IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020

ijlterorg

We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue.

International Journal
of
Learning, Teaching
And
Educational Research
p-ISSN:
1694-2493
e-ISSN:
1694-2116
IJLTER.ORG
Vol.19 No.3
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
(IJLTER)
Vol. 19, No. 3 (March 2020)
Print version: 1694-2493
Online version: 1694-2116
IJLTER
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER)
Vol. 19, No. 3
This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part
of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations,
broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks.
Society for Research and Knowledge Management
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been
established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the
fields of learning, teaching and educational research.
Aims and Objectives
The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators,
teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the
world to present the results of their research activities in the following
fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment;
multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education;
knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning;
virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education;
digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e-
tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom
management issues, educational case studies, etc.
Indexing and Abstracting
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in
Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned
a unique DOI number.
Foreword
We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of
Learning, Teaching and Educational Research.
The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational
Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to
publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions
may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to
problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational
organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website
http://www.ijlter.org.
We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board
and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue.
We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration.
The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the
world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers.
We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal
with this issue.
Editors of the March 2020 Issue
VOLUME 19 NUMBER 3 March 2020
Table of Contents
The Efficiency of Using the Interactive Smartboard in Social Studies to Increase Students’ Achievement and
Tendency Toward the Subject Matter in the State of Qatar...............................................................................................1
Manal Hendawi and Mohammad Rajab Nosair
Effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction on Primary School Students’ English Reading Comprehension
Achievement.......................................................................................................................................................................... 20
Ibrahim Suleiman Ibrahim Magableh and Amelia Abdullah
Personal, Familial and Social Factors Associated with Academic Failure in University Students: A Case-Control
Study in Iran.......................................................................................................................................................................... 36
Behnaz Behnam, Fatemeh Paknazar, Majid Mirmohammadkhani, Mohammad Akhbari, Shahrokh Makvand Hoseini and
Parviz Sabahi
The Degree of Awareness of Science Teachers about the Concepts and Requirements of Green Economy in the
upper Basic Stage in Amman from the Viewpoint of Teachers Themselves ................................................................ 48
Fawaz Hassan Shehada, Wesal Hani Al-Omari and Assem Nawafleh
The Digital Divide in Inclusive Classrooms...................................................................................................................... 69
Badriya AlSadrani, Mohammed Alzyoudi, Negmeldin Alsheikh and Elazab Elazab Elshazly
Lecturers’ Beliefs and Agency about Active Learning in English For Specific Purposes Classes .............................. 86
Huan Buu Nguyen
Enhancing Writing Vocabulary Using Mentimeter........................................................................................................ 106
Pei Miin Wong and Melor Md. Yunus
Using Knowledge Space Theory to Delineate Critical Learning Paths in Calculus ................................................... 123
Iman C Chahine and Mark Grinshpon
Promoting Work-based Learning as a Praxis of Educational Leadership in Higher Education .............................. 149
Anselmus Sudirman, Adria Vitalya Gemilang
The Use of Smart Technologies in the Professional Training of Students of the Law Departments for the
Development of their Critical Thinking........................................................................................................................... 174
Igor M. Kopotun, Myroslav Yu. Durdynets, Nina V. Teremtsova, Lidiia L. Markina and Luidmila M. Prisnyakova
The Perceived Influence of Case Method on Students’ Performance and Critical Thinking in Business Studies .188
Xhimi Hysa, Luca Carrubbo, Armeno Sadiku, Irma Gjana and Nensi Hazizaj
The Effects of a Discovery Learning Module on Geometry for Improving Students’ Mathematical Reasoning
Skills, Communication and Self-Confidence................................................................................................................... 214
Nur Choiro Siregar, Roslinda Rosli and Siti Mistima Maat
A Teaching Model of Polynomial Functions’ Learning Outcomes according to the System Approach for High
School Students................................................................................................................................................................... 229
Ahmad A.S. Tabieh
Mathematics Teaching in Vietnam in the Context of Technological Advancement and the Need of Connecting to
the Real World..................................................................................................................................................................... 255
Tran Trung, Tien-Trung Nguyen and Thi-Phuong-Thao Trinh
Factors Affecting English Language Teaching in Public Schools in Ecuador............................................................. 276
Julia Sevy-Biloon, Uvaldo Recino and Camila Munoz
ESP Course Delivered to Personnel Working in Shifts for the State Emergency Service of Ukraine through a
Student-Tailored Model..................................................................................................................................................... 295
Kateryna Shykhnenko and Oleg Nozhovnik
Discourse Marker Clusters in the Classroom Discourse of Native and Non-Native EFL Teachers ........................ 310
Gloria Vickov and Eva Jakupčević
Undergraduates Student Perceptions’ of Social Networking Sites to Improve English Writing Skills in Malaysia
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 329
Nurul Afifah Binti Azlan and Melor Md Yunus
Model of Primary School Teachers Training for Work in the System of Inclusive Education by Applying
Extrapolation of Poland’s Advances in Training for Work........................................................................................... 352
Anna A. Sobchuk and Nataliia O. Mykytenko
Change in University Pedagogical Culture – The Impact of Increased Pedagogical Training on First Teaching
Experiences.......................................................................................................................................................................... 367
Mari Murtonen and Henna Vilppu
Supporting Inclusion and Family Involvement in Early Childhood Education through 'ISOTIS': A Case Study in
Greece................................................................................................................................................................................... 384
Anastasia Gkaintartzi, Evi Kompiadou, Roula Tsokalidou, Konstantinos Tsioumis and Konstantinos Petrogiannis
Representation of French Culture as a Foreign Language through Textbooks .......................................................... 404
Ninuk Lustyantie and Evi Rosyani Dewi
The Degree of Achieving Development Standards Indicators among Kindergarteners from Parents’ Point of View
............................................................................................................................................................................................... 422
Naser Ibrahim Al-Sharah and Faisal Khalif Al-Sharaa
Rasch Model Application on Character Development Instrument for Elementary School Students...................... 437
Lutfi Nur, Luthfi Ainun Nurani and Dodi Suryana and Aslina Ahmad
A Case for Teaching Pronunciation to Adult EFL Learners, Using Metrical Versification....................................... 460
Mahboobeh Khaleghi, Manal Batobara and Mohammad Saleem
Moral Education through Dramatized Storytelling: Insights and Observations from Indonesia Kindergarten
Teachers ............................................................................................................................................................................... 475
Maila D. H. Rahiem, Nur Surayyah Madhubala Abdullah, Steven Eric Krauss and Husni Rahim
1
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 1-19, March 2020
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.3.1
The Efficiency of Using the Interactive
Smartboard in Social Studies to Increase
Students’ Achievement and Tendency Toward
the Subject Matter in the State of Qatar
Manal Hendawi
Qatar University
Qatar
Mohammad Rajab Nosair
Qatar University
Qatar
Abstract. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of the use
of interactive smartboard techniques and applications in teaching a
unit of a social studies curriculum for preparatory stage students in
Qatar. The selected sample (47 students) is distributed into two
groups, the experimental group which studied a chosen unit using
the interactive smartboard, and the other group, the control group,
which studied the same lesson plan conventionally. The two methods
administered to the groups, before and after the experiment, are
codified through a cognitive performance evaluation using the three
stages of Bloom, and a structured assessment of the inclination
towards social studies is applied. All groups are taught the same unit,
prepared by the same teacher, but with a different method of
teaching. To statistically test the research hypotheses, a quantitative
comparison between the scores of the two groups before and after the
experiment is carried out. The results indicate that the differences
between the two groups in average values in favor of the trial group
are statistically significant.
Keywords: Smartboard; Achievement; Tendency; Efficiency; Social
Studies
1. Introduction
Social studies is an essential field in education, contributing significantly to
human character, the various possibilities of problem-solving and logical
thinking, the development of the human social senses, and the creation of social
identity, including the nature of knowledge and attitudes that help students
understand.
2
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
The Qatar Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MoE) affirms that the
State of Qatar puts science, technology and innovation at the top of its national
priorities and integrates them into its National Vision 2030 strategic plans and
objectives. Research studies support the view that today's use of teaching
technology in classrooms is crucial for education as mentioned in the study of
Kurt & Dindar (2012). The MoE agrees that integrating technology into the culture
increases the effectiveness of learning and student accomplishment and
emphasizes technology incorporation in social studies. The MoE provides
curriculum instructions to coordinators and teachers in the field.
Government schools in Qatar are provided with interactive whiteboards or
interactive display devices, or both, to enrich the educational process and keep
pace with progress. Using their programs and tools, teachers can prepare and
present, in interesting ways, various lessons.
Using the software, various parts of the screen can be shown, engineering
devices can be used, a network of crossed lines can be shown, shapes, colours
and various types of font can be used, and documentation and explanations of
the events on screen can be given by the system (MoE, 2019).
The interactive smartboard has an impact on the functioning of the educational
process. It facilitates learning. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on
the use of smartboards in teaching. However, the researchers have conducted a
search of the literature and do not find any direct or indirect research related to
the use of smartboards in teaching social studies in Qatar. Therefore, this study
is considered the first to address using smartboard technology in the teaching of
social studies in the State of Qatar.
The study focuses on the impact of using the smartboard on the level of
achievement of middle school students. The value of this analysis stems from:
1. Keeping up with the times technologically and meeting new
educational needs, in line with the policy of the Qatari Ministry of
Education and Higher Education to integrate technology in education.
2. This research may motivate other researchers to conduct similar studies
in other specialties, considering achievement or other variables.
3. The Qatar MoE may take the results of this study, and formally
generalize the use of smartboards in all social studies classes in
government schools.
2. Literature Review
2.1 Importance of using a smartboard
With the rapid progress of information systems and communication resources,
direct contact and connection between the components of the teaching and
learning (the teacher, student and textbook) is no longer the primary resources
for receiving knowledge.
3
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Information and communication technology play an essential role in all aspects
of life, as it transforms civilization and helps the reunion among nations, as
distances become reduced and no barriers exist between members of the
community. The whole world becomes like a village. The challenges that the
world faces today and the change occurring in many aspects of life, make it
necessary for educational institutions to adopt modern educational technologies.
Scientific development has brought with it many instructional techniques that
can be used to create areas of expertise for learners. Students having a high
degree of competence qualifies them to meet challenges (Al Hassan & Al
Badawi, 2016).
The use of technology such as computers, smartboards, projectors, the internet,
and many other things, in education is theorized to be one of the best ways to
bring effectiveness to teaching. Over the years, there have been many studies
like Almajali (2016), Oigara(2017), Dahlan (2014) examined whether these
technologies are useful in teaching, and interactive smartboards are among the
areas of study. We can safely say that the interactive smartboard has taken over
from the overhead projector in school classrooms throughout the education
world.
Smartboards have many ways to enhance the student learning experience. The
use of smartboard technology provides students and learners with support,
knowledge and skills using optical features. It can make lessons fun, because the
teacher can use many different styles and teaching aids. Furthermore, it helps all
kinds of students, each with individual requirements, to understand the lesson
at the same time. For example, ‘visual’ students can see the smartboard, while
students that learn ‘by hand’ can touch the smartboard.
Using a smartboard in teaching helps increase the motivation of the learners. A
study in 2010-2011 in which a school provided an interactive whiteboard in
classrooms, shows that, after some time, a drastic change was affected in the
school system. Some classes became smart classrooms, and the study found that
the smartboard had a massive impact on the students’ knowledge and
achievement (Davidovitch & Yavich, 2017).
Many types of research show that learners learn better when they are fully
involved in the lesson activities. With the smartboard being available in the
classroom, every student has the opportunity to use the smartboard, and this
allows them to actively become part of the learning process. For example, most
smartboards have the option of using the fingers to write directly on them. This
kind of interactivity gives learners the opportunity to write or even draw. As
Socrates said, “reading is very different from memorizing a speech or learning
by doing” (Rotry, 2005). In a study carried out in 2014Ainur and Arasaln say that
smartboards can be used to increase the involvement of students in the study
process in the classroom.
According to Cox (2019), Research shows that students benefit best if they
participate entirely, and true education is one of the best ways to achieve this.
4
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
For instance, when teaching social science, learning and understanding what a
world map looks like will be different if the teacher describes the map to the
students rather than encouraging them to participate in drawing the map on the
smartboard. Thus, the teacher increases the level of establishment of the
information in the student’s mind (Collins, 2009). Another advantage is that
students can learn how to work together collaboratively.
By using smartboards in classrooms, students have the ability to access the
internet, where they can view websites or videos. Thus, students can easily
access different tools to complete project or perform research and keep up to
date with developments around the world (Bates, 2003). It is vital to use
technology regularly and continue with professional progression to keep up to
date with current topics in the digital world.
Using this type of smartboard technology in teaching produces a youth that is
increasingly complex and sophisticated. It makes the process of teaching
beneficial for both the educator and the learner.
2.2 History of the smartboard device
A smartboard is a device and digital projection panel attached to a large touch
sensitive board with projection screen displays the image. The network is
controlled directly or with a distinctive pen by contacting the board (Becta,
2003).
In the past, most schools around the world used chalk and a blackboard to teach,
but the interactive whiteboard replaced chalk during the technology revolution.
Many teachers believe that these electronic boards are a useful digital tool for
increasing students’ levels of achievement (Schenker & Kratcoski, 2008).
In 1980 a new idea was introduced, which centred around connecting a
computer to a sensitive display panel that acts as an alternative to the computer
screen without a mouse or keyboard, using touch to navigate instead. Very few
people knew about the presence of the interactive whiteboard until 1991, when
David Martin and Nancy Knowlton introduced the first whiteboard through
their company Smart Technologies. It provided touch controls equivalent to a
computer.
In 1992, Smart Technologies formed a strategic alliance with the American
company Intel, which led to further developments in the whiteboard. The
company steadily expanded its products to meet the increasing global demand
as the interactive board started to spread significantly within the school system.
2.3 Previous studies
In 2019, a study conducted by Ahmad and Aladle examined the effect of using
an interactive whiteboard on the development of the attitudes and achievements
of 8th grade students in terms of learning and cognitive motivation, in primary
education in the Sultanate of Oman. A group of 176 students was divided into
experimental and control groups. The results showed differences between
5
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
students in both groups in their attitude towards study, cognitive motivation
and its dimensions (motivation to learn, risk of knowledge acquisition and use
of knowledge) and academic achievement in favor of students using an
interactive whiteboard.
Gurbuzturk (2018), conducted a study examining the attitudes of elementary
education students to the use of smartboards in classes. The researcher
conducted a survey of primary and secondary schools in Malatya province
during the 2016-2017 academic year. To sample consisted of the 4th to 8th grade
students in three schools, and data was collected using the smartboard attitude
scale (SBAS) of Şad (2012). The findings were that students in the elementary
stages usually have positive attitudes to using a smartboard. Their attitudes
towards the smartboard were impacted by the number of students in the school
and the student’s grade, but not by gender.
Kaya and Yazıcı (2018) conducted a study of the self-efficacy of social studies
teachers using the smart whiteboards. The researchers designed a questionnaire
and distributed it to 101 social studies teachers at public secondary schools in
Turkey. For statistical analysis of variance, gender, age, whether they had
received training on the use of information technology. The results show that the
self-efficacy of the sample was at a level of agreement, and there was no effect of
gender or age on self-efficacy. Prior training helped to increase self-efficacy in
using the interactive whiteboard.
Davidovitch & Yavich (2017) investigated the effect of the smartboard on the
school system. The researchers used a questionnaire and the sample involving of
130 students (boys and girls) who used smartboards in the 5th and 6th grades of
two elementary schools in Jerusalem. The findings show that the clarification
variable showed the biggest improvement since the start of using the
smartboards, in favour of students in the 6th grade, and the variable of interest
in supporting the girls. Overall, the study variables appear to be related and the
smartboard increased the students’ achievement and improved their learning
methods. Given the study outcomes, the researchers recommend the teaching
technology, because it led to an outstanding level of learning and increased the
educational influence of teaching technological improvement.
Oigara (2017) conducted a study investigating the effect of using smartboard
technology on the mathematical achievement of fifth grade students. 40 students
were nominated and divided into an experimental group who studied
mathematics using the smartboard and a control group who studied
mathematics using traditional methods and a blackboard. Both groups took an
achievement test. The findings reveal a positive effect of using a smartboard on
students’ mathematical attainment.
In 2016, a study conducted by Almajali and others examined the effectiveness of
using a smartboard for teaching social studies on students’ achievement in
public schools in Jordan. A pre and post test was applied to 258, 120 male and
138 female, 8th grade students in the 2015/2016 academic year to find their level
of achievement in social studies. The experimental group were taught by using
6
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
the smartboard while the control group were taught the traditional way. The
study findings reveal that there were variations between the classes in favour of
the experimental group. There was no difference in the success of the students
by gender.
Tunaboylu and Admire (2016) investigated the effect of using an interactive
whiteboard in the mathematics teaching of 7th grade students by applying an
experimental design. The research findings show that using the interactive
whiteboard in the mathematics teaching process had positive effects on the
students’ mathematical performance.
Dahlan (2014) examined the effect of using an interactive whiteboard on 70 7th
grade students' Arabic language achievement, their leaning acquisition and
conservation, and their attitudes towards it. A quasi-experimental approach was
used for the study. The researcher divided the students into two groups,
experimental and control, and applied two tools an achievement test and an
attitude scale. The findings confirm that there were statistical differences
between the two groups. The result was in favour of the experimental group.
Based on the results, the researcher recommends that it is imperative to supply
interactive whiteboards in classrooms and train teachers to use them effectively.
In 2013 A research was performed by Alhumiadan to investigate the impact of
using interactive smartboards on the achievement and attitudes of mid- students
who study social studies conducted a study aimed to investigate the effect of
using interactive smartboards on the achievement and attitudes of middle-stage
school students undertaking a social studies curriculum. The sample was
divided into two groups, trial and control, and the results were in favour of the
experimental group, with the achievement in before and after test performance
being improved in the post-test. The findings from the attitude test show no
differences in either group, before and after the experiment.
Brand and Bester’s (2013) study investigated the effect of technology on
attention, motivation, concentration and achievement in a classroom context. A
sample of 45 students were selected from the 8th grade and divided into an
experimental group who studied lessons in geography, English, and
mathematics using technology and a control group who were taught in
traditional ways. The study reveals differences in favour of the experimental
group in terms of achievement and attention. A highly positive relationship was
found between motivation and concentration, and a moderate to high positive
connection between focus, concentration and motivation.
In 2013, Abu Hamadah conducted an experimental study aimed at revealing the
effect of using a smartboard in geography teaching on the creation of geographic
concepts and map skills among 9th graders in the Governorate of Gaza. The
research sample consisted of 66 pupils divided into two classes, the control
group taught by traditional methods and the experimental group taught using
the smartboard. The findings reveal differences between the groups pre- and
post-experiment in favour of teaching and developing geographic concepts
7
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
using the smartboard. In light of the study, the researcher recommends the
benefit of technological innovation, especially the smartboard, employing it in
educational situations and providing schools with smartboards in order to
stimulate students and raise their levels of active and positive interaction with
the educational content and classroom activities.
In 2008, Swan, Schenker and Kratcoski conducted a study to examine all
students in the 3rd through to the 8th grades, it revealed whether students’
achievements in English language, art and mathematics improve by using the
interactive whiteboard. The researchers compared the scores on state
achievement tests between students whose teachers used interactive
whiteboards for their teaching and those whose teachers did not. For the
students in the interactive whiteboard group, the results show a marginally
better performance and students in the 4th and 5th grade have the most
improvement.
Considering the interest and orientation of the Qatari MoE in integrating
technology into education in order to increase student achievement, it is
necessary to conduct a study into the impact of smartboards on the effectiveness
of teaching social studies and how it affects students' tendencies towards the
subject. The following primary and sub research questions are formulated in
response to the problems identified by the literature review. The primary
question is:
What is the effectiveness of using the interactive smartboard in teaching
social studies for preparatory stage students’ achievement in Qatar and
their tendencies towards the subject?
The first sub-question is:
What is the effectiveness of teaching the unit using the interactive
whiteboard in developing levels of remembering, understanding and
application of the unit, measured by the cognitive achievement in the
study sample?
The following hypotheses are tested to answer the main question:
1. There are no differences between the average scores of students in the
trial group and the control group in the pre-measurement of
achievement before the trial.
2. There are differences between the average scores of students of the trial
group and the control group in the post-measurement of achievement
in support of the trial group.
3. There are differences between the average scores of students in the trial
group and the control group before and after the trial in support of the
trial group.
8
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
The second sub-question is:
What is the effectiveness of teaching the unit using the interactive
smartboard in the development of the tendency towards the subject of
social studies of the study sample?
To answer the sub-question, the following hypotheses are tested:
1. There are no differences between the average scores of female students
of the trial group and the control group in the pre-measurement of
tendency towards the subject of social studies before the trial.
2. There are differences between the average scores of students in the trial
and control groups in the post-measurement of the tendency towards
the subject of social studies in support of the trial group.
3. There are differences between the average scores of students of the trial
and control groups before and after the trial measured by the tendency
toward the subject of social studies in support of the trial group.
3. Research Methods
3.1 Design and development of research data
The research adopts a descriptive approach to determining the proposed vision
for teaching the target units of the curriculum of social studies at the middle-
grade stage using the interactive board. It adopts a quasi-experimental approach
to the design and implementation of the experimental part of the study.
The researcher uses two research tools to generate the data. The first is the
standardized cognitive achievement test of the three levels of Bloom`s
taxonomy: remembering, understanding and application of knowledge of the
unit and its concepts. The second tool is another standardized measure of the
tendency towards social studies in the preparatory stage in three dimensions:
the value of social studies as a subject and its function in the lives of students;
enjoying studying social studies; and the social studies teacher and their
teaching methods. Both tools are applied to both groups before the experiment.
3.2 Building and codifying the achievement test
An achievement test is used to measure the levels of remembering,
understanding and the application of the knowledge contained in the unit
taught. A table of test specifications is constructed. The test consists of 20
multiple-choice questions. A statistical process is used to calculate the relative
weight or importance of the two tests. The researcher uses multiple-choice
questions because of their objectivity in the results, their ability to cover large
areas of the content, their ease of marking, their suitability for students at that
stage, and the weak effect of guessing and chance.
Some simple guidelines and test requirements are formulated to make the test
clear and valid. The test time is set at minutes, and the test paper is attached to a
reply sheet. The test is presented to arbitrators trained in the curriculum and
9
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
some middle stage teachers for their views. A pilot test is carried out on 20
students. The reliability is measured, and Table 1 shows the weights of unit
components.
Table 1: The weights of unit components
Lessons Level of achievement test questions Content
relative
weight
Total
questions
Remembering Understanding Applying
Weight Question
number
Weight Question
number
Weight Question
number
Lesson
1
30% 6 18% 4 12% 2 60% 12
Lesson
2
20% 4 12% 2 8% 2 40% 8
Total 50% 10 30% 6 20% 4 100% 20
3.3 Building a scale of tendency towards social studies
The researcher has reviewed many studies in the field before building the scale,
and of these studies the researchers selects Maghnam (2018), Rahim (2016),
Hassan (2016) and Emran (2011). Based on these studies, a scale is constructed
with the three dimensions given above (section 3.1). 10 phrases for each of these
3 aspects (30 in total) are presented, half of them positive and half negative. A
Likert three-point scale is used for the students to grade their reaction to each
expression (agree, not sure, not agree).
The scale is presented to individual arbitrators who specialize in the curriculum
and to middle-stage teachers for their views to check the veracity of the content.
A pilot test is undertaken with 20 students, to clarify the scaling, and how well
the students understood the instructions. The reliability was calculated, and
Table 2 shows the relative weights of the scale of the tendency toward the
subject of social studies.
Table 2: The relative weights of the scale of the tendency toward the subject of social
studies
Relative
weight
Number Scale phrases Dimensions of the tendency
towards social studies
Negative
phrases
Positive
phrases
33.3% 10 2,4,6,8,10 1,3,5,7,9 The value of social studies in
the lives of students
33.3% 10 12,14,16,18,20 11,13,15,17,19 Enjoyment of studying social
studies
33.3% 10 22,24,26,28,30 21,23,25,27,29 The social studies teacher and
teaching methods
100% 30 15 15 Total
3.4 Preparing the teaching plan and educational materials for the experiment
The 4th unit of the 7th year preparatory curriculum for social studies in the State
of Qatar's official curriculum is selected for study. It addresses the “natural and
human factors affecting the geographical distribution of the world population”.
It includes two lessons scheduled for study in 6 classes. To take advantage of all
10
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
the available data the planning learning situations using a smartboard are
selected, and the components of the study unit (cognitive domain, psychomotor
domain, affective domain) are analyzed for each lesson. The physical, mental,
emotional and social growth characteristics of the subject group are considered.
The students’ previous experience of the components of the unit, and the
availability and quality of the technological capabilities of the class are also
considered.
Two separate experiment plans are drafted. The first includes six sub-plans for
the experimental group in six classes using a smartboard. The second devotes
the same number of plans to teaching the unit through traditional blackboard
and paper methods. All the lesson plans for each class include a clear definition
of the learning outcomes, resources used, concepts involved, teaching strategies
implemented, learning activities, structural assessment tools, and how the
differentiation between students and enrichment activities for the class are to be
achieved.
the first plan integrates all the smartboard tools, focusing on the magic pens,
text, pictures, animated video, electronic games, zoom lens, diagrams, two-
dimensional and three-dimensional representative circuits, stereoscopic maps,
digital codes, internet links, mental maps and other miscellaneous tools.
After preparing all the educational material and developing six interactive
presentations using the smartboard, the Active Inspire was used as a
technological program used in Qatar schools,it was applied to develop the
worksheets printed for the activities involved in the experiment. Then a pilot
study is undertaken with one of the plans corresponding to the experiment in
order to take notes. This is presented to one of the specialist subject teachers for
their comments, and thus all the interactive presentations are developed and
made ready for use in the class.
Before starting the research experiment in the first semester of 2019, pre-
measurement was performed on the two groups. The achievement test and
tendency scale was applied by the class teacher to the two groups. After testing
the two groups statistically, the specific unit was taught to both groups.
Teaching the unit took three weeks, with a total of six classes per week, each
class being 45 minutes. After three weeks, the unit was complete, and the post-
measurement was done by applying the same achievement test and tendency
scale to the two groups.
3.5 Sample of the study
The research population is all 7th graders in a government middle school in
Qatar, a sample of 47 students from Maria Al-Kobtia elementary school for girls,
divided into two groups, the trial group (7th 1) consisting of 25 students from
the class. and the control group containing 22 students (7th 2). Both studied the
same (4th) unit with and without using a smartboard.
11
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
By reviewing the school records for the two groups, it was confirmed that there
was a convergence between the members of the two groups in academic
achievement, age, economic level and nationality.
3.6 Reliability and validity of the tendency scale and achievement test
To determine the reliability of the questionnaire and test, Guttman’s split-half
and Cronbach's alpha methods are used. Table 3 shows the reliability of the
questionnaire and test. To ensure tool validity, the tool was judged by a group
of specialist social studies teachers in schools and faculty members of
universities.
Table 3: Reliability of the tendency scale and achievement test
Case Number of items Cronbach's alpha Guttman’s Split-Half
Coefficient
Tendency scale 30 0.640 0.809
Achievement Test 20 0.680 0.701
Cronbach’s alpha
As shown in Table 3, the values of Cronbach's alpha for the questionnaire and
test are 0.640 and 0.680, respectively. These values are slightly below the
acceptable value of 0.70.
Guttman split-half coefficient
As shown in Table 3, the values of Guttman’s split-half coefficient for the
questionnaire and test are 0.809 and 0.701, respectively. These values are more
than the acceptable value of 0.70, which indicates that the both items have
relatively high internal consistency.
4. Statistical Analysis and Findings
SPSS (version 26) is used for the analysis of the data to test the study hypotheses.
Several advanced analytical techniques are used to study the differences and, for
the first and second hypotheses, independent sample T-test, paired sample T-
test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Mann-Whitney U-test. For the third
hypothesis, the generalized linear model (GLM) is used.
Table 4: Normality test result in various scenarios
Tests of normality (variable)
Group Survey Statistic P-value Normality
Control Before 0.933 0.14 Yes
Control After 0.921 0.08 Yes
Treatment Before 0.953 0.29 Yes
Treatment After 0.929 0.08 Yes
According to Table 4, in all conditions, the normality assumption is satisfied. So,
parametric and non-parametric tests are used in the following.
12
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
4.1 Analysis of the results of the achievement test
Three hypotheses were derived from the first study question. A comparison
between the trial and control groups in the measure of achievement test before
the trial is calculated to test the first hypothesis. Table 5 shows the results.
Table 5: Comparison between the trial and control groups for the measure of
achievement before the trial
Concept Control
group
N: 22
Trial group
N: 25
T-
value
Z-
value1
Note
Mean Sd Mean Sd
Remembering 4.95 1.76 4.40 2.06 0.98 0.54 1: from
Mann-
Whitney U-
test
**:significant
at 1%
Understanding 1.73 1.24 1.68 1.31 0.13 -0.15
Applying 1.32 0.89 1.32 0.99 -0.01 0.19
Achievement
as a whole
8.00 2.62 7.40 3.38 0.67 0.53
The data in table 5 indicates that is approximate values of the mean achievement
scores of the female students in the trial and control groups before the trial, in
term of remembering, understanding and applying.
The calculated values of T and Z indicate no differences, which means equal
performance of the two groups on the achievement test before the experiment.
To address the second question, the T and Z values are determined as shown in
Table 6, a comparison of the trial and control groups on the achievement test
after the trial.
Table 6: Comparison between the trial and control groups on the achievement test
after the trial
Concept Control
group N: 22
Trial group
N: 25
T-
value
Z-value1 Note
Mean Sd Mean Sd
Remembering 4.27 1.72 7.28 1.93 -5.61** -4.41** 1: from Mann-
Whitney U-test
**: significant at
1%
Understanding 2.10 1.27 3.64 1.35 -4.04** -3.69**
Applying 1.32 2.48 2.48 1.12 -3.73** -3.36**
Achievement
as a whole
7.69 2.55 13.40 3.86 -5.90** -4.78**
Data in table 6 indicates an average increasing in the mean values of the trial
group member scores after the trial compared to the control group members in
the complete knowledge of the unit, and each level.
The calculated T and Z values for comparison between the groups indicate that
there are differences between them in support of the trial group, which
improved significantly in the achievement test after studying using a
smartboard. To test the third hypothesis, a comparison before and after the trial
of the trial group in the achievement test is calculated. Table 7 shows the results.
13
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Table 7: Comparison before and after the trial of the trial group in the achievement
test
Concept Sample Pre-measure Post-
measure
T-
value
Z-
value1
Note
Mean Sd Mean Sd
Remembering 25 4.40 2.06 7.28 1.93 -
4.69**
-3.34** 1: from
Wilcoxon
signed
ranks test
**:
significant
at 1%
Understanding 1.68 1.31 3.64 1.35 -
5.20**
-4.23**
Applying 1.32 0.99 2.48 1.12 -
4.13**
-2.72**
Achievement
as a whole
7.400 3.379 13.400 3.862 -
5.66**
-3.55**
Table 7 indicates that an average increasing in the mean of the trial group
members’ scores after the trial compared to the control group in the areas of
overall knowledge of the unit and each aspect.
The calculated of T and Z values for comparison between the two groups
indicate differences in support of the trial group, which improved significantly
in the achievement test after studying using a smartboard.
4.2 The analysis of the results of the tendency scale
Three hypotheses are derived from the second question of the study.
Comparison is made between the trial and control groups in the measure of
tendency towards the subject before the experiment to test the first hypothesis.
Table 8 shows the results.
Table 8: Comparison between the trial and control groups in the measure of tendency
towards the subject before the experiment
Dimension of
tendency
towards the
subject of
social studies
Control
group
N: 22
Trial group
N: 25
T-
value
Z-
Value1
Note
Mean Sd Mean Sd
The value of
social studies
and its
implication in
the lives of
students
1.88 0.29 1.93 0.28 -0.61 -1.58 1: from Mann-
Whitney U-test
**: significant at
1%
No statistically
significant difference
Enjoyment of
social studies
1.90 0.29 1.98 0.46 -0.70 -0.75
The social
studies teacher
and teaching
methods
1.92 0.30 1.97 0.30 -0.54 -0.60
The scale as a
whole
1.90 0.21 1.96 0.26 -0.81 -0.83
14
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
This data in table 8 indicates that is a convergence of the mean values of the
students in the trial and control groups before the experiment in their responses
to the items on the scale for their tendency towards the subject of social studies
as a whole, and each of its three dimensions.
The calculated T and Z values for comparison indicate no differences, which
means an equal performance of the two groups in the tendency before the
experiment.
To test the second assumption, comparison between the trial and control groups
in the dimensions of the tendency towards the subject after the experiment are
calculated. Table 9 shows the results.
Table 9: Comparison between the trial and control groups in the dimensions of
tendency towards the subject after the experiment
Dimensions of
the tendency
towards the
subject
Control
group N: 22
Trial group
N: 25
T-
value
Z-
value1
Note
Mean Sd Mean Sd
The value of
social studies
and its
implication in
the lives of
students
1.89 0.22 2.50 0.32 -7.56** -5.06** 1: from Mann-
Whitney U-test
**: significant at
1%
There is a
statistically
significant
difference
Enjoyment of
studying social
studies
1.99 0.34 2.63 0.29 -6.90** -5.26**
The social
studies teacher
and teaching
methods
1.88 0.25 2.69 0.21 -
12.22**
-5.78**
The scale as a
whole
1.92 0.15 2.60 0.21 -
12.73**
-5.87**
These data in table 9 indicated to an average increasing in the mean values of the
trial group members' scores after the experiment in comparison with the control
group members, on the scale of tendency towards the subject of social studies,
and each of its three dimensions.
The calculated T and Z values for comparison between the two groups indicate
variances between them in support of the trial group, which significantly
improve their level of tendency towards social studies as a subject after studying
it using a smartboard.
For the third hypothesis, a comparison is made between the experimental group
before and after the experiment in the dimensions of tendency towards the
subject and the results are shown in Table 10.
15
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Table 10: Comparison before and after the experiment of the trial group in the
measurements of tendency towards the subject
Dimensions of
tendency
towards the
subject of social
studies
Sample Pre measure Post
measure
T-
value
Z-
value
1
Note
Mean Sd Mean Sd
The value of
social studies
and its
implications in
the lives of
students
25 1.93 0.28 2.50 0.32 -7.17** -
4.34**
1: from
Wilcoxon
signed ranks
test
**: significant
at 1%
There is a
statistically
significant
difference
Enjoyment of
studying social
studies
1.98 0.46 2.63 0.29 -7.15** -
4.18**
The social studies
teacher and
teaching
methods
1.97 0.30 2.69 0.21 -
10.30*
*
-
4.29**
The scale as a
whole
1.96 0.27 2.60 0.21 -
10.96*
*
-
4.38**
These data in table 10 indicated to an average increasing of the trial group
members' scores after the experiment in their tendency towards the subject of
social studies and each of its three dimensions.
The calculated T and Z values comparing the two measurements before and
after show variances between all factors in support of the trial group, which
significantly improved their tendency towards social studies as a subject after
studying it using a smartboard.
4.3 Testing the interaction effect on the tendency before and after
To show whether there is any statistically significant interaction between the
tendency before and after the experiment, the GLEM test is used. Table 11 shows
the results.
Table 11: The interaction effect on the tendency before and after
Source SS df MS F P-Value
Intercept 0.267 1 0.267 0.025 0.875
Before-After 34.392 1 34.392 3.195 0.077
Tendency 147.497 1 147.497 13.704 0.000
Interaction 45.268 1 45.268 4.206 0.043
Error 968.680 90 10.763
Total 9477 94
16
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
As shown in Table 11, the interaction effect before and after on the tendency is
statistically significant, which means that the tendency after the experiment
changed, compared to before.
4.4 Testing the interaction effect on the tendency between the control
and experimental group
To show whether there is any statistically significant effect between the control
and experimental groups or bias, the GLEM test is used. Table 12 shows the
results.
Table 12: The interaction effect on the tendency between the control and experimental
groups
Source SS df MS F P-Value
Intercept 3.405 1 3.405 0.317 0.575
Control-Treatment 64.887 1 64.887 6.044 0.016
Tendency 48.247 1 48.247 4.494 0.037
Interaction 69.242 1 69.242 6.450 0.013
Error 966.239 90 10.736
Total 9477 94
As shown in Table 12, the interaction effect on the tendency between the control
and experimental groups is statistically significant, in favour of the experimental
group.
5. Discussion
The results of the experiment reveal an increase in the achievement of the
students in the experimental group who studied using the interactive
smartboard, in remembering, understanding and the application of knowledge.
This outcome is consistent with the results Alhumaidan (2013), Al Hassan and
Al Badawi (2016), Abu Hamadah (2013), Davidovitch & Yavich (2017), Ahmad
and Aladle (2019) and Tunaboylu & Demir (2017).
The study result are explained by the fact that the interactive smartboard allows
the teaching of the unit information to the students in a typically interesting,
attractive and flexible way. A variety of media and tools are applied, such as
electronic games, images, 2D and 3D charts and multiple maps, using electronic
pens.
The smartboard allows the students to positively engage several senses with the
lesson plan, helping to simplify and explain the information provided,
emphasizing the interrelationships, and providing various applications and
examples.
The variety of interactive smartboard tools help in various activities,
individually and collectively, and the content is rich. These activities are suitable
for the various levels of female student during the study of the unit. The results
also show an increase in the tendency of the female students towards the subject
17
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
of social studies after using the smartboard which creates a stimulating and
exciting learning environment, which differs from the traditional learning style
and allows them to enjoy learning in the modern technological style preferred by
the current generation at this stage.
The multimedia presented using the smartboard contributes to satisfying the
student’s curiosity and exploring issues. It facilitates learning it in a functional
style related to the students’ daily lives, reducing the difficulty of social studies
compared to the subject taught in its traditional way.
In addition to differentiating the teaching strategies used in lessons with the
smartboard, the teacher who applied the experiment engaged the students
because of her previous training on smartboards. This may be a reason for the
increase in the students’ positive tendency towards the subject, the teacher of the
subject and the teaching methods. This is a clear result consistent with previous
results that verify the negative feelings and some of the difficulties and
disinterest students feel while studying social studies in the traditional way. This
outcome is consistent with the results of Gurbuzturk (2018), Oigara (2017),
Dahlan (2014) and Alhumiadan (2013).
6. Conclusion
In conclusion, this study provides evidence that using a smartboard increases
students' levels of achievement and their tendency toward social studies. The
students saw a positive trend in their learning capability by using a smartboard.
This investigation suggests that learning using technology is an urgent need at
present, and this technology must be incorporated into teaching because of its
effectiveness in increasing achievement.
The research has practical implications for Qatar’s learning system. Students are
able to develop their tendency, increase their achievement and skill, and build
their learning capability in social studies subjects. The overall analysis confirms
that, by using a smartboard, teachers can help students secure a positive
tendency and excellent achievement.
7. Recommendations:
1- The use of a smart board should be one of the standards for teaching social
studies in the State of Qatar
2- Provide training workshops for teachers on using the smart board effectively
3- The researcher should benefit from the results of this study by conducting
similar studies in different subjects and for different levels
4- Mainstreaming the use of a smart board in teaching social studies to
schools in the State of Qatar for its importance in increasing achievement
References
Abdelhamid, F. (2016). Smartboard (Interactive). Journal of E-Learning [online]. Retrieve
from: http://emag.mans.edu.eg/index.php?page=news&task=show&id=144
Abu Hamadah, S. (2013). The Effect of Employing Smartboard-in Teaching Geography-on
Developing Geographic Concepts and Using Maps Skill among Nine Graders in Gaza
18
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Governorate. Unpublished Masters dissertation. The University of Alazhar,
Ghaza.
Abu, M., & Karami, B. (2018). The effectiveness of using the PDEODE strategy for
teaching social studies in developing geographical concepts and geographical
thinking skills and the tendency towards geography among first intermediate
students. Journal of Educational Sciences - Imam Muhammad bin Saud University -
Saudi Arabia, 13, 411-477. https://doi.org/10.12816/0045584
Adel, M. A., & Abdelrahman, M. A. (2019). The effects of using an Electronic Interactive
Whiteboard in Developing students Attitude, Cognitive Motivation and
Academic achievement. Journal of Education and Practice 10(10), 124-129.
https://doi.org/10.12816/0045584
Al Hassan, E. I. K., & Al Badwi, M. M. (2016). The Effect of Using the Smartboard in the
Acquisition for the Pupils in the 8th Class of the Basic Education Stage at
Khartoum locality in the Lesson of Science in Our Life. Journal of the College of
Basic Education for Educational and Human Sciences, Babel University, 26.
Alhumaidan, I. A. (2013). The effect of using Smartboard on students’ achievement and
attitudes toward social studies curriculum. Journal of Education and Psychology,
41, 5-25.
Al-Majali, H. K., Al Abdallah, S. E., & Shamayleh, N. (2016). The effectiveness of using
smartboard for teaching social studies at public schools in Jordan. Global Science
Research Journal, 4(1), 227-233.
Bates, T. (2003). Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher Education: Foundations for
Success. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Becta, A. (2003). What research says about interactive whiteboards [online]. Retrieve from:
http://www.ttrb.ac.uk/ViewArticle2.aspx?ContentId=12434.
Bester, G., & Brand, L. (2013). The effect of technology on learner attention and
achievement in the classroom. South African Journal of Education, 33(2).
https://doi.org/10.12816/0045584
Chaaban, Y., & Ellili-Cherif, M. (2017). Technology integration in EFL classrooms: A
study of Qatari independent schools. Education and Information Technology 22,
2433–2454. https://doi.org/10.12816/0045584
Collins, A., & Halverson, R. (2009). Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The
Digital Revolution and Schooling in America. New York: Teachers College Press.
Cox, J. (2019). Technology in the Classroom: The Benefits of Smart Boards [online]. Available
at: https://www.teachhub.com/technology-classroom-benefits-smart-boards.
Dahlan, O. (2014). the effect of using the Interactive Whiteboard on the students' Arabic
language achievement and the leaning acquisition conservation for the 7th grade
and their attitudes towards it. Almanarah Journal, 20(20).
Davidovitch, N., & Yavich, R. (2017). The Effect of Smartboards on the Cognition and
Motivation of Students. Higher Education Studies Journal, 7(1), 60.
https://doi.org/10.12816/0045584
El-Masri, M., & Tarhini, A. (2017). Factors affecting the adoption of e-learning systems in
Qatar and USA: Extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of
Technology 2 (UTAUT2). Education Technology Research and Development, 65, 743–
763. https://doi.org/10.12816/0045584
Gurbuzturk, O. (2018). Investigation of Elementary Education Students’ Attitudes
towards the Use of Smartboards. International Electronic Journal of Elementary
Education, 11(1), 55-61. https://doi.org/10.26822/iejee.2018143961
Hassan, H. A. S. (2016). The effect of incorporating digital storytelling in the stages of the
learning cycle to develop some of the products of geography learning for
students with low vision in the elementary stage. Journal of the Educational
19
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Association for Social Studies: Ain Shams University - College of Education, 83, 119-
148.
Imran, M. S. M. (2014). The effectiveness of a suggested program based on some
activities to develop geographical thinking skills and a tendency towards the
social studies of first stage primary students. Journal of the Educational Association
for Social Studies: Ain Shams University - College of Education, 61, 149-165.
Kaya, M. T., & Yazıcı, H. (2018). Self-Efficacy of the Social Studies Teachers in Using the
Interactive Whiteboards. Review of International Geographical Education Online,
8(3), 601-612. https://doi.org/10.26822/iejee.2018143961
Qatar Ministry of Education and Higher Education (2019) [online]. Available at:
http://www.edu.gov.qa/Ar/SECInstitutes/EducationInstitute/CS/SocialScinc
e/Pages/default.aspx
Nusir, S., Alsmadi, I., Al-Kabi, M., & Sharadgah, F. (2012). Studying the Impact of Using
Multimedia Interactive Programs at Children Ability to Learn Basic Math Skills.
Acta Didactica Napocensia, 5(2),17-32. https://doi.org/10.2304/elea.2013.10.3.305
Oigara, J. (2017). Teaching and Learning with Smartboard Technology in the Elementary
Classroom. In P. Resta & S. Smith (Eds.) Proceedings of Society for Information
Technology & Teacher Education International Conference (pp. 896-899). Austin, TX:
Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education.
Rahim, A. A. O., Fikri, H. A. R., Marwa, H. I. T., & Doaa, M. M. D. (2016). The
effectiveness of using the Courts program in teaching geography to develop
contemplative thinking skills and a tendency toward material among middle
school students. Journal of Scientific Research in Education, 17(2), 45-66.
Rorty, A. (2005). Philosophers on Education: Historical Perspectives. London and New York:
Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203981610
Swan, K., Schenker, J., & Kratcoski, A. (2008). The Effects of the Use of Interactive
Whiteboards on Student Achievement. In J. Luca & E. Weippl (Eds.), Proceedings
of ED-MEDIA 2008 World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia &
Telecommunications (pp. 3290-3297). Vienna, Austria: Association for the
Advancement of Computing in Education. https://doi.org/10.4018/978-1-
61520-715-2.ch009
Tunaboylu, C., & Demir, E. (2017). The Effect of Teaching Supported by Interactive
Whiteboard on Students’ Mathematical Achievements in Lower Secondary
Education. Journal of Education and Learning, 6(1).
https://doi.org/10.18844/prosoc.v2i7.1988
Üstünel, E., & Aitkuzhinova-Arslan, A. (2014). The influence of smart board technology
on student engagement in and perception of classroom activities. European
Journal of Research on Social Studies, 1(1), 42-46.
https://doi.org/10.15526/ejrss.201416203
20
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research
Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 20-35, March 2020
https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.3.2
Effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction on
Primary School Students’ English Reading
Comprehension Achievement
Ibrahim Suleiman Ibrahim Magableh
USM, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysia
Amelia Abdullah
USM, Universiti Sains Malaysia
Malaysia
Abstract. This study explores the effectiveness of differentiated
instruction strategies on EFL students’ English reading comprehension
accomplishment on the fundamental level in Jordan. Four classes of
(n=118) students of the primary level from 4 different schools were
selected. Two levels of grade 4 students (n=59) and two levels of grade 5
(n=59) were divided into two control and two experimental groups. One
level of (n=30) students formed grade 5 experimental groups, and one
level of (n=29) formed the control groups. Moreover, one level of (n=30)
students of grade 4 formed the experimental group, and one level of
(n=29) formed the control group. The teachers followed differentiated
instruction strategies of flexible grouping, tiered instruction, and tiered
assignments in the areas of content, process, and product to teach the
experimental group. However, they followed the one-size-fits-all method
to teach the control group. Results indicated that employing
differentiated instruction was operational in improving EFL students’
reading comprehension attainment for grades four and five Jordanian
students. The experimental group statistically outperformed the control
group. The finding showed that differentiated education reduced
classroom diversity.
Keywords: differentiated instruction; reading comprehension; flexible
grouping; one-size-fits-all; content
1. Introduction
Reading comprehension is a significant skill, and the development of this ability
for EFL learners in EFL classes is significant because it influences students’
achievement at all students’ proficiency levels; it is essential to students’
knowledge achievement (Ismail & Al Allaq, 2019; Kent, 2005). However,
teachers face a problem when teaching to a group of heterogeneous learners in
21
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
the same classroom and want to address the diversity of individual learners
(Kotob, & Abadi, 2019). If teachers want to improve reading comprehension
achievement for all students, teachers should implement instruction in a way
that fulfills the individual needs of learners (Aliakbari & Haghighi, 2014;
Hawkins, Jones, & Santi, 2019).
How can teachers deal with all the levels and students’ diversity in the same
classroom when following one-size-fits-all process? Tomlinson and Imbeau
(2010) mentioned that the one-size-fits-all process should be vanished and
ended. Tomlinson (2014) explained that this traditional method does not fulfill
the academic needs of individual learners because it does not deal with
individuals rather than the whole class. Teachers should plan the lessons to
adjust them to learners instead of expecting to improve learners to the
experiences (Corley, 2005; Mavidou, & Kakana, 2019). Teachers should make
sure that all learners in the classroom are both similarly served as well as equally
valued. The one-size-fits-all process does not do that. However, differentiated
instruction does. Mulder (2014) defines differentiated instruction as “an approach
in which teachers modify and change their teaching to address the varied needs of
individual learners and small groups of students to maximize the learning opportunity
for each student in the classroom by using organized procedures” (p.10).
Heacox (2018) stated that distinguished instruction offers a variety of methods
that provides support and supervision when learners are just starting to practice
their instructional choices. Bondie, Dahnke, and Zusho (2019) explained that
differentiated instruction allows teachers to plan strategically to meet individual
needs where they are, and provide numerous techniques to understand, gain,
and employ learning, unlike the one-size-fits-all. In discriminated learning,
teachers need to modify teaching in the areas of content, procedure, product,
and learning environment depending on students’ readiness, interests, and
learning profiles (Said & Ehsan, 2019). The content is what students need to
learn, and to the significant concepts, skills, and principals. Teachers modify the
level of complexity using various educational procedures to deliver the content
to meet students’ diverse needs (Anstee, 2014). So, in this way, all learners grasp
the same conceptions, skills, and principles but in different ways.
The process is the methods students are learning and the procedures the
teachers are teaching (Tompkins, Campbell, Green, & Smith, 2014). It refers to the
ways the teachers prepare the content, and to the activities that help students to
gain the concepts, the principles, and the skills intend to learn. Flexible grouping
is the key to differentiate the process in which teachers arrange students by
ability or proficiency level, interests, readiness, or learning profiles (Tomlinson,
2015). The product shows evidence of learning that demonstrates what students
have learned. The outcome indicates whether the students have earned the
concepts, the principles, and the skills and whether they apply them to solve
problems. Various students can produce different outcomes based on their
proficiency level, development, and learning styles (Tomlinson & Imbeau, 2010).
Students should get choices to demonstrate their learning, from written reports,
oral presentations, drawing, group discussions, or play roles, and they can
choose to work alone or in groups if they wish. The learning environment is the
22
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
setting in which students are learning; it is the climate of the classroom. Teachers
can vary seating, vary lighting, change places, form learning stations, set class
rules, change furniture arrangement, as well as alter the procedures and the
processes (Tomlinson, 2017).
Readiness refers to the students’ level of knowledge, understanding, and the
skills of particular learning (Graham, Borup, Pulham, & Larsen, 2019; Tomlinson
& Imbeau, 2010). Prior to earning, life experiences, and students’ attitudes
toward schools influence readiness. So if readiness level varies, the complexity
of work through tiered activities must differ as well (Sebihi, 2016). Interests stem
from the topics that lead to curiosity and passion, which lead to devote students’
time and effort to learn. When benefits are employed, students will be more
engaged in learning. Finally, the learning profile is how learners learn the best.
Differentiated instruction takes into consideration preferences for learning
regarding intelligence preference, culture, and even gender. Teachers modify
teaching using learning profiles by providing tasks that offer choices to master
learning like videotapes, drawings, journals, presentations, role plays, project-
based learning, and oral explanations (Malacapay, 2019).
Reading comprehension in EFL classes is a challenging skill EFL learners face.
English foreign language learners encounter many difficulties in gaining the
reading comprehension skills easily (Kassem, 2020). Kassem explained that
reading comprehension skills can be difficult to master for EFL learners. The
problem statement stems from the fact that teachers in Jordan are applying the
one-size-fits-all method to deal with the reading comprehension texts (Magableh
& Abdullah, 2019). Siam and Al-Natour (2016) found that in the majority of
Jordanian public schools, Jordanian teachers employ the one-size-fits-all, and no
differentiation takes place in EFL classes. Al Harafsheh (2016) mentioned that
Jordanian teachers’ methods of teaching do not inspire students to read, which
eventually influences their reading comprehension performance. AlShoura
(2017) stated that the Ministry of Education in Jordan provides full classroom
inclusion to all students despite their proficiency level even to the particular
extreme of Special Education Need (SEN) cases. In this way, all students feel that
they are equally important and no separation to students regarding of
proficiency level to take place. There are advantages of mixed-ability classrooms
in Jordan. First, the SEN students feel that they are part of the community and
no different classification happened to them. Moreover, mixed-ability
classrooms save money and equipment (Siam and Al-Natour (2016). However,
Magableh and Abdullah (2019) talked about some disadvantages like although
students are in mixed-ability classrooms, they are being taught the same and no
differentiation takes place. With this full inclusion in Jordanian classrooms, the
one-size-fits-all method that deals with all students at the same time is no longer
an appropriate way to deal with such classes. Therefore, it becomes an urgent
need to use differentiated instruction to address this class diversity. Based on the
idea that the amendment in the guidance and preparation might help students’
English reading comprehension accomplishment and might correspond to
students’ needs, the researchers conducted this study to scrutinize the
effectiveness of distinguished education in enhancing EFL students’ English
reading comprehension achievement in Jordan.
23
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
2. Literature Review
Many studies and researches adopted differentiated instruction in language one
context, but minimal studies investigated the effect of differentiated instruction
in language two environments. Many studies investigated the talented, gifted,
the struggling students, or the disabled students as the primary subjects of
differentiated instruction. Still, very few took modified direction in mixed-ability
EFL classrooms as their main subject. Recently, various studies explored
differentiated instruction efficiency in different language skills like (Altin &
Savaculoglu, 2018; Davidsen, 2018; Förster, Kawohl & Souvignier, 2018;
Jefferson, Grant & Sander, 2017; Kotob and Abadi 2019; Magableh & Abdullah,
2019; Mavidou & Kakana, 2019; Nino Santisteban, 2014; Pastein, 2017;
Shaaunessy-Dedrick, Evan, Fevron, & Lindo, 2015; Stavrou & Koutselini, 2016;
and Yousefi & Bouyadi, 2016). Niño Santisteban (2014) investigated the effect of
differentiated learning on literacy with struggling learners. The sample consisted
of 15 Spanish speaking children taking English as a foreign language. Most of
the students faced interrupted schoolings in Columbia because of many social
factors. Researchers used differentiation in each classroom in both English and
Spanish. The researcher used qualitative and quantitative measurements to
reveal the results of the study. She used three tools of the research, survey,
interview, and observation. The results showed that there was minimal effect of
differentiation on writing and vocabulary. However, there was a meaningful
influence on reading comprehension in inference, comparison, and contrast.
Shaunessy-Dedrick, Evan, Ferron, and Lindo (2015) inspected the effects of a
modified reading approach on the 4th grade students’ English reading
comprehension and their views toward reading. Eight primary schools in one
district were randomly allocated to the investigation, which followed the
Schoolwide Enrichment Model–Reading [SEM-R] and the borough curriculum.
The control group studied the district reading curriculum only. Experimental
group teachers applied SEM-R as supplemental material to the city curriculum
for one school year, whereas comparison group teachers used the borough
curriculum. Grounded on the reading comprehension post-tests scores (n=358)
and the reading survey (n= 429), no statistically meaningful differences in
students’ attitudes toward reading found. Still, modified curriculum students of
the treatment group had significantly higher mean scores on the English reading
comprehension post-test in comparison to the comparison group students.
Yousefi and Bonyadi (2016) investigated the result of modified learning on
reading comprehension achievement on Iranian language two learners. The
experimental group consisted of 30 respondents and the same number for the
control group following a random sample distribution to gain the uniformity of
the groups. Over twelve sessions, the experimental group developed modified
learning strategies, while the control group studied traditionally. The
researchers followed the pre-test/post-test reading comprehension as the key
instrument for data collection. The findings indicated that the experimental
groups’ mean scores outperformed the control groups mean scores. The results
showed that differentiated instruction enriched students’ reading
comprehension achievement.
24
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Jefferson, Grant, and Sander (2017), in a quasi-experimental design, searched the
influence of separated instruction and intervention on reading fluency and
reading comprehension. The sample involved 83 male and female grade 3
students divided into the two groups of the study. The researchers used a pre-
test/post-test methodology to collect data: over five months, the experimental
group received differentiated reading comprehension materials. However, the
control group received the core curriculum only. The findings showed that the
learners who trained using separated materials through modified teaching
strategies showed higher mean scores compared to those in the control group.
Altin and Saracaloğlu (2018) explored the effect of differentiated instruction
enhanced with cultural, educational materials on English reading
comprehension, vocabulary, and students’ attitudes toward English lessons.
Two levels of grade 7 students were randomly assigned to the two groups of the
study. The researchers followed the quasi-experimental design in which a
pre/post English reading comprehension achievement test was used to obtain
the results of the investigation. Over six weeks, treatment teachers trained the
experimental group on reading comprehension texts improved with educational
materials following differentiated learning techniques. However, the
comparison group studied the standard reading comprehension instruction for
the same period. The results showed that differentiated instruction positively
contributed to students’ reading comprehension achievement and their views
toward English learning.
Davidsen (2018) investigated the results of distinguished teaching on level 3
students’ English reading comprehension. The study aimed to compare the
differentiated instruction strategies to traditional teaching on grade three
English reading comprehension achievement. The sample consisted of 128 3rd-
graders. The experimental group was 64 students educated with modified
instruction, while the comparison group, which was 64 students, received a
traditional education. This quasi-experimental study lasted a whole year to
reveal the results, which showed that separated learning significantly improved
the third-grade students’ reading comprehension achievement.
Forster, Kawohl, and Souvignier (2018) investigated the effect of long term
differentiated teaching on reading comprehension and on reading fluency.
Twenty-eight third-grade students in Germany participated in both groups of
study. The treatment group’s instruction was modified on both reading
comprehension and fluency, while the control group’s teaching was not
distinguished. The results showed that the treatment group considerably
improved in comparison with the traditional group in terms of reading
comprehension and reading fluency. The findings also showed that the below-
average students got the maximum benefit.
Kotob and Abadi (2019) examined the effect of modified instruction of the
below-average and the above-average learners on academic attainment in a
mixed-ability classroom. The sample involved 20 students, ten below-average,
and ten above-average. The researchers applied a pre/post-test to collect data
quantitatively. They implemented differentiated education strategies on both
groups as an intervention. The findings showed that the average score of the
25
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
whole class was improved. Moreover, the results discovered a noticeable
improvement in the below-average scores, while the mean score for the above-
average remains somehow relatively the same. Differentiated instruction, as
shown from the findings, is a strategy with a significant influence on below-
average students.
Magableh and Abdullah (2019) searched the effectiveness of differentiated
instruction on reading comprehension through a mixed-method treatment in
which the qualitative and quantitative methods were used to reveal the results
of the study. The researchers used a pre/post English reading comprehension
test and a semi-structured interview as the instruments of the research. The
sample consisted of 55 grade 7 Jordanian students from two different levels in
two different randomly selected schools. Twenty-eight students formed the
experimental group, trained on reading comprehension through differentiated
instruction, and 27 students formed the control group, studied standard reading
comprehension texts using the one-size-fits-all method. This quasi-experimental
study used differentiated education strategies of flexible grouping, categorized
assignments, and tiered learning in the fields of content, methodology, and
outcome over 12 weeks of treatment. The results revealed that modified teaching
was robust in increasing reading comprehension and reducing classroom
diversity.
Mavidou and Kakana (2019) examined the efficiency of differentiated instruction
on children’s reading achievement. This quasi-experimental study used pre-
test/post-test instruments to explore the results of differentiated instruction of
three interventions, including curriculum adjustment and differentiated content.
One hundred fifty-four kindergarten students participated in both groups. The
investigational group consisted of 80 students from different schools to receive
differentiated learning. The control group received conventional education and
consisted of 74 students. The instruction of the experimental group was
separated based on learners’ readiness, interests and learning preferences. The
content was also distinguished and tailored to children’s proficiency level
supported with tiered materials to suit the three ability levels of students, the
above-average, the average, and the below-average. In contrast, instruction was
not characterized for the control group. The process was differentiated by
flexible grouping and, the product was distinguished by interests, readiness, and
both together. The research findings showed a momentous positive difference
between the two groups favoring the experimental group, which suggests that
differentiated instruction developed students’ achievements. Moreover,
differentiation by interest proved to have the highest mean score among all
other kinds of differentiated strategies.
Following the findings of the studies and the literature of differentiated
instruction, the researchers hope that the results of the current study add valid
and reliable data to the existing knowledge by providing information about the
effectiveness of differentiated instruction on primary classes in Jordan
concerning reading comprehension. The English language teachers in Jordan
who are teaching in public schools can deal with students with different
background knowledge, needs, interests, learning styles, and even struggling
26
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
learners in one single classroom following differentiated learning. Jordanian
classes contain above-average, average, below-average, over-achieved, and
under-achieved learners. Yet whatever the teachers do to deliver instruction, the
teachers can only fulfill the needs of some learners, but not all of them. Teachers
need to be responsive to students’ diverse academic needs (Hawkins, Jones, &
Santi, 2019). To deal with this diversity, the researchers decided to employ
differentiated instruction strategies of flexible grouping, tiered instruction, and
categorized assignments in the content, process, and product to investigate the
effectiveness of differentiated instruction on reading comprehension in the
Jordanian context. To pursue the aim of the research, the treatment will answer
the following question:
Is there a difference in English reading comprehension achievement between
the students exposed to differentiated instruction and those exposed to the
one-size-fits-all method?
The researchers hypothesize the null hypothesis, which indicated that there is no
statistically significant difference at (α<0.05) between the students exposed to
differentiated instruction and those exposed to the one-size-fits-all method in
English reading comprehension achievement.
3. Methods
3.1 Design
The researchers followed the quasi-experimental quantitative model in which
the investigators use the pre-test/post-test two-group design to collect the data
of the research. A pre-test was conducted at the inauguration of the treatment
for both groups. After ten weeks of instruction, the post-test was conducted. The
results were analyzed quantitatively. The design is as follows (Creswell, 2012):
RX O1 X1 O2
RC O3 X2 O4
RX refers to the random experimental group, RC for the random control group,
O1 is the reading comprehension pre-test for the experimental group, O2 is the
experimental group post-test, O3 the reading comprehension pre-test for the
control group, and O4 is the control group post-test. The X1 is the experiment
(differentiated instruction strategies), and X2 is the one-size-fits-all teaching for
the control group.
3.2 Participants
The sample of the study consisted of 118 participants. All participants were male
students from the elementary levels of grade 4 (n=59) and grade 5 (N=59). Public
schools in Jordan depend on separate education, which means that co-education
does not exist in public schools. We have girls’ schools and schools for boys. This
is the reason why the researcher used male sample only. So, it would be easier
for the researcher to conduct the research on male schools. Two classes of grade
4 and 2 types of grade 5, from 4 different schools in Irbid, Jordan, participated in
27
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
the study. The investigators used the simple random sampling method to choose
the four schools and the four levels of grades 4 and 5. The four schools did not
apply differentiated instruction before the experiment in a systematic way, and
the whole class instruction is the dominant way of teaching. The participants
were randomly distributed into the two groups of study, the experimental
group, which involved the two levels of grades 4 and 5 (N=60) students and
were prepared using differentiated instruction strategies. The control group
(N=58) students were distributed into two levels of grades 4 and 5 and received
reading comprehension traditionally. Table 1 summarizes the participants’
distribution in the study groups:
Table 1: The dissemination of participants in the study
group Grade 4 Grade 5 Total
Experimental Group 30 30 60
Control group 29 29 58
Total 59 59 118
Furthermore, four competent teachers participated in the study from 4 different
schools. Two experimental group teachers with 14 and 15 years teaching
experience holding Bachelor degrees taught the treatment students. Besides, two
teachers with 15 and 16 years of experience with an MA and a B.A degree
instructed the control group. The experimental group teachers were asked to use
differentiated instruction strategies. They were trained in six workshops before
the beginning of the experiment to acquaint them with the research strategies
and another five sessions during the investigation. However, the control group
teachers were informed to use the traditional method only.
3.3 Instrument
Two pre-tests/ post-tests were used as the main instruments of the current
research. The treatment teachers administered the reading comprehension pre-
test for the two groups at the start of the study. A reading comprehension pre-
test for class 4, and another pre-test for grade 5 was administered at the onset of
the research. The central goal of the pre-tests is to determine the level of the
students so that flexible grouping, tiered instruction, and tiered assignments are
employed. However, the post-test aims to investigate the effect of the treatment
on the experimental and the control groups. The reading comprehension tests
consisted of two familiar passages for each grade level with 25 multiple-choice
items with 2 points for each item. Students are acquainted with such types of
texts because teachers depend on similar tests in regular classes. The test is
designed like this so that students are consistent with what they are used to. The
assay is out of 50, and the time for completing it is 45 minutes. Before
administering the tests, the researchers ensure their validity. Both assays for
grades 4 and 5 were given to a board of two EFL instructors in Yarmouk
University, two English supervisors in Irbid district of education, and four
English teachers who are teaching grades 4 and 5. The board was kindly asked
to express opinions on the content of the tests, complexity, timing, grammar, and
questions’ relatedness to content. The researchers followed the panels’
recommendations and made the amendments accordingly.
28
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
To ensure reliability, the researchers followed the test/retest method. The test
was steered to a whole part of class 4 consisted of 26 students from the
community but outside the sample and class 5 test was driven to a whole part of
grade 5 included 25 students from the same city but outside the study sample.
The duration between the test retest was two weeks. The correlation coefficient
was found to be 0.90 for grade 4 and 0.86 for grade 5. The correlation coefficient
lies between -1 and 1 and is considered to be acceptable if it is 0.6 and above
(Pallant, 2005). The researchers found the correlation coefficient for the two
times of the test robust and adequate to conduct this research since both are
above 0.8.
3.4 Materials
The main course books were Action Pack 4 for grade 4 and Action Pack 5 for
grade 5. Action Pack is a series of texts taught in the Ministry of Education in
Jordan from grade 1 to 10. Each material of grade 4 and 5 involves a text book,
work book, teacher’s guide as well as an audio for listening. The experimental
groups were supported with supplementary materials, including short stories,
supplemental reading comprehension materials, and electronic sources.
3.5 Procedures
The treatment was conducted over ten weeks from the beginning of October till
the end of December 2019. It was carried out in two sessions a week, with a total
of 20 periods excluding the pre-test/post-test sessions for each class. Firstly, the
researcher obtained the consent of the Ministry of Education and Irbid District to
conduct this quasi-experimental study. After that, the researcher trained the
experimental group teachers to familiarize them with the strategies of
differentiated instruction and how to implement the needed procedures. To
indicate homogeneity between the two groups at the beginning of the study, a
pre-test for grade 4 was held, and the independent sample t-test was calculated.
The pre-test showed uniformity of the two groups. The students of class 5 also
received the pre-test, and the t-test was calculated and found that the two levels
of grade five are equivalent at the beginning of the study.
Using the data from the pre-test, the teachers formed data about experimental
group students. Using the data, the teachers of the experimental groups
provided instruction of differentiated learning of homogeneous grouping,
leveled coaching, and various tasks in the areas of content, methodology, and
outcome. However, the teachers of the control groups delivered instruction
based on the one-size-fits-all method using the content of Action Pack 4 and 5
textbooks only. Students of the experimental groups were arranged into three
ability groups to receive instruction based on their proficiency level. Tiered
activities and tiered assignments, as well as texts with different complexities,
were prepared for the various groups of the treatment group students.
The comparison group, on the other hand, received instruction without
differentiation in the content, process, or product. They were taught following
the one-size-fits-all method where the teacher stands in the front and deliver
instruction to all students without separating teaching. To differentiate the
29
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
content for the experimental group, the teachers and the researchers modified
the reading comprehension texts from the textbook to satisfy the three levels of
students. They provide different leveled-reading comprehension texts to suit
them. In the process, flexible grouping was used. Gathering by readiness or
homogeneous grouping was followed to satisfy the three levels of students. In
the product, several product choices like written tasks, oral tasks, drawings, and
posters were organized to show students’ learning. However, the control group
students were given the same texts of the reading comprehension and the same
questions to all students. The researchers administered the post-tests for all the
groups at the end of the study to determine the effectiveness of differentiated
instruction on the primary level. The independent sample t-test, standard
deviation, mean scores, and Cohen’s d effect size were employed to find the
results and interpret the findings.
3.6 Data Analysis
The upshots of the post-tests were analyzed using a t-test, standard deviation,
mean scores, and Cohen’s d effect size. The results of grade four students of the
post-test were associated to their results in the pre-test. Besides, the findings of
grade 5 students of the post-test were also compared to their findings of the pre-
test using the independent sample of t-test, effect size, mean scores, and
standard deviations.
4. Findings
Tables 2, 3, 4, and 5 present and compare the mean, the standard deviation, t-
test, and the effect size of the students’ achieved scores in the exams of groups.
Table 2 explains the results of the pre-test. Table 3 compares the post-test results.
Table 4 compares the results of grade 4 of both tests, the pre-test and the post-
test, and Table 5 compares the effects of both groups of grade 5 on both tests.
Table 2: T-test results of the experimental and control groups on the pre-test
Test Level Group N Mean Std.
Deviation
t Sig.
Pre-
test
Grade
4
control 29 18.4 7.25
0.41353
0.680
experimental 30 18.82 7.59
Grade
5
control 29 18.20 7.53 0.545 0.724
experimental 30 18.07 7.20
Table 3: T-test results of the experimental and control groups on the post-test
Test Level Group N Mean Std.
Deviatio
n
t Sig. Effect-
size
Cohen'
s d
post-
test
Grade
4
control 29 18.67 7.09
8.65 .0001*
2.23
experimenta
l
30 33.13 5.79
Grade
5
control 29 18.53 7.02
10.83 .0001*
2.79
experimenta
l
30 34.87 5.24
30
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
Table 4: T-test and effect-size results for grade 4 students on the pre and
post-test for each group
Table 5: T-test and effect-size results for grade 5 students on the Pre and
Post-test for each group
Grade 5 Test DF Mean ST.
Deviation
t Sig. Effect-size
Cohen's d
Control pre
28
18.20 7.53
0.285 .77618 0.089
post 18.53 7.02
Experimental pre 29 18.07 7.20
10.41 .0001* 2.666
post 34.87 5.24
5. Discussion
Two classes of grade 4 and two classes of grade 5 were selected to examine the
effectiveness of the strategies of differentiated learning on English reading
comprehension attainment at primary level in Jordan. Gender did not affect the
results of the study since all respondents are male students. As indicated in
Table 2, the average score of the control group in level 4 was 18.4 on the pre-test
and was 18.82 for the experimental group. The descriptive statistic independent
sample, t-test, was calculated to show whether the difference is statistically
significant. The t-test was 0.41 and p=0.680, which is above the significant level
P< 0.05. So, the alteration between the two groups is insignificant at P<0.05,
which indicates that both the research groups of grade four are homogeneous at
the beginning of the treatment. For level five, the mean score of the control
group was 18.20 and 18.07 for the experimental group. The researcher used the
independent sample t-test to show if the dissimilarity in the two mean scores is
significant. The t-test value was 0.545, and the significance was p=0.724. So,
P>0.05, indicates that the difference is insignificance, and both groups of level
five are also homogeneous at the onset of the treatment.
After implementing the treatment, the post-tests were held to show the
difference in reading comprehension accomplishment. As indicated in Table 3,
the mean score of the control group of grade 4, who received instruction on the
one-size-fits-all method, was 18.67. In contrast, the mean scores of the treatment
group, which followed differentiated education strategies, were 33.13. The mean
scores show that the treatment group outperformed those of the comparison
group. The independent sample t-test was measured to distinguish if the
difference is meaningful. T-test is the most suitable statistical analysis for the
two homogeneous groups as in this study. T-value was 8.65 (sig. = 0.0001)
indicates that the difference is statistically noteworthy. Therefore, the null
Grade 4 Test DF Mean ST.
Deviation
t Sig. Effect-size
Cohen's d
Control pre 28 18.4 7.25 0.144
.8859 0.037
post 18.67 7.09
Experimental pre 29 18.82 7.20
8.69 .0001* 2.18
post 33.13 5.79
31
©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved.
hypothesis is rejected, and the alternative hypothesis is adopted because of the
P<0.05 level of significance. So, it is safe to say that using differentiated
instruction strategies was considered useful in developing level four reading
comprehension achievements. Moreover, the post-test mean score for level five’s
control group was 18.53 and 34.87 for the experimental group. Level five
experimental group mean score outweighed the control group’s mean scores.
The t-test value was 10.83 and P= 0.0001, which is less than the level of
significance P<0.05, indicating that the variance in the mean scores was
statistically noteworthy. The null hypothesis is rejected, and the difference
between the two groups is related to using differentiated instruction.
Differentiated instruction also helped to develop grade 5 reading
comprehension achievements.
To compare the results of each level, as shown in Table 4, the level 4 control
group gained no statistically significant variance between the pre and post-test.
In other words, the traditional method, which was the one-size-fits-all, did not
affect students’ English reading comprehension achievement. The mean score
for the pre-test was 18.4 and was 18.67 in the post-test. The variance between the
two tests was statistically insignificant; the t-value was 0.144, and the P-value
was 0.8859, P>0.05, which is bigger than the level of significance P<0.05.
Compared to the treatment group, the pre-test mean score was 18.82 and rose to
33.13 on the post-test. The difference is statistically significant at P<0.05. The t-
value was found to be 8.69 at sig=0.0001, so P<0.05. Therefore, differentiated
instruction affected grade 4 students’ reading comprehension achievement
positively. For grade 5, as shown in Table 5, the control group gained no
progress between the pre-test and post-tests. The pre-test’s mean score was 18.20
and became 18.53 on the post-test. The variance is insignificant at P<0.05. The
traditional method did not help students’ English reading comprehension
achievement improved significantly. However, the experimental group
prepared following differentiated learning strategies was utterly different. The
pre-test mean score was 18.07 and rose to reach 34.87 on the post-test. The
difference is statistically considerable at P<0.05. The t-value was 10.41, and P
was 0.0001, which is below P<0.05. Therefore, differentiated instruction
effectively improved level five reading comprehension achievement.
A remarkable notice is indicated from the findings of the results of grades 4 and
5 experimental groups related to standard deviation. As presented in Table 4,
the standard deviation of the grade 4 experimental group was 7.20 before the
treatment, and reduced to 5.79 after the experiment which indicates that
modifying education did not only improve reading comprehension achievement
for level 4 but also reduced students’ diversity and changed the mixed-ability
classroom to be more homogeneous. However, the standard deviation for the
control group was 7.25 and became 7.09. Nearly no change happened to reduce
classroom diversity in the control group, which was taught traditionally.
Moreover, level five students’ experimental group standard deviation, as shown
in Table 5, was 7.20 and reduced to 5.24 after the experiment. Like level 4,
modified learning helped reduce classroom diversity and turned it to be more
homogeneous for level 5. However, the level five control group’s standard
deviation nearly stayed relatively unchanged; it was 7.53 and became 7.02,
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020

Recomendados

IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 5 May 2022 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 5 May 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 5 May 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 5 May 2022ijlterorg
16 views498 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 5 May 2020ijlterorg
16 views455 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 4 April 2020ijlterorg
11 views419 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 2 February 2020 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 2 February 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 2 February 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 2 February 2020ijlterorg
4 views324 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 8 August 2020 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 8 August 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 8 August 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 8 August 2020ijlterorg
7 views480 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 8 August 2022 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 8 August 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 8 August 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 8 August 2022ijlterorg
11 views452 Folien

Más contenido relacionado

Similar a IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020

IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 5 May 2023 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 5 May 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 5 May 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 5 May 2023ijlterorg
4 views674 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 3 March 2023 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 3 March 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 3 March 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 3 March 2023ijlterorg
4 views566 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020ijlterorg
6 views408 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 2 February 2023 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 2 February 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 2 February 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 2 February 2023ijlterorg
6 views545 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020ijlterorg
5 views365 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022ijlterorg
14 views517 Folien

Similar a IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020(20)

IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 5 May 2023 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 5 May 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 5 May 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 5 May 2023
ijlterorg4 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 3 March 2023 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 3 March 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 3 March 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 3 March 2023
ijlterorg4 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 9 September 2020
ijlterorg6 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 2 February 2023 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 2 February 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 2 February 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 2 February 2023
ijlterorg6 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 7 July 2020
ijlterorg5 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 9 September 2022
ijlterorg14 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 1 January 2023 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 1 January 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 1 January 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 1 January 2023
ijlterorg21 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 7 July 2022 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 7 July 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 7 July 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 7 July 2022
ijlterorg6 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 2 February 2021 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 2 February 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 2 February 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 2 February 2021
ijlterorg6 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 3 March 2022 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 3 March 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 3 March 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 3 March 2022
ijlterorg65 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 7 July 2021 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 7 July 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 7 July 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 7 July 2021
ijlterorg4 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 1 January 2022 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 1 January 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 1 January 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 1 January 2022
ijlterorg8 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 6 June 2022 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 6 June 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 6 June 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 6 June 2022
ijlterorg11 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 10 October 2020 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 10 October 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 10 October 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 10 October 2020
ijlterorg8 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 12 December 2020 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 12 December 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 12 December 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 12 December 2020
ijlterorg9 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 11 November 2021 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 11 November 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 11 November 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 11 November 2021
ijlterorg7 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 1 January 2021 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 1 January 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 1 January 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 1 January 2021
ijlterorg4 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
IJLTER.ORG Vol 22 No 4 April 2023
ijlterorg6 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 11 November 2022 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 11 November 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 11 November 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 11 November 2022
ijlterorg17 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 2 February 2022 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 2 February 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 2 February 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 2 February 2022
ijlterorg4 views

Más de ijlterorg

IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022ijlterorg
11 views299 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022ijlterorg
21 views463 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020ijlterorg
8 views302 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020ijlterorg
3 views414 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 1 January 2020 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 1 January 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 1 January 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 1 January 2020ijlterorg
5 views237 Folien
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 12 December 2021 von
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 12 December 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 12 December 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 12 December 2021ijlterorg
6 views300 Folien

Más de ijlterorg(7)

IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 12 December 2022
ijlterorg11 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022
IJLTER.ORG Vol 21 No 10 October 2022
ijlterorg21 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 11 November 2020
ijlterorg8 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 6 June 2020
ijlterorg3 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 1 January 2020 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 1 January 2020IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 1 January 2020
IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 1 January 2020
ijlterorg5 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 12 December 2021 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 12 December 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 12 December 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 12 December 2021
ijlterorg6 views
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 10 October 2021 von ijlterorg
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 10 October 2021IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 10 October 2021
IJLTER.ORG Vol 20 No 10 October 2021
ijlterorg11 views

Último

The Accursed House by Émile Gaboriau von
The Accursed House  by Émile GaboriauThe Accursed House  by Émile Gaboriau
The Accursed House by Émile GaboriauDivyaSheta
223 views15 Folien
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB... von
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
88 views113 Folien
Java Simplified: Understanding Programming Basics von
Java Simplified: Understanding Programming BasicsJava Simplified: Understanding Programming Basics
Java Simplified: Understanding Programming BasicsAkshaj Vadakkath Joshy
322 views155 Folien
Collective Bargaining and Understanding a Teacher Contract(16793704.1).pptx von
Collective Bargaining and Understanding a Teacher Contract(16793704.1).pptxCollective Bargaining and Understanding a Teacher Contract(16793704.1).pptx
Collective Bargaining and Understanding a Teacher Contract(16793704.1).pptxCenter for Integrated Training & Education
95 views57 Folien
Psychology KS4 von
Psychology KS4Psychology KS4
Psychology KS4WestHatch
98 views4 Folien
Ch. 7 Political Participation and Elections.pptx von
Ch. 7 Political Participation and Elections.pptxCh. 7 Political Participation and Elections.pptx
Ch. 7 Political Participation and Elections.pptxRommel Regala
111 views11 Folien

Último(20)

The Accursed House by Émile Gaboriau von DivyaSheta
The Accursed House  by Émile GaboriauThe Accursed House  by Émile Gaboriau
The Accursed House by Émile Gaboriau
DivyaSheta223 views
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB... von Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
Psychology KS4 von WestHatch
Psychology KS4Psychology KS4
Psychology KS4
WestHatch98 views
Ch. 7 Political Participation and Elections.pptx von Rommel Regala
Ch. 7 Political Participation and Elections.pptxCh. 7 Political Participation and Elections.pptx
Ch. 7 Political Participation and Elections.pptx
Rommel Regala111 views
AUDIENCE - BANDURA.pptx von iammrhaywood
AUDIENCE - BANDURA.pptxAUDIENCE - BANDURA.pptx
AUDIENCE - BANDURA.pptx
iammrhaywood117 views
Ch. 8 Political Party and Party System.pptx von Rommel Regala
Ch. 8 Political Party and Party System.pptxCh. 8 Political Party and Party System.pptx
Ch. 8 Political Party and Party System.pptx
Rommel Regala54 views
Psychology KS5 von WestHatch
Psychology KS5Psychology KS5
Psychology KS5
WestHatch119 views
How to empty an One2many field in Odoo von Celine George
How to empty an One2many field in OdooHow to empty an One2many field in Odoo
How to empty an One2many field in Odoo
Celine George87 views
EIT-Digital_Spohrer_AI_Intro 20231128 v1.pptx von ISSIP
EIT-Digital_Spohrer_AI_Intro 20231128 v1.pptxEIT-Digital_Spohrer_AI_Intro 20231128 v1.pptx
EIT-Digital_Spohrer_AI_Intro 20231128 v1.pptx
ISSIP386 views
Monthly Information Session for MV Asterix (November) von Esquimalt MFRC
Monthly Information Session for MV Asterix (November)Monthly Information Session for MV Asterix (November)
Monthly Information Session for MV Asterix (November)
Esquimalt MFRC72 views
Class 9 lesson plans von TARIQ KHAN
Class 9 lesson plansClass 9 lesson plans
Class 9 lesson plans
TARIQ KHAN51 views
When Sex Gets Complicated: Porn, Affairs, & Cybersex von Marlene Maheu
When Sex Gets Complicated: Porn, Affairs, & CybersexWhen Sex Gets Complicated: Porn, Affairs, & Cybersex
When Sex Gets Complicated: Porn, Affairs, & Cybersex
Marlene Maheu85 views
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Unit IVMiscellaneous compounds Expectorant... von Ms. Pooja Bhandare
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Unit IVMiscellaneous compounds Expectorant...Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Unit IVMiscellaneous compounds Expectorant...
Pharmaceutical Inorganic Chemistry Unit IVMiscellaneous compounds Expectorant...
Ms. Pooja Bhandare133 views
The basics - information, data, technology and systems.pdf von JonathanCovena1
The basics - information, data, technology and systems.pdfThe basics - information, data, technology and systems.pdf
The basics - information, data, technology and systems.pdf
JonathanCovena1146 views

IJLTER.ORG Vol 19 No 3 March 2020

  • 1. International Journal of Learning, Teaching And Educational Research p-ISSN: 1694-2493 e-ISSN: 1694-2116 IJLTER.ORG Vol.19 No.3
  • 2. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 19, No. 3 (March 2020) Print version: 1694-2493 Online version: 1694-2116 IJLTER International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research (IJLTER) Vol. 19, No. 3 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are reserved by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically those of translation, reprinting, re-use of illustrations, broadcasting, reproduction by photocopying machines or similar means, and storage in data banks. Society for Research and Knowledge Management
  • 3. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal which has been established for the dissemination of state-of-the-art knowledge in the fields of learning, teaching and educational research. Aims and Objectives The main objective of this journal is to provide a platform for educators, teachers, trainers, academicians, scientists and researchers from over the world to present the results of their research activities in the following fields: innovative methodologies in learning, teaching and assessment; multimedia in digital learning; e-learning; m-learning; e-education; knowledge management; infrastructure support for online learning; virtual learning environments; open education; ICT and education; digital classrooms; blended learning; social networks and education; e- tutoring: learning management systems; educational portals, classroom management issues, educational case studies, etc. Indexing and Abstracting The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is indexed in Scopus since 2018. The Journal is also indexed in Google Scholar and CNKI. All articles published in IJLTER are assigned a unique DOI number.
  • 4. Foreword We are very happy to publish this issue of the International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research. The International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research is a peer-reviewed open-access journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of education. Submissions may include full-length articles, case studies and innovative solutions to problems faced by students, educators and directors of educational organisations. To learn more about this journal, please visit the website http://www.ijlter.org. We are grateful to the editor-in-chief, members of the Editorial Board and the reviewers for accepting only high quality articles in this issue. We seize this opportunity to thank them for their great collaboration. The Editorial Board is composed of renowned people from across the world. Each paper is reviewed by at least two blind reviewers. We will endeavour to ensure the reputation and quality of this journal with this issue. Editors of the March 2020 Issue
  • 5. VOLUME 19 NUMBER 3 March 2020 Table of Contents The Efficiency of Using the Interactive Smartboard in Social Studies to Increase Students’ Achievement and Tendency Toward the Subject Matter in the State of Qatar...............................................................................................1 Manal Hendawi and Mohammad Rajab Nosair Effectiveness of Differentiated Instruction on Primary School Students’ English Reading Comprehension Achievement.......................................................................................................................................................................... 20 Ibrahim Suleiman Ibrahim Magableh and Amelia Abdullah Personal, Familial and Social Factors Associated with Academic Failure in University Students: A Case-Control Study in Iran.......................................................................................................................................................................... 36 Behnaz Behnam, Fatemeh Paknazar, Majid Mirmohammadkhani, Mohammad Akhbari, Shahrokh Makvand Hoseini and Parviz Sabahi The Degree of Awareness of Science Teachers about the Concepts and Requirements of Green Economy in the upper Basic Stage in Amman from the Viewpoint of Teachers Themselves ................................................................ 48 Fawaz Hassan Shehada, Wesal Hani Al-Omari and Assem Nawafleh The Digital Divide in Inclusive Classrooms...................................................................................................................... 69 Badriya AlSadrani, Mohammed Alzyoudi, Negmeldin Alsheikh and Elazab Elazab Elshazly Lecturers’ Beliefs and Agency about Active Learning in English For Specific Purposes Classes .............................. 86 Huan Buu Nguyen Enhancing Writing Vocabulary Using Mentimeter........................................................................................................ 106 Pei Miin Wong and Melor Md. Yunus Using Knowledge Space Theory to Delineate Critical Learning Paths in Calculus ................................................... 123 Iman C Chahine and Mark Grinshpon Promoting Work-based Learning as a Praxis of Educational Leadership in Higher Education .............................. 149 Anselmus Sudirman, Adria Vitalya Gemilang The Use of Smart Technologies in the Professional Training of Students of the Law Departments for the Development of their Critical Thinking........................................................................................................................... 174 Igor M. Kopotun, Myroslav Yu. Durdynets, Nina V. Teremtsova, Lidiia L. Markina and Luidmila M. Prisnyakova The Perceived Influence of Case Method on Students’ Performance and Critical Thinking in Business Studies .188 Xhimi Hysa, Luca Carrubbo, Armeno Sadiku, Irma Gjana and Nensi Hazizaj The Effects of a Discovery Learning Module on Geometry for Improving Students’ Mathematical Reasoning Skills, Communication and Self-Confidence................................................................................................................... 214 Nur Choiro Siregar, Roslinda Rosli and Siti Mistima Maat A Teaching Model of Polynomial Functions’ Learning Outcomes according to the System Approach for High School Students................................................................................................................................................................... 229 Ahmad A.S. Tabieh Mathematics Teaching in Vietnam in the Context of Technological Advancement and the Need of Connecting to the Real World..................................................................................................................................................................... 255 Tran Trung, Tien-Trung Nguyen and Thi-Phuong-Thao Trinh
  • 6. Factors Affecting English Language Teaching in Public Schools in Ecuador............................................................. 276 Julia Sevy-Biloon, Uvaldo Recino and Camila Munoz ESP Course Delivered to Personnel Working in Shifts for the State Emergency Service of Ukraine through a Student-Tailored Model..................................................................................................................................................... 295 Kateryna Shykhnenko and Oleg Nozhovnik Discourse Marker Clusters in the Classroom Discourse of Native and Non-Native EFL Teachers ........................ 310 Gloria Vickov and Eva Jakupčević Undergraduates Student Perceptions’ of Social Networking Sites to Improve English Writing Skills in Malaysia ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 329 Nurul Afifah Binti Azlan and Melor Md Yunus Model of Primary School Teachers Training for Work in the System of Inclusive Education by Applying Extrapolation of Poland’s Advances in Training for Work........................................................................................... 352 Anna A. Sobchuk and Nataliia O. Mykytenko Change in University Pedagogical Culture – The Impact of Increased Pedagogical Training on First Teaching Experiences.......................................................................................................................................................................... 367 Mari Murtonen and Henna Vilppu Supporting Inclusion and Family Involvement in Early Childhood Education through 'ISOTIS': A Case Study in Greece................................................................................................................................................................................... 384 Anastasia Gkaintartzi, Evi Kompiadou, Roula Tsokalidou, Konstantinos Tsioumis and Konstantinos Petrogiannis Representation of French Culture as a Foreign Language through Textbooks .......................................................... 404 Ninuk Lustyantie and Evi Rosyani Dewi The Degree of Achieving Development Standards Indicators among Kindergarteners from Parents’ Point of View ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 422 Naser Ibrahim Al-Sharah and Faisal Khalif Al-Sharaa Rasch Model Application on Character Development Instrument for Elementary School Students...................... 437 Lutfi Nur, Luthfi Ainun Nurani and Dodi Suryana and Aslina Ahmad A Case for Teaching Pronunciation to Adult EFL Learners, Using Metrical Versification....................................... 460 Mahboobeh Khaleghi, Manal Batobara and Mohammad Saleem Moral Education through Dramatized Storytelling: Insights and Observations from Indonesia Kindergarten Teachers ............................................................................................................................................................................... 475 Maila D. H. Rahiem, Nur Surayyah Madhubala Abdullah, Steven Eric Krauss and Husni Rahim
  • 7. 1 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. International Journal of Learning, Teaching and Educational Research Vol. 19, No. 3, pp. 1-19, March 2020 https://doi.org/10.26803/ijlter.19.3.1 The Efficiency of Using the Interactive Smartboard in Social Studies to Increase Students’ Achievement and Tendency Toward the Subject Matter in the State of Qatar Manal Hendawi Qatar University Qatar Mohammad Rajab Nosair Qatar University Qatar Abstract. This research aims to determine the effectiveness of the use of interactive smartboard techniques and applications in teaching a unit of a social studies curriculum for preparatory stage students in Qatar. The selected sample (47 students) is distributed into two groups, the experimental group which studied a chosen unit using the interactive smartboard, and the other group, the control group, which studied the same lesson plan conventionally. The two methods administered to the groups, before and after the experiment, are codified through a cognitive performance evaluation using the three stages of Bloom, and a structured assessment of the inclination towards social studies is applied. All groups are taught the same unit, prepared by the same teacher, but with a different method of teaching. To statistically test the research hypotheses, a quantitative comparison between the scores of the two groups before and after the experiment is carried out. The results indicate that the differences between the two groups in average values in favor of the trial group are statistically significant. Keywords: Smartboard; Achievement; Tendency; Efficiency; Social Studies 1. Introduction Social studies is an essential field in education, contributing significantly to human character, the various possibilities of problem-solving and logical thinking, the development of the human social senses, and the creation of social identity, including the nature of knowledge and attitudes that help students understand.
  • 8. 2 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. The Qatar Ministry of Education and Higher Education (MoE) affirms that the State of Qatar puts science, technology and innovation at the top of its national priorities and integrates them into its National Vision 2030 strategic plans and objectives. Research studies support the view that today's use of teaching technology in classrooms is crucial for education as mentioned in the study of Kurt & Dindar (2012). The MoE agrees that integrating technology into the culture increases the effectiveness of learning and student accomplishment and emphasizes technology incorporation in social studies. The MoE provides curriculum instructions to coordinators and teachers in the field. Government schools in Qatar are provided with interactive whiteboards or interactive display devices, or both, to enrich the educational process and keep pace with progress. Using their programs and tools, teachers can prepare and present, in interesting ways, various lessons. Using the software, various parts of the screen can be shown, engineering devices can be used, a network of crossed lines can be shown, shapes, colours and various types of font can be used, and documentation and explanations of the events on screen can be given by the system (MoE, 2019). The interactive smartboard has an impact on the functioning of the educational process. It facilitates learning. Therefore, many studies have been conducted on the use of smartboards in teaching. However, the researchers have conducted a search of the literature and do not find any direct or indirect research related to the use of smartboards in teaching social studies in Qatar. Therefore, this study is considered the first to address using smartboard technology in the teaching of social studies in the State of Qatar. The study focuses on the impact of using the smartboard on the level of achievement of middle school students. The value of this analysis stems from: 1. Keeping up with the times technologically and meeting new educational needs, in line with the policy of the Qatari Ministry of Education and Higher Education to integrate technology in education. 2. This research may motivate other researchers to conduct similar studies in other specialties, considering achievement or other variables. 3. The Qatar MoE may take the results of this study, and formally generalize the use of smartboards in all social studies classes in government schools. 2. Literature Review 2.1 Importance of using a smartboard With the rapid progress of information systems and communication resources, direct contact and connection between the components of the teaching and learning (the teacher, student and textbook) is no longer the primary resources for receiving knowledge.
  • 9. 3 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Information and communication technology play an essential role in all aspects of life, as it transforms civilization and helps the reunion among nations, as distances become reduced and no barriers exist between members of the community. The whole world becomes like a village. The challenges that the world faces today and the change occurring in many aspects of life, make it necessary for educational institutions to adopt modern educational technologies. Scientific development has brought with it many instructional techniques that can be used to create areas of expertise for learners. Students having a high degree of competence qualifies them to meet challenges (Al Hassan & Al Badawi, 2016). The use of technology such as computers, smartboards, projectors, the internet, and many other things, in education is theorized to be one of the best ways to bring effectiveness to teaching. Over the years, there have been many studies like Almajali (2016), Oigara(2017), Dahlan (2014) examined whether these technologies are useful in teaching, and interactive smartboards are among the areas of study. We can safely say that the interactive smartboard has taken over from the overhead projector in school classrooms throughout the education world. Smartboards have many ways to enhance the student learning experience. The use of smartboard technology provides students and learners with support, knowledge and skills using optical features. It can make lessons fun, because the teacher can use many different styles and teaching aids. Furthermore, it helps all kinds of students, each with individual requirements, to understand the lesson at the same time. For example, ‘visual’ students can see the smartboard, while students that learn ‘by hand’ can touch the smartboard. Using a smartboard in teaching helps increase the motivation of the learners. A study in 2010-2011 in which a school provided an interactive whiteboard in classrooms, shows that, after some time, a drastic change was affected in the school system. Some classes became smart classrooms, and the study found that the smartboard had a massive impact on the students’ knowledge and achievement (Davidovitch & Yavich, 2017). Many types of research show that learners learn better when they are fully involved in the lesson activities. With the smartboard being available in the classroom, every student has the opportunity to use the smartboard, and this allows them to actively become part of the learning process. For example, most smartboards have the option of using the fingers to write directly on them. This kind of interactivity gives learners the opportunity to write or even draw. As Socrates said, “reading is very different from memorizing a speech or learning by doing” (Rotry, 2005). In a study carried out in 2014Ainur and Arasaln say that smartboards can be used to increase the involvement of students in the study process in the classroom. According to Cox (2019), Research shows that students benefit best if they participate entirely, and true education is one of the best ways to achieve this.
  • 10. 4 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. For instance, when teaching social science, learning and understanding what a world map looks like will be different if the teacher describes the map to the students rather than encouraging them to participate in drawing the map on the smartboard. Thus, the teacher increases the level of establishment of the information in the student’s mind (Collins, 2009). Another advantage is that students can learn how to work together collaboratively. By using smartboards in classrooms, students have the ability to access the internet, where they can view websites or videos. Thus, students can easily access different tools to complete project or perform research and keep up to date with developments around the world (Bates, 2003). It is vital to use technology regularly and continue with professional progression to keep up to date with current topics in the digital world. Using this type of smartboard technology in teaching produces a youth that is increasingly complex and sophisticated. It makes the process of teaching beneficial for both the educator and the learner. 2.2 History of the smartboard device A smartboard is a device and digital projection panel attached to a large touch sensitive board with projection screen displays the image. The network is controlled directly or with a distinctive pen by contacting the board (Becta, 2003). In the past, most schools around the world used chalk and a blackboard to teach, but the interactive whiteboard replaced chalk during the technology revolution. Many teachers believe that these electronic boards are a useful digital tool for increasing students’ levels of achievement (Schenker & Kratcoski, 2008). In 1980 a new idea was introduced, which centred around connecting a computer to a sensitive display panel that acts as an alternative to the computer screen without a mouse or keyboard, using touch to navigate instead. Very few people knew about the presence of the interactive whiteboard until 1991, when David Martin and Nancy Knowlton introduced the first whiteboard through their company Smart Technologies. It provided touch controls equivalent to a computer. In 1992, Smart Technologies formed a strategic alliance with the American company Intel, which led to further developments in the whiteboard. The company steadily expanded its products to meet the increasing global demand as the interactive board started to spread significantly within the school system. 2.3 Previous studies In 2019, a study conducted by Ahmad and Aladle examined the effect of using an interactive whiteboard on the development of the attitudes and achievements of 8th grade students in terms of learning and cognitive motivation, in primary education in the Sultanate of Oman. A group of 176 students was divided into experimental and control groups. The results showed differences between
  • 11. 5 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. students in both groups in their attitude towards study, cognitive motivation and its dimensions (motivation to learn, risk of knowledge acquisition and use of knowledge) and academic achievement in favor of students using an interactive whiteboard. Gurbuzturk (2018), conducted a study examining the attitudes of elementary education students to the use of smartboards in classes. The researcher conducted a survey of primary and secondary schools in Malatya province during the 2016-2017 academic year. To sample consisted of the 4th to 8th grade students in three schools, and data was collected using the smartboard attitude scale (SBAS) of Şad (2012). The findings were that students in the elementary stages usually have positive attitudes to using a smartboard. Their attitudes towards the smartboard were impacted by the number of students in the school and the student’s grade, but not by gender. Kaya and Yazıcı (2018) conducted a study of the self-efficacy of social studies teachers using the smart whiteboards. The researchers designed a questionnaire and distributed it to 101 social studies teachers at public secondary schools in Turkey. For statistical analysis of variance, gender, age, whether they had received training on the use of information technology. The results show that the self-efficacy of the sample was at a level of agreement, and there was no effect of gender or age on self-efficacy. Prior training helped to increase self-efficacy in using the interactive whiteboard. Davidovitch & Yavich (2017) investigated the effect of the smartboard on the school system. The researchers used a questionnaire and the sample involving of 130 students (boys and girls) who used smartboards in the 5th and 6th grades of two elementary schools in Jerusalem. The findings show that the clarification variable showed the biggest improvement since the start of using the smartboards, in favour of students in the 6th grade, and the variable of interest in supporting the girls. Overall, the study variables appear to be related and the smartboard increased the students’ achievement and improved their learning methods. Given the study outcomes, the researchers recommend the teaching technology, because it led to an outstanding level of learning and increased the educational influence of teaching technological improvement. Oigara (2017) conducted a study investigating the effect of using smartboard technology on the mathematical achievement of fifth grade students. 40 students were nominated and divided into an experimental group who studied mathematics using the smartboard and a control group who studied mathematics using traditional methods and a blackboard. Both groups took an achievement test. The findings reveal a positive effect of using a smartboard on students’ mathematical attainment. In 2016, a study conducted by Almajali and others examined the effectiveness of using a smartboard for teaching social studies on students’ achievement in public schools in Jordan. A pre and post test was applied to 258, 120 male and 138 female, 8th grade students in the 2015/2016 academic year to find their level of achievement in social studies. The experimental group were taught by using
  • 12. 6 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. the smartboard while the control group were taught the traditional way. The study findings reveal that there were variations between the classes in favour of the experimental group. There was no difference in the success of the students by gender. Tunaboylu and Admire (2016) investigated the effect of using an interactive whiteboard in the mathematics teaching of 7th grade students by applying an experimental design. The research findings show that using the interactive whiteboard in the mathematics teaching process had positive effects on the students’ mathematical performance. Dahlan (2014) examined the effect of using an interactive whiteboard on 70 7th grade students' Arabic language achievement, their leaning acquisition and conservation, and their attitudes towards it. A quasi-experimental approach was used for the study. The researcher divided the students into two groups, experimental and control, and applied two tools an achievement test and an attitude scale. The findings confirm that there were statistical differences between the two groups. The result was in favour of the experimental group. Based on the results, the researcher recommends that it is imperative to supply interactive whiteboards in classrooms and train teachers to use them effectively. In 2013 A research was performed by Alhumiadan to investigate the impact of using interactive smartboards on the achievement and attitudes of mid- students who study social studies conducted a study aimed to investigate the effect of using interactive smartboards on the achievement and attitudes of middle-stage school students undertaking a social studies curriculum. The sample was divided into two groups, trial and control, and the results were in favour of the experimental group, with the achievement in before and after test performance being improved in the post-test. The findings from the attitude test show no differences in either group, before and after the experiment. Brand and Bester’s (2013) study investigated the effect of technology on attention, motivation, concentration and achievement in a classroom context. A sample of 45 students were selected from the 8th grade and divided into an experimental group who studied lessons in geography, English, and mathematics using technology and a control group who were taught in traditional ways. The study reveals differences in favour of the experimental group in terms of achievement and attention. A highly positive relationship was found between motivation and concentration, and a moderate to high positive connection between focus, concentration and motivation. In 2013, Abu Hamadah conducted an experimental study aimed at revealing the effect of using a smartboard in geography teaching on the creation of geographic concepts and map skills among 9th graders in the Governorate of Gaza. The research sample consisted of 66 pupils divided into two classes, the control group taught by traditional methods and the experimental group taught using the smartboard. The findings reveal differences between the groups pre- and post-experiment in favour of teaching and developing geographic concepts
  • 13. 7 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. using the smartboard. In light of the study, the researcher recommends the benefit of technological innovation, especially the smartboard, employing it in educational situations and providing schools with smartboards in order to stimulate students and raise their levels of active and positive interaction with the educational content and classroom activities. In 2008, Swan, Schenker and Kratcoski conducted a study to examine all students in the 3rd through to the 8th grades, it revealed whether students’ achievements in English language, art and mathematics improve by using the interactive whiteboard. The researchers compared the scores on state achievement tests between students whose teachers used interactive whiteboards for their teaching and those whose teachers did not. For the students in the interactive whiteboard group, the results show a marginally better performance and students in the 4th and 5th grade have the most improvement. Considering the interest and orientation of the Qatari MoE in integrating technology into education in order to increase student achievement, it is necessary to conduct a study into the impact of smartboards on the effectiveness of teaching social studies and how it affects students' tendencies towards the subject. The following primary and sub research questions are formulated in response to the problems identified by the literature review. The primary question is: What is the effectiveness of using the interactive smartboard in teaching social studies for preparatory stage students’ achievement in Qatar and their tendencies towards the subject? The first sub-question is: What is the effectiveness of teaching the unit using the interactive whiteboard in developing levels of remembering, understanding and application of the unit, measured by the cognitive achievement in the study sample? The following hypotheses are tested to answer the main question: 1. There are no differences between the average scores of students in the trial group and the control group in the pre-measurement of achievement before the trial. 2. There are differences between the average scores of students of the trial group and the control group in the post-measurement of achievement in support of the trial group. 3. There are differences between the average scores of students in the trial group and the control group before and after the trial in support of the trial group.
  • 14. 8 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. The second sub-question is: What is the effectiveness of teaching the unit using the interactive smartboard in the development of the tendency towards the subject of social studies of the study sample? To answer the sub-question, the following hypotheses are tested: 1. There are no differences between the average scores of female students of the trial group and the control group in the pre-measurement of tendency towards the subject of social studies before the trial. 2. There are differences between the average scores of students in the trial and control groups in the post-measurement of the tendency towards the subject of social studies in support of the trial group. 3. There are differences between the average scores of students of the trial and control groups before and after the trial measured by the tendency toward the subject of social studies in support of the trial group. 3. Research Methods 3.1 Design and development of research data The research adopts a descriptive approach to determining the proposed vision for teaching the target units of the curriculum of social studies at the middle- grade stage using the interactive board. It adopts a quasi-experimental approach to the design and implementation of the experimental part of the study. The researcher uses two research tools to generate the data. The first is the standardized cognitive achievement test of the three levels of Bloom`s taxonomy: remembering, understanding and application of knowledge of the unit and its concepts. The second tool is another standardized measure of the tendency towards social studies in the preparatory stage in three dimensions: the value of social studies as a subject and its function in the lives of students; enjoying studying social studies; and the social studies teacher and their teaching methods. Both tools are applied to both groups before the experiment. 3.2 Building and codifying the achievement test An achievement test is used to measure the levels of remembering, understanding and the application of the knowledge contained in the unit taught. A table of test specifications is constructed. The test consists of 20 multiple-choice questions. A statistical process is used to calculate the relative weight or importance of the two tests. The researcher uses multiple-choice questions because of their objectivity in the results, their ability to cover large areas of the content, their ease of marking, their suitability for students at that stage, and the weak effect of guessing and chance. Some simple guidelines and test requirements are formulated to make the test clear and valid. The test time is set at minutes, and the test paper is attached to a reply sheet. The test is presented to arbitrators trained in the curriculum and
  • 15. 9 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. some middle stage teachers for their views. A pilot test is carried out on 20 students. The reliability is measured, and Table 1 shows the weights of unit components. Table 1: The weights of unit components Lessons Level of achievement test questions Content relative weight Total questions Remembering Understanding Applying Weight Question number Weight Question number Weight Question number Lesson 1 30% 6 18% 4 12% 2 60% 12 Lesson 2 20% 4 12% 2 8% 2 40% 8 Total 50% 10 30% 6 20% 4 100% 20 3.3 Building a scale of tendency towards social studies The researcher has reviewed many studies in the field before building the scale, and of these studies the researchers selects Maghnam (2018), Rahim (2016), Hassan (2016) and Emran (2011). Based on these studies, a scale is constructed with the three dimensions given above (section 3.1). 10 phrases for each of these 3 aspects (30 in total) are presented, half of them positive and half negative. A Likert three-point scale is used for the students to grade their reaction to each expression (agree, not sure, not agree). The scale is presented to individual arbitrators who specialize in the curriculum and to middle-stage teachers for their views to check the veracity of the content. A pilot test is undertaken with 20 students, to clarify the scaling, and how well the students understood the instructions. The reliability was calculated, and Table 2 shows the relative weights of the scale of the tendency toward the subject of social studies. Table 2: The relative weights of the scale of the tendency toward the subject of social studies Relative weight Number Scale phrases Dimensions of the tendency towards social studies Negative phrases Positive phrases 33.3% 10 2,4,6,8,10 1,3,5,7,9 The value of social studies in the lives of students 33.3% 10 12,14,16,18,20 11,13,15,17,19 Enjoyment of studying social studies 33.3% 10 22,24,26,28,30 21,23,25,27,29 The social studies teacher and teaching methods 100% 30 15 15 Total 3.4 Preparing the teaching plan and educational materials for the experiment The 4th unit of the 7th year preparatory curriculum for social studies in the State of Qatar's official curriculum is selected for study. It addresses the “natural and human factors affecting the geographical distribution of the world population”. It includes two lessons scheduled for study in 6 classes. To take advantage of all
  • 16. 10 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. the available data the planning learning situations using a smartboard are selected, and the components of the study unit (cognitive domain, psychomotor domain, affective domain) are analyzed for each lesson. The physical, mental, emotional and social growth characteristics of the subject group are considered. The students’ previous experience of the components of the unit, and the availability and quality of the technological capabilities of the class are also considered. Two separate experiment plans are drafted. The first includes six sub-plans for the experimental group in six classes using a smartboard. The second devotes the same number of plans to teaching the unit through traditional blackboard and paper methods. All the lesson plans for each class include a clear definition of the learning outcomes, resources used, concepts involved, teaching strategies implemented, learning activities, structural assessment tools, and how the differentiation between students and enrichment activities for the class are to be achieved. the first plan integrates all the smartboard tools, focusing on the magic pens, text, pictures, animated video, electronic games, zoom lens, diagrams, two- dimensional and three-dimensional representative circuits, stereoscopic maps, digital codes, internet links, mental maps and other miscellaneous tools. After preparing all the educational material and developing six interactive presentations using the smartboard, the Active Inspire was used as a technological program used in Qatar schools,it was applied to develop the worksheets printed for the activities involved in the experiment. Then a pilot study is undertaken with one of the plans corresponding to the experiment in order to take notes. This is presented to one of the specialist subject teachers for their comments, and thus all the interactive presentations are developed and made ready for use in the class. Before starting the research experiment in the first semester of 2019, pre- measurement was performed on the two groups. The achievement test and tendency scale was applied by the class teacher to the two groups. After testing the two groups statistically, the specific unit was taught to both groups. Teaching the unit took three weeks, with a total of six classes per week, each class being 45 minutes. After three weeks, the unit was complete, and the post- measurement was done by applying the same achievement test and tendency scale to the two groups. 3.5 Sample of the study The research population is all 7th graders in a government middle school in Qatar, a sample of 47 students from Maria Al-Kobtia elementary school for girls, divided into two groups, the trial group (7th 1) consisting of 25 students from the class. and the control group containing 22 students (7th 2). Both studied the same (4th) unit with and without using a smartboard.
  • 17. 11 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. By reviewing the school records for the two groups, it was confirmed that there was a convergence between the members of the two groups in academic achievement, age, economic level and nationality. 3.6 Reliability and validity of the tendency scale and achievement test To determine the reliability of the questionnaire and test, Guttman’s split-half and Cronbach's alpha methods are used. Table 3 shows the reliability of the questionnaire and test. To ensure tool validity, the tool was judged by a group of specialist social studies teachers in schools and faculty members of universities. Table 3: Reliability of the tendency scale and achievement test Case Number of items Cronbach's alpha Guttman’s Split-Half Coefficient Tendency scale 30 0.640 0.809 Achievement Test 20 0.680 0.701 Cronbach’s alpha As shown in Table 3, the values of Cronbach's alpha for the questionnaire and test are 0.640 and 0.680, respectively. These values are slightly below the acceptable value of 0.70. Guttman split-half coefficient As shown in Table 3, the values of Guttman’s split-half coefficient for the questionnaire and test are 0.809 and 0.701, respectively. These values are more than the acceptable value of 0.70, which indicates that the both items have relatively high internal consistency. 4. Statistical Analysis and Findings SPSS (version 26) is used for the analysis of the data to test the study hypotheses. Several advanced analytical techniques are used to study the differences and, for the first and second hypotheses, independent sample T-test, paired sample T- test, Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and Mann-Whitney U-test. For the third hypothesis, the generalized linear model (GLM) is used. Table 4: Normality test result in various scenarios Tests of normality (variable) Group Survey Statistic P-value Normality Control Before 0.933 0.14 Yes Control After 0.921 0.08 Yes Treatment Before 0.953 0.29 Yes Treatment After 0.929 0.08 Yes According to Table 4, in all conditions, the normality assumption is satisfied. So, parametric and non-parametric tests are used in the following.
  • 18. 12 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. 4.1 Analysis of the results of the achievement test Three hypotheses were derived from the first study question. A comparison between the trial and control groups in the measure of achievement test before the trial is calculated to test the first hypothesis. Table 5 shows the results. Table 5: Comparison between the trial and control groups for the measure of achievement before the trial Concept Control group N: 22 Trial group N: 25 T- value Z- value1 Note Mean Sd Mean Sd Remembering 4.95 1.76 4.40 2.06 0.98 0.54 1: from Mann- Whitney U- test **:significant at 1% Understanding 1.73 1.24 1.68 1.31 0.13 -0.15 Applying 1.32 0.89 1.32 0.99 -0.01 0.19 Achievement as a whole 8.00 2.62 7.40 3.38 0.67 0.53 The data in table 5 indicates that is approximate values of the mean achievement scores of the female students in the trial and control groups before the trial, in term of remembering, understanding and applying. The calculated values of T and Z indicate no differences, which means equal performance of the two groups on the achievement test before the experiment. To address the second question, the T and Z values are determined as shown in Table 6, a comparison of the trial and control groups on the achievement test after the trial. Table 6: Comparison between the trial and control groups on the achievement test after the trial Concept Control group N: 22 Trial group N: 25 T- value Z-value1 Note Mean Sd Mean Sd Remembering 4.27 1.72 7.28 1.93 -5.61** -4.41** 1: from Mann- Whitney U-test **: significant at 1% Understanding 2.10 1.27 3.64 1.35 -4.04** -3.69** Applying 1.32 2.48 2.48 1.12 -3.73** -3.36** Achievement as a whole 7.69 2.55 13.40 3.86 -5.90** -4.78** Data in table 6 indicates an average increasing in the mean values of the trial group member scores after the trial compared to the control group members in the complete knowledge of the unit, and each level. The calculated T and Z values for comparison between the groups indicate that there are differences between them in support of the trial group, which improved significantly in the achievement test after studying using a smartboard. To test the third hypothesis, a comparison before and after the trial of the trial group in the achievement test is calculated. Table 7 shows the results.
  • 19. 13 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Table 7: Comparison before and after the trial of the trial group in the achievement test Concept Sample Pre-measure Post- measure T- value Z- value1 Note Mean Sd Mean Sd Remembering 25 4.40 2.06 7.28 1.93 - 4.69** -3.34** 1: from Wilcoxon signed ranks test **: significant at 1% Understanding 1.68 1.31 3.64 1.35 - 5.20** -4.23** Applying 1.32 0.99 2.48 1.12 - 4.13** -2.72** Achievement as a whole 7.400 3.379 13.400 3.862 - 5.66** -3.55** Table 7 indicates that an average increasing in the mean of the trial group members’ scores after the trial compared to the control group in the areas of overall knowledge of the unit and each aspect. The calculated of T and Z values for comparison between the two groups indicate differences in support of the trial group, which improved significantly in the achievement test after studying using a smartboard. 4.2 The analysis of the results of the tendency scale Three hypotheses are derived from the second question of the study. Comparison is made between the trial and control groups in the measure of tendency towards the subject before the experiment to test the first hypothesis. Table 8 shows the results. Table 8: Comparison between the trial and control groups in the measure of tendency towards the subject before the experiment Dimension of tendency towards the subject of social studies Control group N: 22 Trial group N: 25 T- value Z- Value1 Note Mean Sd Mean Sd The value of social studies and its implication in the lives of students 1.88 0.29 1.93 0.28 -0.61 -1.58 1: from Mann- Whitney U-test **: significant at 1% No statistically significant difference Enjoyment of social studies 1.90 0.29 1.98 0.46 -0.70 -0.75 The social studies teacher and teaching methods 1.92 0.30 1.97 0.30 -0.54 -0.60 The scale as a whole 1.90 0.21 1.96 0.26 -0.81 -0.83
  • 20. 14 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. This data in table 8 indicates that is a convergence of the mean values of the students in the trial and control groups before the experiment in their responses to the items on the scale for their tendency towards the subject of social studies as a whole, and each of its three dimensions. The calculated T and Z values for comparison indicate no differences, which means an equal performance of the two groups in the tendency before the experiment. To test the second assumption, comparison between the trial and control groups in the dimensions of the tendency towards the subject after the experiment are calculated. Table 9 shows the results. Table 9: Comparison between the trial and control groups in the dimensions of tendency towards the subject after the experiment Dimensions of the tendency towards the subject Control group N: 22 Trial group N: 25 T- value Z- value1 Note Mean Sd Mean Sd The value of social studies and its implication in the lives of students 1.89 0.22 2.50 0.32 -7.56** -5.06** 1: from Mann- Whitney U-test **: significant at 1% There is a statistically significant difference Enjoyment of studying social studies 1.99 0.34 2.63 0.29 -6.90** -5.26** The social studies teacher and teaching methods 1.88 0.25 2.69 0.21 - 12.22** -5.78** The scale as a whole 1.92 0.15 2.60 0.21 - 12.73** -5.87** These data in table 9 indicated to an average increasing in the mean values of the trial group members' scores after the experiment in comparison with the control group members, on the scale of tendency towards the subject of social studies, and each of its three dimensions. The calculated T and Z values for comparison between the two groups indicate variances between them in support of the trial group, which significantly improve their level of tendency towards social studies as a subject after studying it using a smartboard. For the third hypothesis, a comparison is made between the experimental group before and after the experiment in the dimensions of tendency towards the subject and the results are shown in Table 10.
  • 21. 15 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Table 10: Comparison before and after the experiment of the trial group in the measurements of tendency towards the subject Dimensions of tendency towards the subject of social studies Sample Pre measure Post measure T- value Z- value 1 Note Mean Sd Mean Sd The value of social studies and its implications in the lives of students 25 1.93 0.28 2.50 0.32 -7.17** - 4.34** 1: from Wilcoxon signed ranks test **: significant at 1% There is a statistically significant difference Enjoyment of studying social studies 1.98 0.46 2.63 0.29 -7.15** - 4.18** The social studies teacher and teaching methods 1.97 0.30 2.69 0.21 - 10.30* * - 4.29** The scale as a whole 1.96 0.27 2.60 0.21 - 10.96* * - 4.38** These data in table 10 indicated to an average increasing of the trial group members' scores after the experiment in their tendency towards the subject of social studies and each of its three dimensions. The calculated T and Z values comparing the two measurements before and after show variances between all factors in support of the trial group, which significantly improved their tendency towards social studies as a subject after studying it using a smartboard. 4.3 Testing the interaction effect on the tendency before and after To show whether there is any statistically significant interaction between the tendency before and after the experiment, the GLEM test is used. Table 11 shows the results. Table 11: The interaction effect on the tendency before and after Source SS df MS F P-Value Intercept 0.267 1 0.267 0.025 0.875 Before-After 34.392 1 34.392 3.195 0.077 Tendency 147.497 1 147.497 13.704 0.000 Interaction 45.268 1 45.268 4.206 0.043 Error 968.680 90 10.763 Total 9477 94
  • 22. 16 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. As shown in Table 11, the interaction effect before and after on the tendency is statistically significant, which means that the tendency after the experiment changed, compared to before. 4.4 Testing the interaction effect on the tendency between the control and experimental group To show whether there is any statistically significant effect between the control and experimental groups or bias, the GLEM test is used. Table 12 shows the results. Table 12: The interaction effect on the tendency between the control and experimental groups Source SS df MS F P-Value Intercept 3.405 1 3.405 0.317 0.575 Control-Treatment 64.887 1 64.887 6.044 0.016 Tendency 48.247 1 48.247 4.494 0.037 Interaction 69.242 1 69.242 6.450 0.013 Error 966.239 90 10.736 Total 9477 94 As shown in Table 12, the interaction effect on the tendency between the control and experimental groups is statistically significant, in favour of the experimental group. 5. Discussion The results of the experiment reveal an increase in the achievement of the students in the experimental group who studied using the interactive smartboard, in remembering, understanding and the application of knowledge. This outcome is consistent with the results Alhumaidan (2013), Al Hassan and Al Badawi (2016), Abu Hamadah (2013), Davidovitch & Yavich (2017), Ahmad and Aladle (2019) and Tunaboylu & Demir (2017). The study result are explained by the fact that the interactive smartboard allows the teaching of the unit information to the students in a typically interesting, attractive and flexible way. A variety of media and tools are applied, such as electronic games, images, 2D and 3D charts and multiple maps, using electronic pens. The smartboard allows the students to positively engage several senses with the lesson plan, helping to simplify and explain the information provided, emphasizing the interrelationships, and providing various applications and examples. The variety of interactive smartboard tools help in various activities, individually and collectively, and the content is rich. These activities are suitable for the various levels of female student during the study of the unit. The results also show an increase in the tendency of the female students towards the subject
  • 23. 17 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. of social studies after using the smartboard which creates a stimulating and exciting learning environment, which differs from the traditional learning style and allows them to enjoy learning in the modern technological style preferred by the current generation at this stage. The multimedia presented using the smartboard contributes to satisfying the student’s curiosity and exploring issues. It facilitates learning it in a functional style related to the students’ daily lives, reducing the difficulty of social studies compared to the subject taught in its traditional way. In addition to differentiating the teaching strategies used in lessons with the smartboard, the teacher who applied the experiment engaged the students because of her previous training on smartboards. This may be a reason for the increase in the students’ positive tendency towards the subject, the teacher of the subject and the teaching methods. This is a clear result consistent with previous results that verify the negative feelings and some of the difficulties and disinterest students feel while studying social studies in the traditional way. This outcome is consistent with the results of Gurbuzturk (2018), Oigara (2017), Dahlan (2014) and Alhumiadan (2013). 6. Conclusion In conclusion, this study provides evidence that using a smartboard increases students' levels of achievement and their tendency toward social studies. The students saw a positive trend in their learning capability by using a smartboard. This investigation suggests that learning using technology is an urgent need at present, and this technology must be incorporated into teaching because of its effectiveness in increasing achievement. The research has practical implications for Qatar’s learning system. Students are able to develop their tendency, increase their achievement and skill, and build their learning capability in social studies subjects. The overall analysis confirms that, by using a smartboard, teachers can help students secure a positive tendency and excellent achievement. 7. Recommendations: 1- The use of a smart board should be one of the standards for teaching social studies in the State of Qatar 2- Provide training workshops for teachers on using the smart board effectively 3- The researcher should benefit from the results of this study by conducting similar studies in different subjects and for different levels 4- Mainstreaming the use of a smart board in teaching social studies to schools in the State of Qatar for its importance in increasing achievement References Abdelhamid, F. (2016). Smartboard (Interactive). Journal of E-Learning [online]. Retrieve from: http://emag.mans.edu.eg/index.php?page=news&task=show&id=144 Abu Hamadah, S. (2013). The Effect of Employing Smartboard-in Teaching Geography-on Developing Geographic Concepts and Using Maps Skill among Nine Graders in Gaza
  • 24. 18 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Governorate. Unpublished Masters dissertation. The University of Alazhar, Ghaza. Abu, M., & Karami, B. (2018). The effectiveness of using the PDEODE strategy for teaching social studies in developing geographical concepts and geographical thinking skills and the tendency towards geography among first intermediate students. Journal of Educational Sciences - Imam Muhammad bin Saud University - Saudi Arabia, 13, 411-477. https://doi.org/10.12816/0045584 Adel, M. A., & Abdelrahman, M. A. (2019). The effects of using an Electronic Interactive Whiteboard in Developing students Attitude, Cognitive Motivation and Academic achievement. Journal of Education and Practice 10(10), 124-129. https://doi.org/10.12816/0045584 Al Hassan, E. I. K., & Al Badwi, M. M. (2016). The Effect of Using the Smartboard in the Acquisition for the Pupils in the 8th Class of the Basic Education Stage at Khartoum locality in the Lesson of Science in Our Life. Journal of the College of Basic Education for Educational and Human Sciences, Babel University, 26. Alhumaidan, I. A. (2013). The effect of using Smartboard on students’ achievement and attitudes toward social studies curriculum. Journal of Education and Psychology, 41, 5-25. Al-Majali, H. K., Al Abdallah, S. E., & Shamayleh, N. (2016). The effectiveness of using smartboard for teaching social studies at public schools in Jordan. Global Science Research Journal, 4(1), 227-233. Bates, T. (2003). Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher Education: Foundations for Success. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Becta, A. (2003). What research says about interactive whiteboards [online]. Retrieve from: http://www.ttrb.ac.uk/ViewArticle2.aspx?ContentId=12434. Bester, G., & Brand, L. (2013). The effect of technology on learner attention and achievement in the classroom. South African Journal of Education, 33(2). https://doi.org/10.12816/0045584 Chaaban, Y., & Ellili-Cherif, M. (2017). Technology integration in EFL classrooms: A study of Qatari independent schools. Education and Information Technology 22, 2433–2454. https://doi.org/10.12816/0045584 Collins, A., & Halverson, R. (2009). Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology: The Digital Revolution and Schooling in America. New York: Teachers College Press. Cox, J. (2019). Technology in the Classroom: The Benefits of Smart Boards [online]. Available at: https://www.teachhub.com/technology-classroom-benefits-smart-boards. Dahlan, O. (2014). the effect of using the Interactive Whiteboard on the students' Arabic language achievement and the leaning acquisition conservation for the 7th grade and their attitudes towards it. Almanarah Journal, 20(20). Davidovitch, N., & Yavich, R. (2017). The Effect of Smartboards on the Cognition and Motivation of Students. Higher Education Studies Journal, 7(1), 60. https://doi.org/10.12816/0045584 El-Masri, M., & Tarhini, A. (2017). Factors affecting the adoption of e-learning systems in Qatar and USA: Extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology 2 (UTAUT2). Education Technology Research and Development, 65, 743– 763. https://doi.org/10.12816/0045584 Gurbuzturk, O. (2018). Investigation of Elementary Education Students’ Attitudes towards the Use of Smartboards. International Electronic Journal of Elementary Education, 11(1), 55-61. https://doi.org/10.26822/iejee.2018143961 Hassan, H. A. S. (2016). The effect of incorporating digital storytelling in the stages of the learning cycle to develop some of the products of geography learning for students with low vision in the elementary stage. Journal of the Educational
  • 25. 19 ©2020 The authors and IJLTER.ORG. All rights reserved. Associat