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Phuong Hong Nguyen, "Food System Transformation in Vietnam"

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Phuong Hong Nguyen
POLICY SEMINAR
Food System Transformations: National Actions in a Globalized World
Co-Organized by the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) and IFPRI
NOV 14, 2019 - 12:15 PM TO 01:45 PM EST

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Phuong Hong Nguyen, "Food System Transformation in Vietnam"

  1. 1. Food system transformation in Vietnam Phuong Hong Nguyen1 and Tuyen Huynh2 1Poverty, Health and Nutrition Division, International Food Policy Research Institute 2International Center for Tropical Agriculture, Vietnam A4NH/IFPRI Policy Seminar Washington DC| November 14, 2019
  2. 2. Burden of malnutrition in Vietnam 37 9 34 29 4 25 7 15 15 15 20 32 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Child stuntingChild wasting Child underweight Female underweight Adult overweight and obesity Adult high blood pressure Adult elevated blood cholesterol % 2000 2005 2010 2014 Source: NIN – The statistics on child malnutrition over the years 1999 – 2015, National nutrition surveillance and nutrition profile. Data for NCDs comes from Tuan T Nguyen and Hoang (2018) 21 55 26 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Anemia Zinc deficiency % Urban Rural Source: NIN micronutrient survey 2014-2015 Micronutrient deficiency among women of reproductive age
  3. 3. Vietnamese food choices  Food has to be fresh  Convenience can be as straightforward as being able to ‘enter on you motorbike’  Heavily depends on “wet market”  Rapid dynamic change in the last decades
  4. 4. Food System Transition • Intense agricultural production • Main crops: rice, coffee, rubber, cashew, • 6th largest producer of pig meat (30 million animals) • Rise of national milk production • Predominance of wet markets • Rapid growth of supermarkets, safe food shops and convenience stores • Culture of eating out • Food loss and waste under- researched • Rapid / direct supply • Demand for post-harvest technology • Strong export orientation • Preference for fresh • Range of ‘typical products’: noodles, fish sauce, etc. • Products on the rise: milk products, instant noodles • Only 5-10% of the total agricultural products are processed.
  5. 5.  High contamination with fecal bacteria, pathogenic bacteria, and parasites  23% of vegetables exceeded the maximum levels for pesticides (MARD)b Food safety risk management in Vietnam. WB 2017  Overuse of antibiotics and chemicals  Instability in aquaculture output  Unpredictability and large scale of disease occurrence.  83% comes from very small or small farms  76% of pigs are processed in small slaughtering  Preference for fresh “warm” pork supplied in retail traditional markets  Concerns on antimicrobial growth promoters, prophylactics, and therapeutic treatments of diseases Food Safety in Vietnam Vegetables Pork Sea foods
  6. 6. Efforts and new programs to tackle food system transformation in Vietnam  Economic reforms of the Doi Moi (1986–1993): Vienam become the world’s third-largest exporter in 1989  Shift from a supply-oriented focus on agricultural production, to a focus on market responsiveness and sustainability in Agricultural Restructuring Plan 2014  Globalization Trade: o Removed several tariff barriers and opened doors to new markets o Move from quantity-driven to quality-driven exports  Cross-collaboration national action plan for SDG2: Zero Hunger, 07 ministries, led by MARD  Nutrition Action Plan with Nutrition sensitive components and collaborations with other NGOs  Traditional and whole sale market upgrading Food System Transformat ion Demand & Food environ. Policies & Programs There is an emerging food systems interest within a rich policy environment
  7. 7. Challenges in tackling food system transformation  Lack of innovation and technology with few high-tech agrobusinesses  The limited scale and the low quality of infrastructure  Lack of human resources and capacity  Lack of evidences & data based policy mechanism for cross collaboration among ministries to reallocation resources along the food systems  Lack of financial resources for system approach during the rapid food system transformation  Pockets of widespread poverty  Geo-graphical divergence of the country  Climate change and disaster is getting more complicated and quickly
  8. 8. Institutional setup & capacity for food safety management • National policy frameworks for inspection and surveillance systems are emerging, but remain fragile • Each Ministry has its own network of laboratories with different capacities. • General knowledge about SPS principles in international and national food safety management systems is still insufficient. • Only few institutions currently provide specific training courses on food safety risk analysis. • Regulations on the labeling of prepacked foods in Viet Nam is voluntary The government explicitly aims to reduce food safety incidents through a combination of legislation and retail modernization. Legislation in Viet Nam (Law on Food Safety (LoFS)s No.55/QH12/2010) (Government of Viet Nam 2010) aims to ensure that ‘food shall not cause any harm to people’s health and lives.’
  9. 9. Challenges of application of food safety policies in Viet Nam  The government’s ability to control food safety is weak.  The national surveillance system is inconsistent and inadequate to monitor the large population and the amount of food produced.  High level of corruption among food inspectors  Viet Nam’s production system is still small and fragmented, and lacks investment in technology  Even when a case of bad food practices is uncovered by the authorities, the system for implementing sanctions is not strong Sources: World Bank 2006; Naziri et al. 2014; Pham and Dao, 2016
  10. 10.  Food systems transition occurring at multiple levels in the food supply chain  It is important to understand food system interactions at multiple scales and to identify leverage points to improve food systems  Key outcomes should include the food system capacity to deliver and assure food quality, diversity and safety, healthy diets, sustainability in production and food supply. Conclusion

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