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Revisiting data literacy in the big data landscape - Corrall

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Revisiting data literacy in the big data landscape - Corrall

  1. 1. Revisiting Data Literacy in the Big Data Landscape Sheila Corrall scorrall@pitt.edu Department of Information Culture and Data Stewardship
  2. 2. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Revisiting Data Literacy in the Big Data Landscape •  What does it mean to be data literate in a world of massive open online data and con6nuous par6cipatory research programs? •  Where should librarians concentrate their efforts to create real value for the individuals and communi6es they serve? •  How can the profession collaborate to make a difference in our fast-moving data-rich society?
  3. 3. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Overview •  Trends and developments –  Technology, pedagogy, informa6on literacy and library engagement with data •  Concep6ons and approaches to data literacy –  Social science and science, tradi6onal and contemporary •  The next fron6er –  Big data 2.0 •  Review and conclusion –  Current and emergent data roles –  The way forward?
  4. 4. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Technology trends – the data shift “…technology has enabled data to become the prevalent material and currency of research. Data, not informa6on, not publica6ons, is rapidly becoming the accepted deliverable of research” Graham Pryor, DCC (2012) Data is the new currency –  the new form of exchange in the business world + in the public sector where governments are key players
  5. 5. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Pedagogical predictions – •  Crossover learning –  Connec6ng formal and informal learning •  Incidental learning –  Harnessing unplanned or uninten6onal learning •  Context-based learning –  How context shapes and is shaped by the process of learning •  Learning through social media –  Using social media to offer long-term learning opportuni6es •  Learning for the future –  Preparing students for work and life in an unpredictable future (Sharples et al., 2015; 2016) Lifelong and lifewide learning
  6. 6. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Information Literacy Development Reflec6ve discovery Self-reflexive process Poli6cal, social, and economic issues Ethical use Cri6cal pedagogy Authen6c learning
  7. 7. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Information Literacy Trends “Informa6on literacy is for life, not just for a good degree” Charlie Inskip (2014, June 16) •  Synthesizing the diversity of perspec6ves and posi6ons on digital, media, informa6on, and other related literacies –  Acknowledging context is cri6cal for evalua6on and use •  Recognizing the mul6faceted informa6on needs of learners –  Using scenario-based assignments and designing literacy support around personal, professional, and academic roles •  Redressing the knowledge, skills, and abili6es balance –  Framing true understanding of the essen6al concepts “Naviga6ng informa6on literacy through mul6ple life perspec6ves” (Ruleman et al., 2017, p. 627)
  8. 8. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Libraries, Librarians, and Data •  Social science data archives and geospa6al data resources –  local data libraries/support services established in the 1980s and 1990s (e.g., Edinburgh, Oxford, LSE) •  Networked data-intensive science and research data services –  exploring data cura6on and storage, advising on data management plans (e.g., Georgia Tech, Purdue, MIT) The Way We Were (2012) – An Evolving Landscape (Corrall, 2012)
  9. 9. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Libraries, Librarians, and Data •  Data centres/repositories •  Linked data •  Data analy6cs •  Data warehouses •  Data visualiza6on •  Data journals/papers •  Data cita6on •  Text and data mining Beyond Research Support •  Research data services •  Open data for collec6ons •  Learning analy6cs projects •  Helping researchers to use data visualiza6on tools •  Using data visualiza6on in library assessment •  Metadata consultancy •  Facilita6ng research using text and data mining Where Are We Now? – The New Centre of Gravity (2017) New vocabulary, New roles, responsibili3es, rela3onships
  10. 10. Information Culture & Data Stewardship
  11. 11. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Learning analytics in the library and the emergence of professional ethics conflicts Big Data has arrive in college campuses and classrooms by way of learning analy6cs (LA) ini6a6ves. LA measures, collects, analyzes, and reports on student behaviors in order to improve learning environments and outcomes. Now, academic libraries are considering their role in tracking and ac6ng on analyzable flows of student data. However, LA comes with moral and ethical problems related to students’ intellectual privacy and intellectual freedom. ... Libraries must therefore consider how LA ini6a6ves contradict ethical principles set forth in the American Library Associa6on’s “Code of Ethics.” (Jones & Salo, 2017, January 19)
  12. 12. Information Culture & Data Stewardship
  13. 13. Information Culture & Data Stewardship
  14. 14. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Conceptions of data literacy [LILAC 2011] Traditional social science perspective Data literacy almost synonymous with sta6s6cal literacy, quan6ta6ve literacy and numeracy – but involving more than basic sta6s6cs and mathema6cal func6ons Ø  Understanding data and its tabular and graphical representa6ons, including sta6s6cal concepts and terms Ø  Finding, evalua6ng and using sta6s6cal informa6on effec6vely and ethically as evidence for social inquiries Ø  Reading, interpre6ng and thinking cri6cally about stats An essential and critical component of information competence in social sciences (e.g. Read, 2007; Schield, 1999; Stephenson & Caravello, 2007)
  15. 15. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Analysis, Interpreta6on, Evalua6on Analysis, Interpreta6on, Evalua6on Informa6on Literacy Informa6on Literacy Sta6s6cal Literacy Sta6s6cal Literacy Data Literacy Data Literacy CRITICAL THINKING SOCIAL SCIENCE DATA Cri6cal thinking perspec6ve Discipline perspec6ve Alternative (hierarchical) social science perspectives (Schield, 2004)
  16. 16. Information Culture & Data Stewardship A STEM/information science perspective Science data literacy shares aspects of social science concep6ons, but requires awareness of the data life cycle, metadata issues, data tools and collabora6on mechanisms Ø  Managing the data generated from experiments, surveys and observa6ons by using sensors and other devices Ø  Understanding the alributes, quality and history of data to produce valid, reliable answers to scien6fic inquiries Ø  Accessing, collec6ng, processing, manipula6ng, conver6ng, transforming, evalua6ng and using data SDL goes beyond “pushing” the data to students by developing abilities and skills in “pulling” data (Qin & D’Ignazio, 2010)
  17. 17. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Current approaches to data literacy •  Extending informa6on literacy instruc6on to research data –  Ini6a6ves targe6ng both students and researchers (e.g., Carlson & Bracke, 2015; Doucele & Fyfe, 2013; Haendel et al., 2012; Peters & Vaughn, 2013) •  Preparing graduates for working with data in employment –  Examples rela6ng to business and public health (Macy & Coates, 2016) •  Reviewing defini6ons and competencies for data literacy –  Covering both research data and public sector data –  Targe6ng academic, school, and public librarians (e.g., Koltay, 2015; Prado & Marzal, 2013; Schneider, 2013) •  Teaching public librarians about data privacy and training prac66oners to empower young people in a data-rich world
  18. 18. Information Culture & Data Stewardship
  19. 19. Information Culture & Data Stewardship
  20. 20. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Big Data 2.0 – The next frontier •  Converges e-science with business intelligence, crowdsourcing, big data analy6cs, social media and Web 2.0 technologies •  Enables broader and deeper applica6ons of analy6cal tools •  Takes data-driven research to new levels of technical and organiza6onal complexity •  Located in academic/research ins6tu6ons, but based on public par6cipa6on Global megaprojects Ø  Very large scale Ø  Interdisciplinary Ø  Human subjects Ø  Inter-state/interna6onal Ø  Mul6ple jurisdic6ons Ø  Cross-sector partners Ø  Different cultures •  Advancing knowledge to benefit society, but raising mul6ple issues of concern…
  21. 21. Information Culture & Data Stewardship “The health care field generates an enormous amount of data every day. There is a need, and opportunity, to mine this data and provide it to the medical researchers and prac66oners who can put it to work in real life, to benefit real people. Many organiza6ons can fulfill part of this process, but none of them are equipped to begin with raw data, develop an idea and move that idea directly into a prac6ce seqng.” What roles can libraries and librarians play in such endeavours? World-class CS/ machine learning Medical + research + exper6se Deep data, clinical seqng, commercializa6on Secondary data analysis
  22. 22. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Defining digital medicine "The pa6ent is an enormous repository of informa6on that needs to be harvested as a partnership not only in clinical care but in discovery. It is the only way we will define wellness and its progression to disease, rather than tradi6onal medicine that defines disease and its progression to death.” (Ausiello in Elenko et al., 2015, p. 456) Embodied information practices
  23. 23. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Precision Medicine Initiative •  Launched by President Obama in his January 2015 State of the Union address •  Aims to leverage advances in genomics, emerging methods for managing and analyzing large data sets, and health ICTs to accelerate biomedical discoveries –  while protec6ng privacy •  Plans to enroll one million or more volunteers and may include children “commiled to engaging mul6ple sectors and forging strong partnerships with academic and other non-profit researchers, pa6ent groups, and the private sector to capitalize on work already underway” Participatory ResearchAll of Us
  24. 24. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Precision Medicine Initiative – issues… “There’s privacy issues. We’ve got to figure out how do we make sure that if I donate my data to this big pool that it’s not going to be misused, that it’s not going to be commercialized in some way that I don’t know about. And so we’ve got to set up a series of structures that make me confident that if I’m making that contribu6on to science that I’m not going to end up geqng a bunch of spam targe6ng people who have a par6cular disease I may have.” (Obama, 2016, February 25) Ethical, legal, and social implications?
  25. 25. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Values statement
  26. 26. Information Culture & Data Stewardship About PGP Harvard PGP is “an open science research project…designed to create public scien6fic resources that everyone can access by bringing together genomic, environmental, and human trait data donated by our par6cipants” •  Founded at Harvard Medical School in 2005, now a Global Network involving Canada (University of Toronto), the UK (UCL) and Austria (Austrian Academy of Sciences) •  Harvard PGP is staffed by a small, largely volunteer group of researchers, engineers, and ethicists who are all pioneers in their fields •  Members of the Global Network follow a common set of guidelines, but the quan6ty and quality of informa6on on na6onal sites varies significantly “Privacy, confiden6ality and anonymity are impossible to guarantee in a...research study where public sharing of gene6c data is an explicit goal” Personal Genome Project
  27. 27. Information Culture & Data Stewardship d)  Oversight. Each member must maintain current Ins6tu6onal Review Board [Research Ethics] or local equivalent approval e)  Not for profit. Managed or sponsored by a non-profit organiza6on (or local equivalent). –  A member shall not sell or license par6cipant data or 6ssues “other than purposes of reasonable cost recovery” Pretty Good Privacy? Guidelines of the Global PGP Network a)  Public Data. Par6cipants are invited to share genomic and trait data using a CC0 waiver b)  Non-anonymous. Risks of par6cipant re-iden6fica6on are addressed upfront as part of the consent and enrollment process −  Neither anonymity nor confiden@ality of their data is promised to par@cipants c)  Equal access. Par6cipants are given 6mely and complete access to their individual data i.e., raw data and not just summary results “where feasible”
  28. 28. Information Culture & Data Stewardship
  29. 29. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Background “A major na6onal health resource” •  Registered charity •  Est. by Wellcome Trust, MRC, Dept. of Health, Scoqsh Gov., and NW Regional Dev. Agency; funded by Welsh Dev. Agency, BHF, and Diabetes UK) •  Hosted by U. Manchester, supported by NHS •  Open to bona fide researchers anywhere in the world, including those funded by academia and industry •  Aims to improve preven6on, diagnosis and treatment of life-threatening illnesses •  Recruited 500,000 people aged 40-69 in 2006-2010 •  Par6cipants have undergone measures, provided blood, urine and saliva samples, and detailed personal informa6on –  and agreed to have their health followed “…to help scien6sts discover why some people develop par6cular diseases and others do not”
  30. 30. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Best Ethical Practice? UK Biobank wants to be “a model not only for best science but for best ethical prac6ce too, in rela6on to these big biobank projects” Professor Roger Brownsword, Chair (2011-2015) UK Biobank Ethics and Governance Council (UKEGC) hlp://www.ukbiobank.ac.uk/ethics/ What are some of the “best science” and “best ethical practice” lessons that can be learned from UK Biobank?
  31. 31. Information Culture & Data Stewardship “…a precedent-setting case” •  Researchers wanted to use UK Biobank to iden6fy people to invite into a separate study •  They asked UK Biobank to send an introductory email to its par6cipants poin6ng to the website of the new study •  Offering such a recruitment mechanism could benefit the research community –  But take 6me and resources that could be used elsewhere •  In what circumstances would it be acceptable for Biobank to divert resources in this way? –  How should ad hoc third-party re-contacts be accommodated? •  UKBEGC proposed two op6ons –  Create a dedicated webpage to provide neutral informa6on about (approved) studies –  Provide a withdrawal category allowing Biobank par6cipants opt-out from email invita6ons The project was approved as a pilot subject to fi<ng with Biobank’s 3metable of re-contacts and will be used to draw up a framework for future requests UK BIOBANK ETHICS AND GOVERNANCE COUNCIL ANNUAL REVIEW 2015
  32. 32. Information Culture & Data Stewardship “…from a signature on a legal form to a process that educates”
  33. 33. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Review – Data roles of libraries and librarians Current roles •  Access management –  facilita6ng external dataset use •  Collec@on building –  audi6ng and appraising data assets, cataloging and archiving datasets •  Data literacy –  educa6ng students and faculty about managing research data –  preparing graduates for working with data in employment •  Publishing support –  advising on iden6fying, ci6ng, sharing, licensing and impact •  Policy development Emergent roles •  Metadata consultancy –  providing specialist exper6se to support open data sharing •  Infrastructure development –  hos6ng data hackathons and facilita6ng data deposit –  serving as local plaworms for open data in smaller communi6es •  Data protec@on –  promo6ng responsible use of personal patron/student data •  Data literacy –  preparing frontline staff to advise on digital privacy or data profiling
  34. 34. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Conclusion – The way forward? •  Mainstream data literacy in our teaching and learner support –  Move data from the periphery to the centre of our prac6ce •  Synthesize diverse perspec6ves and posi6ons on data literacy –  Recognize people have mul6ple roles in different seqngs •  Give priority to ethical, legal, and social implica6ons (ELSI) –  Acknowledge our professional responsibility to engage •  Adopt holis6c approaches to informa6on instruc6on –  Help people use/create data, informa6on, and knowledge in their personal, social, professional, and scholarly lives •  Work proac6vely across professional and sectoral boundaries –  Collaborate with public library open data managers
  35. 35. Information Culture & Data Stewardship Selected References Elenko, E. et al.. (2015). Defining digial medicine. Nature Biotechnology, 33(5), 456-461. doi:10.1038/nbt.3222. Inskip, C. (2014, June 16). Informa6on literacy is for life, not just a good degree [Blog post]. Retrieved from hlps://www.cilip.org.uk/blog/informa6on-literacy-life-not-just-good- degree. Obama, B. (2016, February 25). Remarks by the President in Precision Medicine Panel Discussion. Retrieved from hlps://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2016/02/25/ remarks-president-precision-medicine-panel-discussion. Pryor, G. (2012, February 6). Re-skilling for research. Retrieved from hlp://www.dcc.ac.uk/news/re-skilling-research-observa6ons-rluk- report. Ruleman, A. B. et al. (2017, March). Show me the learning: Naviga6ng informa6on literacy through mul6ple life perspec6ves. Retrieved from hlp://www.ala.org/acrl/conferences/acrl2017/papers.
  36. 36. Any Questions? Sheila Corrall Department of Informa6on Culture and Data Stewardship School of Compu6ng and Informa6on scorrall@pil.edu www.ischool.pil.edu/people/corrall.php