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MODELING AND QUERYING GREEK LEGISLATION
USING SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES
Ilias Chalkidis, Charalampos Nikolaou, Panagiotis ...
OUTLINE
 MOTIVATION
 RELATED WORK
 BACKGROUND ON GREEK LEGISLATION
 BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES
 MODELING...
MOTIVATION
Ministries
(legislative committees,
public consultation etc.)
Hellenic
Parliament
(parliamentary committees,
am...
MOTIVATION
 Retrieve the 10 legal documents with the most case laws
applied on them.
 Find the 5 most crowded public org...
RELATED WORK
CEN METALEX
A popular format and vocabulary that is
used for the encoding of the structure and
content of leg...
RELATED WORK
THE METALEX DOCUMENT SERVER (NETHERLANDS)
5
RELATED WORK
LEGISLATION.GOV.UK (UNITED KINGDOM)
6
RELATED WORK
DIAVGEIA.GOV.GR (GREECE)
7
BACKGROUND ON GREEK LEGISLATION
STRUCTURE OF GREEK LEGISLATION
• There are five primary sources of Greek legislation we ar...
BACKGROUND ON GREEK LEGISLATION
ENCODING OF GREEK LEGISLATION
The encoding of Greek legislation follows the rules set out ...
BACKGROUND ON GREEK LEGISLATION
ENCODING OF GREEK LEGISLATION - METADATA
In addition to the aforementioned structural elem...
BACKGROUND ON GREEK LEGISLATION
CITATIONS
When the reference to other legislation is
necessary, this should be done unifor...
BACKGROUND ON GREEK LEGISLATION
LEGISLATIVE MODIFICATIONS
It is common international practice the amendment of a
legal doc...
BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES
From the Web of Documents…
13
BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES
To the Web of Data!
14
BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES
 RDF (Resource Description Framework)
 OWL (Ontology Web Language)
 SPARQL (Sim...
BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES
 The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a graph-based data model for represe...
BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES
 The Web Ontology Language (OWL) has been designed to represent rich and complex ...
BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES
 SPARQL is the standard query language for querying RDF graphs. SPARQL has a very...
MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC
WEB TECHNOLOGIES
CEN METALEX ONTOLOGY CORE
CitableBiblioGraphicObject
Bibliograp...
AN OWL ONTOLOGY FOR GREEK LEGISLATION
CitableBiblioGraphicObject
BibliographicWork BibliographicExpression BibliographicMa...
MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC
WEB TECHNOLOGIES
NOMOTHESIA URIs SCHEMA
http://legislation.di.uoa.gr/{type_of_le...
MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC
WEB TECHNOLOGIES
22
QUERYING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC
WEB TECHNOLOGIES
Retrieve the 10 most frequently modified legal documents betwee...
QUERYING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC
WEB TECHNOLOGIES
Retrieve the longest article in terms of number of passages and...
QUERYING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC
WEB TECHNOLOGIES
Find the post government member that has signed the most legal ...
MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING
NOMOTHESIA: AN EXAMPLE
26
MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING
NOMOTHESIA: AN EXAMPLE
rdf:type
nomothesia:pd/2011/54
Presidential Decree
rdf:type
2011-0...
MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING
NOMOTHESIA: AN EXAMPLE
nomothesia:pd/2011/54
nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/3
nomothesia:p...
MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING
NOMOTHESIA: AN EXAMPLE
Retrieve the structure of P.D. 2012/10, the
type of each part, and...
MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING
NOMOTHESIA: AN EXAMPLE
Retrieve the name and the title of any person who has apply modifi...
NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM
31
NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM
32
NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM
33
NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM
34
NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM
35
NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM
36
NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM
37
FUTURE WORK
 Apply Nomothesia on more data! Grant access to
the best available machine readable format for
legal document...
FUTURE WORK
Ministries
(legislative committees,
public consultation etc.)
Hellenic
Parliament
(parliamentary committees,
a...
FUTURE WORK
Ministries
(legislative committees,
public consultation etc.)
Hellenic
Parliament
(parliamentary committees,
a...
QUESTIONS?
41
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Modeling and Querying Greek Legislation using Semantic Web Technologies

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In this work, we study how one can make a particular kind of government data available as open data using semantic web technologies. We focus on Greek legislation and show how it can be modeled using ontologies expressed in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) and the Resource Description Framework (RDF), and queried using the expressive query language SPARQL. To demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of our approach we develop a web application, called Nomothesia, which makes Greek legislation easily accessible to the public. Nomothesia offers advanced services for retrieving and querying Greek legislation and is intended for the citizens through intuitive presentational views and search interfaces, but also for application developers for consuming its content through two web services: a SPARQL endpoint and a RESTful API.

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Modeling and Querying Greek Legislation using Semantic Web Technologies

  1. 1. MODELING AND QUERYING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES Ilias Chalkidis, Charalampos Nikolaou, Panagiotis Soursos, and Manolis Koubarakis NATIONAL AND KAPODISTRIAN UNIVERSITY OF ATHENS
  2. 2. OUTLINE  MOTIVATION  RELATED WORK  BACKGROUND ON GREEK LEGISLATION  BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES  MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION  NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM  FUTURE WORK 1
  3. 3. MOTIVATION Ministries (legislative committees, public consultation etc.) Hellenic Parliament (parliamentary committees, amendments, voting etc.) National Printing Office (printing, publishing) 2
  4. 4. MOTIVATION  Retrieve the 10 legal documents with the most case laws applied on them.  Find the 5 most crowded public organizations, in terms of staff members per act publication.  Find the parliament members who voted in favor of the declassification of forest land A and are elected in the broader region.  Find the citizens who own the 10 largest pieces of land classified as protected areas  Find the 3 former government officials with the most recruitments according to their term in office.  Retrieve the legal document which certified the undergraduate curriculum of Informatics & Telecommunications department of the University of Athens. Nomothesia: Greek Legislation Ontology Hellenic PD Kallikratis: Greek Administrative Geography Public Buildings Public Organizations Hellenic Parliament Diavgeia Case Laws INSPIRE: Protected Areas Greek DBpedia Hellenic Cadastre ELSTAT EurLex EUROSTAT Greek Census Data 3
  5. 5. RELATED WORK CEN METALEX A popular format and vocabulary that is used for the encoding of the structure and content of legal and paralegal documents is CEN MetaLex, which has now been adopted and maintained by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN). MetaLex serves as:  an XML data exchange format,  but recently an ontology counterpart of it has sprung up which is expressed in the Web Ontology Language (OWL) CEN MetaLex 4
  6. 6. RELATED WORK THE METALEX DOCUMENT SERVER (NETHERLANDS) 5
  7. 7. RELATED WORK LEGISLATION.GOV.UK (UNITED KINGDOM) 6
  8. 8. RELATED WORK DIAVGEIA.GOV.GR (GREECE) 7
  9. 9. BACKGROUND ON GREEK LEGISLATION STRUCTURE OF GREEK LEGISLATION • There are five primary sources of Greek legislation we are considering in this work: • Constitution • Presidential Decrees • Laws • Acts of Ministerial Cabinet • Ministerial Decisions. • These sources of legislation are materialized in legal documents, which are encoded following specific standards. •Legal documents are published in the government gazette. 8
  10. 10. BACKGROUND ON GREEK LEGISLATION ENCODING OF GREEK LEGISLATION The encoding of Greek legislation follows the rules set out in “Manual Directives for encoding of legislation”: • Articles are the basic divisions in the text of legal document numbered using Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, …) • An article may have a list of paragraphs that are numbered using Arabic numerals. • Paragraphs may have a list of cases. Cases are numbered using lower-case Greek letters (α, β, γ, ...) and may have sub-cases which are numbered using double lower-case Greek letters (αα, ββ, ...). • The verbal period between two dots is termed as passage. Passages are the elementary fragments of legal documents and are written contiguously, i.e., without any line breaks between them. Passages are the building blocks of cases and paragraphs. • Legal documents may be subdivided according to their size at larger units, such as books, chapters, or sections, which are numbered using upper-case Greek letters. 9
  11. 11. BACKGROUND ON GREEK LEGISLATION ENCODING OF GREEK LEGISLATION - METADATA In addition to the aforementioned structural elements, legal documents are accompanied by metadata information. This includes: • The title of the legal document, which must be general enough but concise so as to reflect its content • The type (e.g., Law, Presidential Decree) • The year of publication • The number (i.e., the serial number counting from the beginning of the year for each type). The last three pieces of metadata information serve also as a unique identifier of the legal document. Of equal importance are also the issue and the sheet number of the government gazette in which the legal document is published. 10
  12. 12. BACKGROUND ON GREEK LEGISLATION CITATIONS When the reference to other legislation is necessary, this should be done uniformly throughout the text. Specifically, for purposes of accuracy and reading usability, citation must bear the number of the legal document and the year of publication. At the first occurrence of the legal document, the issue and the number of the sheet of the Government Gazette must be stated in brackets. It should also be mentioned the fragment thereof, where such reference 11
  13. 13. BACKGROUND ON GREEK LEGISLATION LEGISLATIVE MODIFICATIONS It is common international practice the amendment of a legal document by subsequent legal documents. Unfortunately, given the encoding of legal documents, there is no standard methodology that is followed for the codification of this legislative concept. By systematic observation, we reached to the conclusion that there are three main types of legislative modifications: • The substitution of a specific fragment by another introduced by a subsequent legal document • The addition of a new fragment • The deletion of a specific fragment. All these kinds of modifications produce new versions of the original legal document. 12
  14. 14. BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES From the Web of Documents… 13
  15. 15. BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES To the Web of Data! 14
  16. 16. BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES  RDF (Resource Description Framework)  OWL (Ontology Web Language)  SPARQL (Simple Protocol and RDF Query Language) 15
  17. 17. BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES  The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a graph-based data model for representing information about resources in the WWW. Resources are identified using URIs and described using triples. nomothesia:pd/2011/54 PresidentialDecreerdf:type Σύσταση Ειδικής Υπηρεσίας Δημοσίων Έργων Αντιπλημμυρικής προστασίας της Κοιλάδας του ποταμού Έβρου και των παραποτάμων του (ΕΥΔΕ ΕΒΡΟΥ) dc:title 16
  18. 18. BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES  The Web Ontology Language (OWL) has been designed to represent rich and complex knowledge about resources, groups of resources, and relations between them. Having an ontology, one may perform high-level reasoning tasks, such as the verification of the consistency of the knowledge represented in it or the deduction of further knowledge implied by the ontology nomothesia:pd/2011/54 PresidentialDecreerdf:type Σύσταση Ειδικής Υπηρεσίας Δημοσίων Έργων Αντιπλημμυρικής προστασίας της Κοιλάδας του ποταμού Έβρου και των παραποτάμων του (ΕΥΔΕ ΕΒΡΟΥ) dc:title BibliographicWork owl:subClassof owl:Class rdf:type rdf:type 17
  19. 19. BACKGROUND ON SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES  SPARQL is the standard query language for querying RDF graphs. SPARQL has a very intuitive syntax based on the notion of triple patterns and combinations of them using operators AND (denoted by the symbol ‘.’), UNION, OPTIONAL, and FILTER for forming more complex patterns. SPARQL offers also other attractive constructs, such as projection of variables, aggregate functions, groupings, etc. SELECT ?legaldocument ?title ?type WHERE{ ?legaldocument dc:title ?title. ?legaldocument rdf:type ?type. ?type owl:subClassOf BibliographicWork. } 18
  20. 20. MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES CEN METALEX ONTOLOGY CORE CitableBiblioGraphicObject BibliographicWork BibliographicExpression BibliographicManifestation LegislativeModification matterOf realizedBy embodies BibliographicCitation LegislativeCompetenceGround LegislativeCompetenceGround cites partOf 19
  21. 21. AN OWL ONTOLOGY FOR GREEK LEGISLATION CitableBiblioGraphicObject BibliographicWork BibliographicExpression BibliographicManifestation LegislativeModification Edit Addition Deletion matterOf embodies BibliographicCitation Fragment patient LegislativeCompetenceGround LegislativeCompetenceGround Book Part Section Chapter Article Paragraph Passage partOf partOf partOf partOf partOf partOf Case partOf partOf xsd:string text text cites xsd:string context Signer signer xsd:string foaf:name xsd:string foaf:title Gazette xsd:integer dc:title xsd:date dc:created xsd:string dc:title xsd:String@el tag Place gazette place xsd:string dc:title xsd:string legislationID CEN Metalex Core partOf partOf Law ActOfMinisterialCabinet PresidentialDecree Constitution MinisterialDecision partOf realizes 20
  22. 22. MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES NOMOTHESIA URIs SCHEMA http://legislation.di.uoa.gr/{type_of_legislation}/{year}/{id} VERSIONAL EXTENSIONS MANIFESTATION EXTENSIONS Type URI extension Current version - Enacted version /enacted Chronological version /{YYYY-MM-DD} Type URI extension XML /data.xml PDF /data.pdf RDF/XML /data.rdf JSON /data.json 21
  23. 23. MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES 22
  24. 24. QUERYING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES Retrieve the 10 most frequently modified legal documents between 2008-2013 SELECT ?legaldocumentURI ?title (COUNT(DISTINCT ?version) AS ?versions) WHERE{ ?legaldocumentURI metalex:realizedBy ?version. ?legaldocumentURI dc:title ?title. ?modification metalex:legislativeCompetenceGround ?work. ?work dc:created ?date. FILTER (?date >= "2008-01-01"^^xsd:date && ?date <= "2013-12-31"^^xsd:date) } GROUP BY ?legaldocumentURI ?title ORDER BY DESC(?versions)LIMIT 10 23
  25. 25. QUERYING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES Retrieve the longest article in terms of number of passages and the title of the legal document it belongs to that has been published in 2012 SELECT ?legaldocument ?title ?article (COUNT(?passage) as ?passages) WHERE{ ?legaldocument metalex:part+ ?article. ?legaldocument dc:title ?title. ?legaldocument dc:created ?date. ?legaldocument nomothesia:legislationID ?id. ?legaldocument rdf:type ?type. ?article rdf:type nomothesia:Article. ?article metalex:part+ ?passage. ?passage rdf:type nomothesia:Passage. FILTER ( ?date >= "2012-01-01"^^xsd:date && ?date <= "2012-12-01"^^xsd:date) } GROUP BY ?article ?title ?legaldocument ORDER BY DESC(?passages) LIMIT 1 24
  26. 26. QUERYING GREEK LEGISLATION USING SEMANTIC WEB TECHNOLOGIES Find the post government member that has signed the most legal documents during his service (Presidents of Hellenic Republic excepted) SELECT ?name (COUNT(?legaldocument) AS ?legaldocuments) WHERE{ ?legaldocument nomothesia:signer ?signer. ?signer foaf:name ?name. FILTER NOT EXISTS {?signer foaf:title "ΠΡΟΕΔΡΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ"@el} } GROUP BY ?name ORDER BY DESC(?legaldocuments) LIMIT 1 25
  27. 27. MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING NOMOTHESIA: AN EXAMPLE 26
  28. 28. MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING NOMOTHESIA: AN EXAMPLE rdf:type nomothesia:pd/2011/54 Presidential Decree rdf:type 2011-05-20 dc:created nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/1 nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/2 nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/3 nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/4 nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/6 nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/6 metalex:part Σύσταση Ειδικής Υπηρεσίας Δημοσίων Έργων Αντιπλημμυρικής προστασίας της Κοιλάδας του ποταμού Έβρου και των παραποτάμων του (ΕΥΔΕ ΕΒΡΟΥ) dc:title nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/1/paragraph/1 nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/1/paragraph/2 nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/1/paragraph/3 metalex:part nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/1/paragraph/1/passage/1 metalex:part Συνιστάται Ειδική Υπηρεσία με τίτλο «Ειδική Υπηρεσία Δημοσίων Έργων Αντιπλημμυρικής προστασίας της κοιλάδας του ποταμού Έβρου και των παραποτάμων του» (ΕΥΔΕ ΕΒΡΟΥ), με αρμοδιότητα σε όλα τα θέματα που αφορούν στο ειδικό και σημαντικό έργο της αντιπλημμυρικής προστασίας της κοιλάδας του ποταμού Έβρου, Ερυθροποτάμου, ʼρδα, παραποτάμων και Περιφερειακής Τάφρου Ορεστιάδας Paragraph nomothesia:text Passage rdf:type leg:gazette/a/2010/135 A/2011/135 dc:title nomothesia:pd/2011/54/signer/1nomothesia:signer ΚΑΡΟΛΟΣ ΠΑΠΟΥΛΙΑΣ foaf:name ΠΡΟΕΔΡΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΔΗΜΟΚΡΑΤΙΑΣ foaf:title Signer rdf:type Gazette rdf:type nomothesia:gazette 27
  29. 29. MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING NOMOTHESIA: AN EXAMPLE nomothesia:pd/2011/54 nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/3 nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/2 nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/1 metalex:part nomothesia:pd/2011/54/2012-01-30 metalex:realizes nomothesia:pd/2012/10 nomothesia:pd/2012/10/article/paragraph/4/modification/4 nomothesia:pd/2012/10/article/paragraph/3/modification/3 nomothesia:pd/2012/10/article/paragraph/2/modification/2 nomothesia:pd/2012/10/article/paragraph/1/modification/1 metalex:legislativeCompetenceGroundOf nomothesia:pd/2011/54/article/1/paragraph/1 metalex:part metalex:patient metalex:part metalex:matterOf nomothesia:pd/2012/10/article/paragraph/1/modification/1/passage/1 metalex:part nomothesia:Addition rdf:type 28
  30. 30. MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING NOMOTHESIA: AN EXAMPLE Retrieve the structure of P.D. 2012/10, the type of each part, and, optionally, its title and text. SELECT ?part ?text ?type ?title WHERE { nomothesia:pd/2012/10 metalex:part+ ?part. ?part rdf:type ?type. OPTIONAL { ?part nomothesia:text ?text. } OPTIONAL { ?part dc:title ?title. } } 29
  31. 31. MODELING GREEK LEGISLATION USING NOMOTHESIA: AN EXAMPLE Retrieve the name and the title of any person who has apply modifications on P.D. 2011/54 accompanied with the legal documents which are the Legislative Competence Grounds of these modifications. SELECT DISTINCT ?name ?title ?work WHERE{ nomothesia:pd/2011/54 metalex:realizedBy ?version. ?version metalex:matterOf ?modification. ?modification metalex:legislativeCompetenceGround ?work. ?work nomothesia:signer ?signer. ?signer foaf:name ?name. ?signer foaf:title ?title. } 30
  32. 32. NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM 31
  33. 33. NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM 32
  34. 34. NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM 33
  35. 35. NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM 34
  36. 36. NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM 35
  37. 37. NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM 36
  38. 38. NOMOTHESIA WEB PLATFORM 37
  39. 39. FUTURE WORK  Apply Nomothesia on more data! Grant access to the best available machine readable format for legal documents and RDFize them.  Apply Nomothesia to the whole legislative process coming through the Hellenic Parliament from the beginning (draft legal document comes in from the ministry) till the very end (legal document finally come out of enforcement). Demonstrate as a public service!  Link Greek legislation with other government data that are made available as linked data 38
  40. 40. FUTURE WORK Ministries (legislative committees, public consultation etc.) Hellenic Parliament (parliamentary committees, amendments, voting etc.) National Printing Office (printing, publishing) 39
  41. 41. FUTURE WORK Ministries (legislative committees, public consultation etc.) Hellenic Parliament (parliamentary committees, amendments, voting etc.) National Printing Office (printing, publishing) 40 Legislation Web Platform (querying, publishing)
  42. 42. QUESTIONS? 41

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