employed
for producing both polymeric surfactant and surfactant.
• Biochar, co-produced as by-product during the pyrolysis process, not
only have some fuel applications but can also be used as a source for
chemicals and value added products.
• The biorefinery approach can be considered as an improved and
economically viable one compared to the conventional methods used so
far for biofuel production.
• For the production of biodiesel and biofuel, many techniques and
approaches have been adopted; however, a comprehensive method for
complete utilization of non-edible oilseeds into valuable products is yet
to be developed.
• It is expected that biorefineries will play a prominent part in modeling
the energy sector of India as the country is abundant in non-edible oil
containing feedstocks for biodiesel and biofuel production.