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Pipe system includes network of pipes and valves, which are :- i. MAIN PIPE : Delivers water from treatment plant to distribution tank or directly to distribution area. ii. FEEDER PIPE : Directly connected to a main pipe for distribution of water to industrial or residential areas. iii. BRANCH PIPE : From feeder pipe to individual house, building, factory or fire hydrant. iv. VALVE : needed to control water flow rate, stop water flow, release trapped air in pipe, balance pressure in pipe and remove effluents.TOPIC 3 SANITARY PIPEWORK -Piping System
Head loss or energy lossduring distribution toconsumers is caused by thefollowings :i.Differences in pipe size.ii.Change of flow direction.iii.Friction.iv.Difference of level (Gradient).TOPIC 3 Factors of Head Loss in Pipes
I. DIFFERENCES IN PIPE SIZEa. Change in sizes, from big to smallerdiameterb. Change in sizes, from small to biggerdiameterTOPIC 3 Factors of Head Loss in Pipes
ii. CHANGE OF DIRECTION Change of flow direction in pipe causes head loss.TOPIC 3 Factors of Head Loss in Pipes
iii. FRICTION Head loss due friction is the major energy loss in pipe. Long length of pipe in the piping system causes high head loss, while large diameter pipe can reduce head loss. Head loss in pipe is energy lost due to friction between water and the inner surface of the pipe. Therefore, the flow is reduced and this factor contributes to head loss in pipe.TOPIC 3 Factors of Head Loss in Pipes
iv. GRADIENT When water is delivered through distribution pipe from higher to lower positions, it experiences head loss due to friction, difference in pipe sizes and change of directions.TOPIC 3 Factors of Head Loss in Pipes
TYPE OF FLOW There are 3 types of flow in a pipe :- i.Laminar flow ii.Turbulent flow iii.Transition flow The types of flow depend on the velocity, density and the diameter of pipe.TOPIC 3 Fluid Flow
Is flow of particles which gains high kinetic energy and move erratically. TURBULEN T LAMINAR Is flow of fluid particles moving in single line parallel to each other.TOPIC 3 Fluid Flow
BUILDING SEWAGE W ASTE SOIL FITTING FITTING SOIL W ASTE DISCHARGE DISCHARGE PIPING SYSTEM SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT TREATED WATER ENVIRONMENTTOPIC 3 Soil and Waste Water Flowchart
Discharge pipe consists of single stack, branching and vent pipe. Single stack pipe is installed vertically to ease discharge of soil and waste water. Branching pipe is connected from sanitary fitting with single stack pipe. Vent pipe to released compressed air. There are 3 systems employed in the installation of soil and waste water discharge pipes :- i.Single stack system. ii.Single pipe system. iii.Dual pipe system.TOPIC 3 Discharge Pipe
1. System where only 1 pipe is required and it does not need vent pipe as it can function as vent pipe. (Main Pipe) 2. Discharge in branching pipes fro sanitary fitting are transferred into single stack pipe. 3. The flow is then drained into the drainage pipe. 4. The system is appropriate for multi- storey buildings. 5. Sanitary fitting should be installed near the single stack pipe to reduce the length of the branching pipe and minimum the sound of flow in the pipe. 6. The sanitary fitting should be connected to the single stack pipe separately. 7. This system is easy to install.TOPIC 3 Single Stack System
1. Use only 1 pipe in collecting and draining discharge.(Main Pipe) 2. All sanitary fittings are connected to 1 pipe only. Connection is made at the branching pipe. 3. The single stack vent pipes release compressed air that may have trapped at the base of waste and wastewater single stack pipe. 4. The vent branching pipe connects the single stack vent pipe to the sanitary fitting. 5. All sanitary fitting should be installed near a main pipe.TOPIC 3 Single Pipe System
1. This system uses 2 single stack pipes, one for waste and the others is for soil. 2. Both of the single stack pipes have individual ventilation system. 3. The waste discharge pipe drains wastewater from the shower tray, WB and bathtub. 4. The soil discharge pipe drains soil(Soil Main Pipe) (Waste Main Pipe) water from the WC and urinal. 5. The single stack pipe is then connected to the underground drainage pipe. 6. This system is suitable when the waste fitting is located far from the waste water fitting.TOPIC 3 Dual pipe System
System Types of Pipes Advantages Disadvantages Dual Pipe 1. Waste single 1. More 1.Require two types of stack pipe effective pipe 2. Soil single stack drainage 2. Complicated pipe installation work Single 1. Waste and soil 1. Require 1. Vent pipe installation Pipe single stack pipe only one is complicated 2. Vent pipe main pipe 2. Require more 2. Easier to pipelines for vent pipe install Single 1. Waste and soil 1. Require 1. Ventilation is less Stack single stack pipe only one efficient single stack pipeTOPIC 3 Comparison of Discharge Pipe Systems