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57th ICCA Congress | 13.11.18 | Doing business across cultures, how to communicate, cooperate and succeed

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57th ICCA Congress | 13.11.18 | Doing business across cultures, how to communicate, cooperate and succeed

  1. 1. International Congress and Convention Association #ICCAWorld Doing business across Cultures; How to communicate, cooperate and succeed! Marit Imeland Gjesme
  2. 2. «The past is a foreign country; they do things differently there» The opening lines of the novel «The Go-Between» from 1953, L.P. Hartley
  3. 3. 18-11-13 capturing the secrets of global agility 3
  4. 4. Culture is the collective programming of the mind Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  5. 5. PERSONAL CORPORATE ETHNIC GENERATIONAL RELIGIOUS CLASS GENDER REGIONAL Layers of Culture NATIONAL PROFESSIONAL / EDUCATIONAL The German part of me needs total control – while the Irish part only wants to create chaos Michael Fassbender, actor
  6. 6. 18-11-13 6Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch © Cross-cultural Competence: 1.Awareness 2.Understanding 3.Knowledge
  7. 7. RIGHT- WRONG GOOD-BAD CLEVER-STUPID X Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  8. 8. Do you want to be right? Or do you want a result? Success Failure Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  9. 9. 1. Who - or how - am I? 2. How might others see me? 3. What can I learn about what, when and how to adjust my “ways”, to better achieve my goals? For us all to focus on during this session:
  10. 10. Key Words and Traps for Cross Cultural (Mis)Understanding 1. Communication – speech patterns – listening habits – presentation/ “selling” styles 2. Values – core beliefs – national characteristics – attitudes and world view 3. Trust – how do you build or break it? 4. “When in the Arab world….” Cultural interaction is a business process that must be managed. It cannot be left to chance. Marit Imeland Gjesme, RLC & CultureCatch ©
  11. 11. 1. Write down your name /signature 2. Now write again, but this time: do it by using your other hand! Cultural Categories – The Lewis Model a global framework for understanding individual differences and their clusters in cultures
  12. 12. LINEAR-ACTIVE Cultural Categories – The Lewis Model a global framework for understanding individual differences and their clusters in cultures Talks half the time Does one thing at a time Plans ahead step by step Polite but direct Partly conceals feelings Confronts with logic Dislikes losing face Rarely interrupts Job-oriented Uses mainly facts Truth before diplomacy Sometimes impatient Limited body language Respects officialdom Separates the social and professional MULTI-ACTIVE Talks most of the time Does several things at once Plans grand outline only Emotional Displays feelings Confronts emotionally Has good excuses Often interrupts People-oriented Feelings before facts Flexible truth Impatient Unlimited body language Seeks out key person Interweaves the social and professional REACTIVE Listens most of the time Reacts to partner’s action Looks at general principles Polite, indirect Conceals feelings Never confronts Must not lose face Doesn’t interrupt Very people-oriented Statements are promises Diplomacy over truth Patient Subtle body language Uses connections Connects the social and professional Richard D. Lewis,, RLC ©
  13. 13. © 2009 Richard D Lewis As Wall Street Journal appointed the Lewis Model when it was first published: “the authoritative roadmap to navigating the world’s economies”!
  14. 14. Description Type Needed to Task-oriented, organised, structure- seeking, action chain completing, logical, rational, controlled, cool, one- thing-at-a-time agendas, mono- tasking. Emphasises efficiency and structure LINEAR-ACTIVE Organise, plan, structure, detect weaknesses, analyse consequences, access rationality and neutrality, generate data, challenge objectively, secure quality and safety Emotional, impulsive, creative, loquacious, proud, loyal, sensitive, multi-tasking, people-oriented, “colourful”, imaginative, Emphasises family, friends, relationships and feelings MULTI-ACTIVE Generate enthusiasm, motivate, persuade, create positive social atmosphere, show emotions, create dialogue, challenge personally, brainstorm, innovate Polite, respectful, perceptive, sensitive, quiet, careful, listening, reacts to others position and opinions once established and known. . Emphasises trust and “group before one self” REACTIVE Harmonise, prevent conflicts, see the overview and bigger picture, patience for research, think long term, preserve relationships, listen, empathize, challenge more holistically All types are valuable and needed!
  15. 15. 18-11-13 capturing the secrets of global agility 15 In what shoes are you most comfortable? Which ones do you PREFER?
  16. 16. 18-11-13 16 In what chair would you sit most comfortably? And in what chairs are your various relevant counterparts sitting? Those you want to influence? Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  17. 17. 17 The Lewis Model Relative positioning of national cultures Richard D. Lewis,, RLC ©
  18. 18. “The ability to generalize is a true sign of intelligence” Schopenhauer, philosopher
  19. 19. Consequences for: • how to communicate or negotiate • directness or diplomacy • meaning and weighting of values • time (and space) perception • meeting styles and meeting purposes • leadership styles • motivation • ways of building trust and relationships • safety and rules • marketing and sales • team roles and group contributions
  20. 20. 18-11-13 20Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch © Wetake care of our hardware.... What about the mental software?
  21. 21. RLC © CultureActive
  22. 22. Personal style consequences?
  23. 23. COMMUNICATION
  24. 24. 18-11-13 24 50% 50% Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch © Turn taking – natural and logical for both!
  25. 25. 18-11-13 25 90% 90% Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch © Enthusiastically talking over each other, lively engagement! Affirmative understanding, reinforcing eachother!
  26. 26. 18-11-13 26 10% 10%Lots of silence. Looooong pauses! Comfortable harmony and understanding Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  27. 27. 18-11-13 27 10% Advice? 50% Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch © ? Advice?
  28. 28. 28 50% 90% Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch © ? Advice? Advice?
  29. 29. 18-11-13 29 10%90% Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch © ? Advice? Advice?
  30. 30. The single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place. George Bernard Shaw, Irish poet, 1856-1950
  31. 31. USA Italy Finland National communication patterns – style and rhythm
  32. 32. UAE Germany RLC 2017 © Norway National communication patterns – style and rhythm
  33. 33. National Listening Habits, implying listening attitudes and guidance for how to present, formulate information, negotiate, build trust or be persuasive: Brazil Finland J Japan RLC 2017 © Australia USA Germany Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  34. 34. Communication according to category: Getting your message across, meeting customer / partner expectations Factual, pro’s and con’s Explicit, “economic” Information Compromise Friendly Sympathetic Emotional Wordy, lively, charismatic Respectful, corteous Humble, modest Team/group-oriented Harmony-seeking Linear-active ReactiveMulti-active Message is the key, deliver content in a straight-forward way. (What you say is what matters) Message is important, but how you deliver it is crucial (It is not just what you say, But more how you say it) Message itself is less important, may be vague & ambiguous. (who says it. Seniority and hierarchy important (+where and when) FOCUS ON PRODUCTS, EFFICIENCY – quality – price – solution – services FOCUS ON RELATIONSHIPS, WARMTH - contacts, personal trades - feelings, personal touch - opinions - fun, intertwining professional and social activities FOCUS ON LONG TERM TRUST AND BENEFITS - personal and company relationships - networks, connections - intense customer focus Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  35. 35. Aristotle s Rhetoric How to persuade What and How is impactful communication? 18-11-13 capturing the secrets of global agility 35 Logos Ethos Pathos What Who How a key to success for: communications, presentations, trust building, marketing, sales, motivation, leadership
  36. 36. VALUES
  37. 37. “Main Pains”
  38. 38. Marit Imeland Gjesme © www.culture-catch.com
  39. 39. 41 Share and discuss in your groups: What would you say is a main, generally agreed value in your home culture? 1. “misunderstood”? 2. be an obstacle to you, when working with cultures with different value hierarchies?
  40. 40. Importance: VALUE xx Importance:Importance: How “valuable”, how IMPORTANT is the value regarded to be? What it is associated with, related to, how is it built? Meaning: Meaning: Meaning: Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  41. 41. TRUST
  42. 42. How to work successfully in the Arab world 18-11-13 45 Communication, Values and Trust ….when working in the Arab world Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  43. 43. 46 Directness – Indirectness Individualism – Collective thinking Honesty – Loyalty Facts – Feelings “Products” – People
  44. 44. Shared Arabic values Strongly rooted in the UAE • Hospitality Being invited home is a great honour and announces you as a trusted friend. You will be treated like a royal • Generosity Secure a better balance between extremely rich and poor. (Also stated in Islam, regulated in taxes). • Honour Honourable behaviour is that what strengthens and secures the groups survival • Reliability An oral commitment of a senior Arab in front of witnesses can generally be relied upon • Moral High ethical standards, fearful of God and protecting the weak • Courage Especially connected to endure physical pain and emotional strain without revealing weakness • Integrity - being able to live the values above - • Honour and Integrity rank highest among values seen as “non-negotiables” Old values founded through the bedouin culture. Still highly respected, the “core of honour”, even if only 10% of todays Arabs are bedouins (appr 8 mills) Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  45. 45. capturing the secrets of global agility 48 «The most common mistake I see is with the patronising and condescending attitude of “we are the experts, we know better, we are here to tell you!” Rana Nejem
  46. 46. • Safeguard and enhance a persons honour and dignity, and avoid shame/“loss of face”, confrontation and conflict • Remember: Any dis-honourable behavior, insults (even unintentional) or humiliation reflects not only on the individual, but on the entire family and tribe - Since a person does not only represent him- or herself, but the entire group or family name • Accordingly: Consequences are far-reaching! Reputation, dignity, what people say and think, is highly important Motivating Factors SHOW CAUTION AND RESPECT for this as a guest in any country or when partnering with people from the culture! Understanding the unwritten rules gives you credit! Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  47. 47. These important values lead to appreciation of an INDIRECT COMMUNICATION STYLE Pay attention: to your tone, in both emails and on phone! From Western point of view, priority may be efficiency and speed – for Arabic point of view priority will be maintaining respect, honour and face – securing the relationship – while getting the message across For cultures that value direct communication: this gives lack of or unclear, unsaid info – and may seem time consuming and frustrating. Warning: Overlook adjusting to it – and you achieve NOTHING! Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch © For «linear’s» to remember:
  48. 48. Getting a clear YES or NO can be a challenge in the Arab world….. WHY is that? = we are not fully in control of our destinies - and in the end everything is in the hands of Allah. Promising or committing to things – like deadlines - may be seen as being overconfident or arrogant SHOW PATIENCE AND RESPECT! TRYING TO FORCE OR BEAT THIS GETS YOU NO WHERE! Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  49. 49. “Taboo’s” - What to avoid in the Arab world, to show your respect – Do not question, challenge or make fun with Islamic taboos (like drinking alcohol, eating pork, use of left hand) – Do not show reluctance to accepting or giving favours – Do not ever offer anyone anything with your left hand – Don’t express a wish to be left alone in the evenings when guests in their country – Expecting flexible bending of rules and asking an Emirati for “passing bureaucracy” for you, will be very offending – As a host, one must never leave the table as long as guests are eating – Gifts are not to be opened in front of giver – Don’t say anything that might be perceived as insulting or derogatory, even as what is intended as a humorous comment (in general – be always careful with humour!) – Don’t ever speak publicly about your luck, good fortune or successes – it may attract people’s envy and jealousy, which will cause harm. The Evil Eye – a very real presence still in Arab cultures. The Qur’an warns against the destructive powers of Envy. Blue “eye pearls” are used for protection and to fight the evil powers – You must never challenge the authority of elders in your family, or in any way disobey, show disrespect or speak about them in any patronizing way – nor accept to do so – Don’t ever criticize leaders or others publicly – only politely, in private – Don’t show disrespect by breaking dress codes – in general dress conservatively, especially as women – Mothers name should not be asked about or disclosed – it can be used to cause harm – Female relatives should not be asked about, commented on or discussed – Don’t discuss sensitive political issues – especially involving Islam, or Israel-related matters – If really getting “on the inside” : When coming to someone’s house, don’t open the door fully or walk in, but warn you are there (if you’re a man). You shout “Hood” (like Fore in the golf course…) and when you are welcome to enter, they shout “Heddah”. Big taboo to walk in unprepared! YES, it is BUSINESS RELEVANT! You are not EXPECTED to know these things – but it will always be to your advantage to show the right respect and «be liked», be «one to trust»! Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch ©
  50. 50. 1. Who - or how - am I? 2. How might others see me? 3. What can I learn about what, when and how to adjust my “ways”, to better achieve my goals? So, did it work? • how to communicate or negotiate • directness or diplomacy • meaning and weighting of values • time (and space) perception • meeting styles and meeting purposes • leadership styles • motivation • ways of building trust and relationships • safety and rules • marketing and sales • team roles and group contributions
  51. 51. Do you want to be right? …or….. Do you want a result? Success Failure Marit Imeland Gjesme, CultureCatch © Remember to adjust your “default mode”! = do the right thing?
  52. 52. International Congress and Convention Association #ICCAWorld Marit Imeland Gjesme +47 900 93 958 marit@culture-catch.com @culturecatchmarit www.culture-catch.com

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