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Budapest, August 31, 2012
                                        EUNICE 2012



       The Design of a Single Funding Point
         Charging Architecture (SFP-CA)
                Christos Tsiaras, Martin Waldburger, Guilherme Sperb Machado,
                                 Andrei Vancea, Burkhard Stiller
                      {tsiaras,waldburger,machado,vancea,stiller}@ifi.uzh.ch

              Department of Informatics IFI, Communication Systems Group CSG,
                                   University of Zürich UZH

                                            Motivation
                                          Requirements
                                          Components
                                           Architecture
© 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI                              1
Motivation
    Institution & federation expenses decrease
      – Cautious user resources requests
      – Unnecessary infrastructure replication avoidance
    User- instead of service-dependent funding accounts
      – A missing feature from Single Sign-on (SSO) systems
      – Not the case in the majority of federations today
    Inter-domain charging capability
      – Make sense for costly services
            • NOT for eduroam / YES for printing, Short Message Service (SMS), VoIP
      – Today this is a privilege only for Mobile Network Operators (MNOs)
        and banks
    Real-time service access decision making functionality
      – Today is mainly offered only by MNOs
    A Single Funding Point Charging Architecture (SFP-CA) as an add-on for
     SSO systems in federated environments is essential
© 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI                         2
Use case: SMS service @ ETHZ
    SMS offered by the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule
     Zürich (ETHZ)
      – SMS gateway
      – Agreement with an operator
            • The more SMS are sent the better the price per SMS is
    Assume that the University of Zurich (UZH) is willing to offer
     the same service
      – A second SMS gateway is needed
            • Infrastructure cost (purchase, setup, maintain)
      – A separate agreement with an operator is needed
            • Best case: The same price will be achieved
    Low SMS service load @ ETHZ
      – The existing infrastructure could serve all federation members
      – Better agreement with the SMS operator could be achieved!
© 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI                          3
SFP-CA Requirements

                      user                                 organization
                      Virtual                              Virtual
                      Funds                                Funds
                      Account                              Account




                          Interruption Service Trigger

       SMS: 10 BC     Service                            Service
        Min: 0 BC
                      Tariff                             Usage
         .
         .            Map                                Constraints and
         .
                                                         Limits
© 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI                     4
Virtual Funds Accounts (VFAs)
    uVFA
       – One per user
       – Credits used to pay the
         requested resources
       – In postpaid solutions negative
         values are allowed
       – Created by user's IdP
     oVFA
       – Each organization has one oVFA for every
         other organization in the federation                             x   oVFA(B)
       – If a user from organization A use
                                                                                ↑↓
         resources at B then oVFA(A) ↓ and
         oVFA(B) ↑                                         oVFA(A)        0   oVFA(B)
             • If a payment has been done then               ↓↑
               oVFA(A) = oVFA(B) = 0                       oVFA(A)   -x
             • If oVFA(A) + oVFA(B) ≠ 0 then Charging
               Data Record (CDR) transfer error occurred

© 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI                                5
SFP-CA Components

   Organization                                                         Service Provider Manager (SPM)
                                                                          – Service Providers (SPs) and users
                                Service Provider Manager                    location-independent charging
                     Charging
                     Rate
                     Manager
                                         SMS: 10 BC
                                          Min: 0 BC
                                           .
                                           .
                                                                        Charging Rate Manager (CRM)
                                                                          – Support of event- and session-
                                           .


                                                      Service
                                                      Provider
         Identity
         Provider
                                                                            based services
                                        User
                                                                        Account Balance Manager (ABM)
                     Account                                              – Support of prepaid and postpaid
                     Balance
                     Manager                                                payment method
                                                                        Charging Manager (CM)
                                                                          – Support of multiple organizations,
                    Charging                                                which belong on the same
                    Manager
                                                                            federation


                     Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure (AAI) / Single Sign-On (SSO) System




© 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI                                              6

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Eunice2012

  • 1. Budapest, August 31, 2012 EUNICE 2012 The Design of a Single Funding Point Charging Architecture (SFP-CA) Christos Tsiaras, Martin Waldburger, Guilherme Sperb Machado, Andrei Vancea, Burkhard Stiller {tsiaras,waldburger,machado,vancea,stiller}@ifi.uzh.ch Department of Informatics IFI, Communication Systems Group CSG, University of Zürich UZH Motivation Requirements Components Architecture © 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI 1
  • 2. Motivation  Institution & federation expenses decrease – Cautious user resources requests – Unnecessary infrastructure replication avoidance  User- instead of service-dependent funding accounts – A missing feature from Single Sign-on (SSO) systems – Not the case in the majority of federations today  Inter-domain charging capability – Make sense for costly services • NOT for eduroam / YES for printing, Short Message Service (SMS), VoIP – Today this is a privilege only for Mobile Network Operators (MNOs) and banks  Real-time service access decision making functionality – Today is mainly offered only by MNOs  A Single Funding Point Charging Architecture (SFP-CA) as an add-on for SSO systems in federated environments is essential © 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI 2
  • 3. Use case: SMS service @ ETHZ  SMS offered by the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich (ETHZ) – SMS gateway – Agreement with an operator • The more SMS are sent the better the price per SMS is  Assume that the University of Zurich (UZH) is willing to offer the same service – A second SMS gateway is needed • Infrastructure cost (purchase, setup, maintain) – A separate agreement with an operator is needed • Best case: The same price will be achieved  Low SMS service load @ ETHZ – The existing infrastructure could serve all federation members – Better agreement with the SMS operator could be achieved! © 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI 3
  • 4. SFP-CA Requirements user organization Virtual Virtual Funds Funds Account Account Interruption Service Trigger SMS: 10 BC Service Service Min: 0 BC Tariff Usage . . Map Constraints and . Limits © 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI 4
  • 5. Virtual Funds Accounts (VFAs)  uVFA – One per user – Credits used to pay the requested resources – In postpaid solutions negative values are allowed – Created by user's IdP  oVFA – Each organization has one oVFA for every other organization in the federation x oVFA(B) – If a user from organization A use ↑↓ resources at B then oVFA(A) ↓ and oVFA(B) ↑ oVFA(A) 0 oVFA(B) • If a payment has been done then ↓↑ oVFA(A) = oVFA(B) = 0 oVFA(A) -x • If oVFA(A) + oVFA(B) ≠ 0 then Charging Data Record (CDR) transfer error occurred © 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI 5
  • 6. SFP-CA Components Organization  Service Provider Manager (SPM) – Service Providers (SPs) and users Service Provider Manager location-independent charging Charging Rate Manager SMS: 10 BC Min: 0 BC . .  Charging Rate Manager (CRM) – Support of event- and session- . Service Provider Identity Provider based services User  Account Balance Manager (ABM) Account – Support of prepaid and postpaid Balance Manager payment method  Charging Manager (CM) – Support of multiple organizations, Charging which belong on the same Manager federation Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure (AAI) / Single Sign-On (SSO) System © 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI 6
  • 7. Charging scenarios that can be handled by the SFP-CA The service is provided to the user by... his home organization a foreign organization which is charging... which is charging... an user's home the user using a... ins dt titu hen organization, using a... tio use n w r 's ill c ho ha me offline charging online charging rg e offline charging ... method method method - VoIP - VoIP - VoIP - Printing - Printing - SMS © 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI 7
  • 8. SFP-CA Service Usage Organization A organization Organization B Constraints & Virtual Funding Account oVFA SUCL Limits Service Provider Manager Charging Interruption Rate Manager Service Tariff Service Trigger This domain does not offer a service Map Service Provider Identity Provider IdP User User Account user Balance Virtual Funding Account uVFA ABM Manager Charging Manager CM AAI / SSO System One-time interaction Service request Multiple times interaction © 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI 8
  • 9. Summary & future work  The SFP-CA enables the inter-domain charging functionality for federations – User & organization level  The SFP-CA enables the real-time service access decision making – Grant access – Interrupt service  The SFP-CA handles a large scenario set of charging requests – Local & guest users – Event & session based services – Offline & online charging  SSO system + SFP charging mechanism => Efficiency  Implementation of the SFP-CA (printing, SMS, VoIP) © 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI 9
  • 10. Q&A © 2012 UZH, CSG@IFI 10