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- 1. International Journal of Engineering Research and Development e-ISSN: 2278-067X, p-ISSN: 2278-800X, www.ijerd.com Volume 10, Issue 2 (February 2014), PP.112-119 112 Implementation of Photovoltaic Cell and Analysis of Different Grid Connection Edwin Basil Lal1 , Babu Thomas2 , Kiran Boby M.Tech Student, M.A College of Engineering, Kothamangalam, Kerala, India1 Asst. Prof., M.A College of Engineering, Kothamangalam, Kerala, India2,3 Abstract:- This paper focuses on best modelling of a photovoltaic cell by making it closed loop. This model is based on mathematical equations and is described through an equivalent circuit including a photocurrent source, a diode, a series resistor and a shunt resistor. The developed model allows the prediction of PV cell behaviour under different physical and environmental parameters. The model can also be used to extract the physical parameters for a given solar PV cell as a function of temperature and solar radiation. In addition, this study outlines the working principle of PV module as well as PV array. In order to validate the developed model. The PV model is connected into different grid systems and analysed the performance of different systems. The comparative study also made in accordance with ripple output voltage by using the result analysis dc grid connection and two stage ac grid connection is made closed loop for the best performance. Keywords:- Photovoltaic, voltage ripple, PI controller, maximum power point tracking (MPPT), voltage regulation, inverter. I. INTRODUCTION Over the past few decades, the demand for renewable energy has increased significantly due to the disadvantages of fossil fuels and greenhouse effect .Among various renewable energy sources the most popular one is solar energy. Standalone PV system is the popular way of utilizing solar energy. PV panels are used to convert the solar energy into electrical energy without pollution. In the past few years, solar energy sources demand has grown consistently due to the following factors: 1) increasing efficiency of solar cells; 2) manufacturing technology improvement; and 3) economies of scale [1]. A major application of PV is in the area of distributed or dispersed generation (DG). DG facilitates injection of locally generated power into the grid. While DG has several advantages, it also poses several challenges. As the capacity of PV system growing significantly, the impact of PV modules on power grid cannot be ignored. DG penetrates deep into the existing power systems, problems such as voltage variation, instability, interference, flicker, increase of harmonics and frequency drift etc. become more pronounced. Practical problems associated with the interaction of the PV system with the grid are the quality of power delivered to grid i.e. the power quality problems. Among these problems harmonics is found to be most important issue for grid interconnected PV system [2]. The output power produced by photovoltaic modules is influenced by the intensity of solar cell radiation, temperature of the solar cells and so on. When the quantity of this kind of power output is large enough, voltage pulsation on transmission lines will be obvious and difficult to control. Most of the renewable energy sources are connected to the grid by means of inverter. It is reported that the inverter supplies power of low quality at low level of solar radiation [3]. Under such conditions the PV array power and the corresponding inverter input power are low. The inverter when operating under such low input power exhibits large nonlinearity, hence output power with more harmonics. For reducing harmonics in grid connected PV system several methods have been analysed. In this paper, firstly a PV module is designed with MPPT for the maximum working efficiency under any irradiance changes and temperature variations [4]. The PV model made is connected to DC grid for the using of DC application and PV model also connected in single stage and two stages embedded with an inverter for the AC applications [5]. Comparative study between all the grid connections is done and best results are analysed in case of closed loop implementation of DC grid and two stage AC grid connection. The complete system is simulated using MATLAB- SIMULINK and the results are presented. II. MODELLING OF PV The equivalent circuit of the PV cell is shown in figure 1. The PV model is a The PV module is a nonlinear device and can be represented as a current source model, as shown in figure 1.The traditional I − V characteristics of a PV module, neglecting the internal series resistance, is given by the equation (1) 𝐼𝑜 = 𝑁𝑝 𝐼𝑔 − 𝑁𝑝 𝐼𝑠𝑎𝑡 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑞𝑉𝑜 𝐴𝐾𝑇 − 1 − 𝐼𝑟𝑠ℎ (1)
- 2. Implementation Of Photovoltaic Cell And Analysis Of Different Grid Connection 113 Fig. 1. Equivalent circuit of a PV module. Where Io and Vo are the output current and output voltage of the PV module, respectively, Ig is the generated current under a given insolation, Isat is the reverse saturation current, q is the charge of an electron, K is the Boltzmann’s constant, A is the ideality factor, T is the temperature (K) of the PV module, Np is the number of cells in parallel, and Irsh is the current due to intrinsic shunt resistance of the PV module. The saturation current Isat of the PV module varies with temperature according to the following equation (2). 𝐼𝑠𝑎𝑡 = 𝐼𝑜𝑟 𝑇 𝑇𝑟 3 𝑒𝑥𝑝 𝑞𝐸 𝑔 𝐾𝑇 1 𝑇𝑟 − 1 𝑇 (2) 𝐼𝑔 = 𝐼𝑠𝑐 𝑆 𝑖 1000 + 𝐼𝑡(𝑇 − 𝑇𝑟 )(3) WhereIor is the saturation current at Tr , Tr is the reference temperature (K), Eg is the band-gap energy, It is the short circuit current temperature coefficient, and Isc is the short-circuit current of PV module. The current due to the shunt resistance is given by (4) 𝐼𝑟𝑠ℎ = 𝑉𝑜𝑐 𝑁 𝑠 𝑅 𝑠ℎ (4) Where Ns is the number of cells in series and Rsh is the internal shunt resistance of the solar module. For the solar MATLAB/SIMULINK based computer simulations. III. MPPT DESIGN The utilization of solar PV cell is hampered by the fact that the power Vs voltage curve in solar cell has a unique maximum power at a particular operating voltage (called as Vmpp) [5]. MPPT is used to deliver the maximum power at all varying input conditions. MPPT is designed by Perturb and Observe Algorithm hence it’s effective and popular. The following equation is followed to locate the voltage at which the MPPT is reached. Vmpp(k)=Vmpp(k-1) + M*sign(dp/dv) where, M is steep voltage and k is the iteration and dp/dv is change in PV power with respect to PV voltage. Fig. 2: P&O algorithm IV. DIFFERENT GRID CONNECTION TOPOLOGY A. DC grid connection PV model is a non – linear system that means the ratio between current and voltage changes with when either current or voltage changes. PV model connected with boost dc – dc converter gives the linear output of continuous input current and a discontinues output current. Dc- dc conversion makes the output voltage 3 to 4 times the input voltage according to duty ratio.
- 3. Implementation Of Photovoltaic Cell And Analysis Of Different Grid Connection 114 Fig. 3: dc grid connection B. DC closed loop grid connection PV model output is passed through a boost converter an increase in output voltage occur but due to that the voltage ripple increases as well as control of output voltage to a constant value is necessary. Irradiance and temperature changes occur in the PV will not affect the output voltage. The closed loop is implemented using a PI controller. C. Single stage AC grid connection PV output is obtained as DC output so we need to convert it to an AC output for the usage of AC appliances. Fig. 4: Single stage grid connection D. Two stage grid connection PV output is DC in nature so the output is passed through dc-dc converter for the regulated output. The output can be changed in order to get the required output for the ac appliances. Fig. 5: Two stage grid connection
- 4. Implementation Of Photovoltaic Cell And Analysis Of Different Grid Connection 115 E. Two stage closed loop PV output voltage is of large ripple components so in order to avoid the ripple and make it a steady ac implementation of closed loop is necessary. PI controller is used to make it closed loop. V. SIMULATION OF IMPLEMENTED GRID SYSTEMS A. DC closed loop grid connection B. Two stage closed loop grid connection
- 5. Implementation Of Photovoltaic Cell And Analysis Of Different Grid Connection 116 VI. SIMULATIONRESULTS A. Closed loop DC grid Fig. 6: Closed loop DC grid connection Closed loop two stage grid connection Fig. 7: Closed loop Two stage grid connection VII. COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT GRID CONNECTION VOLTAGE RIPPLE
- 6. Implementation Of Photovoltaic Cell And Analysis Of Different Grid Connection 117 Fig. 8: Comparison between normal dc voltage ripple and closed loop ripple voltage Fig. 9: Comparison between single stage ac voltage ripple and two stage ac voltage ripple
- 7. Implementation Of Photovoltaic Cell And Analysis Of Different Grid Connection 118 Fig. 10: Comparison between two stage voltage ripple and closed loop ripple voltage Table 1 Power Loss Comparison In Different Grid Systems VIII. CONCLUSION This paper has presented several grid connection basic topology with MATLAB analyzed the best power output occur in closed loop implementations. It shows that in closed loop models designed around 5% power loss can be saved and the different comparisons made here makes the user easy to select between the connection and type they used in hand with the quality analysis. Looking on the table , the DC closed loop has the minimum power loss where looking on the other hand it’s clear that inverter losses create more loses in AC system so effective inverter topology can be implemented in future to reduce the 2% inverter loss. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented analysis, design, implementation and comparison.
- 8. Implementation Of Photovoltaic Cell And Analysis Of Different Grid Connection 119 REFERENCES [1] Jie Zhang, “Simplified Variable band Hysteresis Current Control for Grid connected Inverter", IEEE Transactions on power Delivery, Vol. 14,No. 3, July 2003. [2] A. Ebrahimi and N. Farokhnia, “A Novel Topology for Power Quality Improvement of Grid- Connected Photovoltaic System", IEEE Conference on Power Engineering and Renewable Energy , Vol. 3 No. 5, July 2012. [3] J. Thongpron, “Study of a PV Grid Connected System on its Output Harmonics and Voltage Variation", Asian J. Energy Environ., Vol. 5, Issue1,(2004), pp. 59-73. [4] Vikas khare, Dr. Savita Nema and Dr. Prashant baredar, “Power Quality Disturbances in Grid Connected Solar System Its Prevention", International Journal of Engineering and Innovative Technology (IJEIT) , Volume 1, Issue [5] Chandrashekhar N. Bhende, Siva G. Malla “Novel Control of Photovoltaic based Water Pumping System without Energy Storage”, International Journal of Emerging Electric Power Systems. [6] T.-F. Wu, C.-H. Chang, L.-C. Lin, and C.-L. Kuo, “Power loss comparisonof single- and two-stage grid-connected photovoltaic systems,” IEEETrans. Energy Convers., vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 707–715, Jun. 2011. [7] D. Casadei , G. Grandi and C. Rossi "Single-phase single-stage photovoltaic generation system based on a ripple correlation control maximum power point tracking", IEEE Energy Convers., vol. 21, no. 2, pp.562 -568 2006 . [8] Tarak Salmi, Mounir Bouzguenda, Adel Gastli, Ahmed Masmoudi“MATLAB/Simulink Based Modelling of Solar Photovoltaic Cell”, INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of RENEWABLE ENERGY RESEARCH. [9] Sree Manju B, Ramaprabha R, Mathur B.L “Design and Modeling of Standalone Solar Photovoltaic Charging System”, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887) Volume 18– No.2, March 2011.