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#Отключение	
  Умный	
  город	
  
Museum	
  of	
  Moscow	
  &	
  Open	
  Innovation	
  Forum	
  
http://mosmuseum.ru/lectu...
#Unplugging	
  	
  
the	
  	
  
Smart	
  City	
  	
  
Диалоги	
  о	
  современном	
  городе	
  и	
  
городском	
  образе	
  жизни	
  
будущего	
  
	
  
31	
  октября	
  —	
  18...
1.	
  Introduc6on:	
  	
  
The	
  Increasing	
  Global	
  Urban	
  EvoluTon	
  
	
  
2.	
  (10)	
  Provoca6ons:	
  
To	
  ...
1. Introduction:
The Increasing
Global
Urban
Evolution
By @icalzada
Source: @oxmartinschool
Source: @UNHABITAT
1950	
  
30%	
  	
  
URBAN	
  GLOBAL	
  
POPULATION	
  
Source: @UNICEF
1980	
  
40%	
  	
  
URBAN	
  GLOBAL	
  
POPULATION	
  
Source: @UNICEF
2010	
  
52%	
  	
  
URBAN	
  GLOBAL	
  
POPULATION	
  
Source: @UNICEF
2030	
  
61%	
  	
  
URBAN	
  GLOBAL	
  
POPULATION	
  
Source: @UNICEF
2050	
  
72%	
  	
  
URBAN	
  GLOBAL	
  
POPULATION	
  
Source: @UNICEF
1960	
  
Source: @UN
2025	
  
Source: @UN
21st century
>
The century
of/for
CITIES
By @icalzada
31/10/15 WP 9: Oxford Page 40
2> Scoping WP9 ‘Replication’
2. (10) Provocations:
To Design
Smart City
Strategies
In Moscow
By @icalzada
By @EU_H2020
1
Ethnographically
&
Strategically:
Learning Cities
(Campbell, 2012)
By @TheAtlantic
2
SMART CITY
No recipes
By @icalzada
3
No Replicable
By @STEEPproject
4
Urban Solutions
By @icalzada
By @icalzada
By @icalzada
By @icalzada
By @WikiCommons
By @lum_irun
5
Socially Innovative
By @danperjovschi
6
Unplugging
Public Private
Academia
Civil
Society
Social
Entrepreneurs/
Activists
By @icalzada
7
Stakeholders
By @LSECities By @bilbaometropoli
By @ifuturecities
By @CitiesOxford
8
City-to-City
Benchmarking
By @translokal in www.cityregions.org
9
Metropolitan
+
City-Regional
10
Experience
+
Open Data
Calzada,	
  I.	
  (2015),	
  Benchmarking	
  Future	
  City-­‐Regions	
  beyond	
  NaTon-­‐State...
hvp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21681376.2015.1046908	
  	
  
Project	
   Ci6es	
  involved	
   Timeframe	
  &	
  TiSle	
   Funding	
  ins6tu6ons	
  
EU-­‐FP7-­‐314277-­‐	
  
STEEP	
  ...
3. Proposal (10):
Unplugging
the
Smart City
By @icalzada
#UNPLUGGING	
  the	
  	
  
SMART	
  	
  
CITY	
  
1	
  
WHO	
  
2	
  
HOW	
  
3	
  
SYSTEMS	
  
4	
  
GOVERNANCE	
  
5	
  ...
by	
  Dan	
  Perjovschi	
  
#HER	
  
Beyond	
  Hyper	
  Connected	
  SocieTes	
  >	
  
Need	
  to	
  Deconstruct	
  the	
  Smart	
  City	
  
#UNPLUGGING	
  (precondiTons)	
  
	
  
①  Being	
  digitally	
  connected/#plugged	
  is	
  no	
  
guarantee	
  of	
  bein...
#UNPLUGGING	
  (definiTons)	
  
	
  
①  =	
  Being	
  Smartly	
  #Plugged	
  
②  Subtle	
  noTon	
  &	
  novel	
  trend	
  ...
SMART?	
  
#UNPLUGGING	
  >	
  liquid	
  
#UNPLUGGING	
  >	
  networked	
  
#UNPLUGGING	
  >	
  human	
  scale	
  
#UNPLUGGING	
  
	
  
① ≠	
  Techno-­‐determinism	
  
② ≠	
  (just)	
  Corporate-­‐led	
  approach	
  
	
  
Smart	
  City	
...
#UNPLUGGING:	
  +	
  Info	
  
	
  
①  Calzada,	
  I.	
  &	
  Cobo,	
  C.	
  (2014)	
  
Unplugging:	
  Deconstruc1ng	
  the...
#UNPLUGGING	
  
	
  
10	
  TRANSITIONS	
  
>	
  
1	
  
WHO	
  
	
  
1	
  TRANSITION:	
  WHO	
  
	
  
DIGITAL	
  &	
  SOCIAL	
  DIVIDE	
  
	
  
ONE	
  >	
  MULTIPLE	
  
	
  
2	
  
HOW	
  
	
  
2	
  TRANSITION:	
  HOW	
  
	
  
INDIVIDUALISM	
  vs	
  COLLECTIVISM	
  
>	
  	
  
NETWORKED	
  INDIVIDUALISM	
  
	
  
3	
  
SYSTEMS	
  
	
  
3	
  TRANSITION:	
  	
  
SOCIO-­‐TECHNICAL	
  SYSTEMS	
  
	
  
ARTIFICIAL	
  
>	
  
INTEGRATED	
  
	
  
TopDown	
  
BovomUp	
  
4	
  
GOVERNANCE	
  
	
  
4	
  TRANSITION:	
  GOVERNANCE	
  
	
  
TOP-­‐DOWN	
  &	
  MASTER	
  PLANNING	
  
>	
  
BOTTOM-­‐UP	
  &	
  EMERGENT	
  
5	
  INFORMATION	
  
	
  
5	
  TRANSITION:	
  INFORMATION	
  
	
  
SCARCITY	
  &	
  OVERLOAD	
  
>	
  
OPEN	
  ‘BIG’	
  DATA	
  ?	
  
6	
  FOCUS	
  
	
  
6	
  TRANSITION:	
  FOCUS	
  
	
  
‘SIMPLE’	
  SOCIAL	
  NETWORKING	
  INTERACTION	
  
>	
  
TRUST	
  BASED	
  SOCIAL	
  C...
7	
  TRANSITION:	
  SPACE	
  
	
  
CONTEXT	
  COLLAPSE	
  
	
  
FRAGMENTED	
  
>	
  
CONTEXTUALIZED	
  
7	
  SPACE	
  
CONTEXT	
  COLLAPSE	
  
“I don't want to run the risk of having a confrontation in real life so if I
have i...
8	
  TRANSITION:	
  DESIGN	
  
	
  
AMBIENT	
  COMMONS	
  
	
  
INFRASTRUCTURE-­‐CENTERED	
  
>	
  
PEOPLE-­‐CENTERED	
  
8	
  DESIGN	
  
AMBIENT	
  COMMONS	
  
9	
  TRANSITION:	
  	
  
SOCIO-­‐POLITICAL	
  PROCESSES	
  
	
  
CONTROL	
  &	
  NORMATIVE	
  
>	
  
EMERGENT	
  &	
  COMP...
9	
  SOCIO-­‐POLITICAL	
  PROCESSES	
  
10	
  TRANSITION:	
  	
  
POLITICAL	
  ECONOMY	
  
	
  
PRIVATE	
  &	
  FINANCIALLY	
  	
  
PROFITABLE	
  
>	
  
COMMUNITA...
10	
  POLITICAL	
  ECONOMY	
  
Should	
  /	
  Could	
  
we	
  
#Unplug	
  the	
  Smart	
  City	
  
?	
  
Can	
  we	
  test	
  it?	
  
www.unplugging.eu	
...
4. Final Remarks (10):
Some Homework
By @icalzada
1.  We need more ‘big’ methodologies, not more big data.
2.  Work out what problems need fixing.
3.  Find collective leade...
Спасибо	
  за	
  внимание	
  
	
  
Thanks	
  for	
  your	
  avenTon	
  
	
  
Eskerrik	
  asko	
  zuen	
  arretagaTk	
  
	
...
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt
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Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt

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Dr Calzada took part in the panel 'The city as a technology consumer. Vision 2030' in the programme of the Open Innovation Forum 2015 in Moscow (Russia) by presenting this '10 Provocations to Design Strategies of our (Smart) Cities' and quoting the journal article 'Unplugging: Deconstructing the Smart Cities' via Journal of Urban Technology. This presentation is a full version of the presentation he delivered two days later in the Museum of Moscow in front of an wide entrepreneurial audience.

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Open Innovation Forum & Museum of Moscow in Russia 29Oct2015 & 31Oct2015 Dr Igor Calzada MBA Univ Oxford Future of Cities.ppt

  1. 1. #Отключение  Умный  город   Museum  of  Moscow  &  Open  Innovation  Forum   http://mosmuseum.ru/lectures/p/2479/   Moscow  (Russia)   31st  October  2015   18:00   Dr  Igor  Calzada  MBA   Lecturer,  Research  Fellow  &  Policy  Adviser   Future  of  Cities   University  of  Oxford     @icalzada   http://www.igorcalzada.com/about       igor.calzada@compas.ox.ac.uk    
  2. 2. #Unplugging     the     Smart  City    
  3. 3. Диалоги  о  современном  городе  и   городском  образе  жизни   будущего     31  октября  —  18:00     лекция  ◆  музей  москвы    
  4. 4. 1.  Introduc6on:     The  Increasing  Global  Urban  EvoluTon     2.  (10)  Provoca6ons:   To  Design  Smart  City  Strategies  in  Moscow     3.  (10)  Proposal:   Unplugging  the  Smart  CiTes     4.  (10)  Final  Remarks:   Some  Homework  
  5. 5. 1. Introduction: The Increasing Global Urban Evolution By @icalzada
  6. 6. Source: @oxmartinschool
  7. 7. Source: @UNHABITAT
  8. 8. 1950   30%     URBAN  GLOBAL   POPULATION   Source: @UNICEF
  9. 9. 1980   40%     URBAN  GLOBAL   POPULATION   Source: @UNICEF
  10. 10. 2010   52%     URBAN  GLOBAL   POPULATION   Source: @UNICEF
  11. 11. 2030   61%     URBAN  GLOBAL   POPULATION   Source: @UNICEF
  12. 12. 2050   72%     URBAN  GLOBAL   POPULATION   Source: @UNICEF
  13. 13. 1960   Source: @UN
  14. 14. 2025   Source: @UN
  15. 15. 21st century > The century of/for CITIES By @icalzada
  16. 16. 31/10/15 WP 9: Oxford Page 40 2> Scoping WP9 ‘Replication’
  17. 17. 2. (10) Provocations: To Design Smart City Strategies In Moscow By @icalzada
  18. 18. By @EU_H2020 1 Ethnographically & Strategically: Learning Cities (Campbell, 2012)
  19. 19. By @TheAtlantic 2 SMART CITY No recipes
  20. 20. By @icalzada 3 No Replicable
  21. 21. By @STEEPproject 4 Urban Solutions
  22. 22. By @icalzada By @icalzada By @icalzada By @icalzada By @WikiCommons By @lum_irun 5 Socially Innovative
  23. 23. By @danperjovschi 6 Unplugging
  24. 24. Public Private Academia Civil Society Social Entrepreneurs/ Activists By @icalzada 7 Stakeholders
  25. 25. By @LSECities By @bilbaometropoli By @ifuturecities By @CitiesOxford 8 City-to-City Benchmarking
  26. 26. By @translokal in www.cityregions.org 9 Metropolitan + City-Regional
  27. 27. 10 Experience + Open Data Calzada,  I.  (2015),  Benchmarking  Future  City-­‐Regions  beyond  NaTon-­‐States,  RSRS  Regional   Studies  Regional  Science,  2:1,  350-­‐361,  DOI:  10.1080/21681376.2015.1046908.  
  28. 28. hvp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21681376.2015.1046908    
  29. 29. Project   Ci6es  involved   Timeframe  &  TiSle   Funding  ins6tu6ons   EU-­‐FP7-­‐314277-­‐   STEEP  Smart  City  Plan   •  Bristol  (UK)     •  St  SebasTan  (SP)     •  Florence  (IT)   2014-­‐2015:  Systems  Thinking  for   comprehensive  city  Efficient  Energy  Planning   Smart  City  Master  Plan.     EU-­‐FP7   hvp://www.smartsteep.eu/     EU-­‐FP7-­‐314679   STEP  UP  Smart  City  Plan   •  Glasgow  (UK)   •  Riga  (Latvia)   •  Gothenburg  (Sweden)   •  Ghent  (Belgium)   2014-­‐2015:  Energy  Planning  for  CiTes  Smart   City  Master  Plan.     MSc  Master  in  Global  Sustainable  CiTes.   EU-­‐FP7   www.stepupsmartciTes.eu/     EU-­‐H2020SCC-­‐Lighthouse.  REPLICATE   •  Bristol  (UK)     •  St  SebasTan  (SP)     •  Florence  (IT)   •  Laussane  (SW)   •  Essen  (DE)   •  Nilüfer  (TK)   2015-­‐2020:  REinassance  of  PLaces  with   InnovaTve  CiTzenship  And  TEchnology’.   EU-­‐H2020-­‐SCC     EU-­‐Marie  Curie  AcTons-­‐Cofund-­‐ Regional  Programmes   •  Bristol  (UK)   •  Glasgow  (UK)   •  Bilbao  (SP)   •  Barcelona  (SP)   2015-­‐2016:  Comparing  Smart  City-­‐Regional   Governance  Strategies:  Bilbao,  Barcelona,   Bristol  &  Glasgow’.   EU-­‐Marie  Curie  AcTons-­‐  Cofund   Smart City-to-City Learning & Benchmarking
  30. 30. 3. Proposal (10): Unplugging the Smart City By @icalzada
  31. 31. #UNPLUGGING  the     SMART     CITY   1   WHO   2   HOW   3   SYSTEMS   4   GOVERNANCE   5   INFORMATION   6   FOCUS   7   SPACE   8   DESIGN   9   SOCIO-­‐POLITICAL   PROCESSES   10   POLITICAL  ECONOMY   Social  and  Digital   Divide   Individualism  vs   Collec6vism   Socio  vs  Technical   Systems   Master  Planning  vs   Emergent  Plan  and   Top  Down  vs.  BoSom   Up   Overload  vs  Scarcity   Social  Networking  vs   Social  Capital   Context  Collapse   Ambient  Commons   Control  &  Norma6ve   vs  Free  &  Emergent   Profitable  vs  Non-­‐ Profitable   From   High   Individualism  vs   CollecTvism   ArTficial   Top  Down  and  Master   Planning   Controlled   InteracTon   Fragmented   Infrastructure-­‐ centered   Control  and   NormaTve   Private  and  Financially   To   Low   Networked   Individualism  or  Neo-­‐ communitarianism   Integrated   Bovom  Up  and   Emergent  Plan   Open  Data   Trust   Contextualized   People-­‐centered   Free  and  Emergent   Communitarian  and   Socio-­‐economical     Calzada,  I.  &  Cobo,  C.  (2015),     Unplugging:  Deconstruc1ng  the  Smart  City,       Journal  of  Urban  Technology.       DOI:  10.1080/10630732.2014.971535     hvp://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/10630732.2014.971535#abstract                              
  32. 32. by  Dan  Perjovschi  
  33. 33. #HER  
  34. 34. Beyond  Hyper  Connected  SocieTes  >   Need  to  Deconstruct  the  Smart  City  
  35. 35. #UNPLUGGING  (precondiTons)     ①  Being  digitally  connected/#plugged  is  no   guarantee  of  being  smart  (Evans,  2002)   ②  Technology  is  never  neutral  (and  it  is  always   poliTcally  constructed)  (Williams,  1983)  
  36. 36. #UNPLUGGING  (definiTons)     ①  =  Being  Smartly  #Plugged   ②  Subtle  noTon  &  novel  trend  that  merges   socially  innovaTve  off-­‐line  and  on-­‐line   interacTon  from  a  self-­‐criTcal  view.  
  37. 37. SMART?  
  38. 38. #UNPLUGGING  >  liquid  
  39. 39. #UNPLUGGING  >  networked  
  40. 40. #UNPLUGGING  >  human  scale  
  41. 41. #UNPLUGGING     ① ≠  Techno-­‐determinism   ② ≠  (just)  Corporate-­‐led  approach     Smart  City  have  to>could>will  EVOLVE  throughout       10  TRANSITIONS  
  42. 42. #UNPLUGGING:  +  Info     ①  Calzada,  I.  &  Cobo,  C.  (2014)   Unplugging:  Deconstruc1ng  the  Smart  City,  Journal  of  Urban   Technology,  hvp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10630732.2014.971535   ②  The  Oxford  Research  Centre  in  HumaniTes     ③  www.unplugging.eu  
  43. 43. #UNPLUGGING     10  TRANSITIONS   >  
  44. 44. 1   WHO    
  45. 45. 1  TRANSITION:  WHO     DIGITAL  &  SOCIAL  DIVIDE     ONE  >  MULTIPLE    
  46. 46. 2   HOW    
  47. 47. 2  TRANSITION:  HOW     INDIVIDUALISM  vs  COLLECTIVISM   >     NETWORKED  INDIVIDUALISM    
  48. 48. 3   SYSTEMS    
  49. 49. 3  TRANSITION:     SOCIO-­‐TECHNICAL  SYSTEMS     ARTIFICIAL   >   INTEGRATED    
  50. 50. TopDown   BovomUp   4   GOVERNANCE    
  51. 51. 4  TRANSITION:  GOVERNANCE     TOP-­‐DOWN  &  MASTER  PLANNING   >   BOTTOM-­‐UP  &  EMERGENT  
  52. 52. 5  INFORMATION    
  53. 53. 5  TRANSITION:  INFORMATION     SCARCITY  &  OVERLOAD   >   OPEN  ‘BIG’  DATA  ?  
  54. 54. 6  FOCUS    
  55. 55. 6  TRANSITION:  FOCUS     ‘SIMPLE’  SOCIAL  NETWORKING  INTERACTION   >   TRUST  BASED  SOCIAL  CAPITAL  
  56. 56. 7  TRANSITION:  SPACE     CONTEXT  COLLAPSE     FRAGMENTED   >   CONTEXTUALIZED  
  57. 57. 7  SPACE   CONTEXT  COLLAPSE   “I don't want to run the risk of having a confrontation in real life so if I have it on Facebook they can take it in, deal with it themselves, and then it's over and done with and I never had to say anything.” – Robert* by  @DugStef  
  58. 58. 8  TRANSITION:  DESIGN     AMBIENT  COMMONS     INFRASTRUCTURE-­‐CENTERED   >   PEOPLE-­‐CENTERED  
  59. 59. 8  DESIGN   AMBIENT  COMMONS  
  60. 60. 9  TRANSITION:     SOCIO-­‐POLITICAL  PROCESSES     CONTROL  &  NORMATIVE   >   EMERGENT  &  COMPLEX  
  61. 61. 9  SOCIO-­‐POLITICAL  PROCESSES  
  62. 62. 10  TRANSITION:     POLITICAL  ECONOMY     PRIVATE  &  FINANCIALLY     PROFITABLE   >   COMMUNITARIAN  &  SOCIO-­‐ECONOMICALLY   PROFITABLE  
  63. 63. 10  POLITICAL  ECONOMY  
  64. 64. Should  /  Could   we   #Unplug  the  Smart  City   ?   Can  we  test  it?   www.unplugging.eu    
  65. 65. 4. Final Remarks (10): Some Homework By @icalzada
  66. 66. 1.  We need more ‘big’ methodologies, not more big data. 2.  Work out what problems need fixing. 3.  Find collective leaderships. 4.  The tech is probably the easiest bit to fix: Who pays, who drives the changes, who should be involved? 5.  Share data at district micro level to foster an ecosystem for innovation in cities. 6.  Design from the bottom up: How? 7.  Get urban stakeholders on board (Penta Helix) 8.  New challenge: Tailored business and replicable models. 9.  More intensity in the learning process with other cities than producing useless apps. 10.  Future of the the Smart City: Towards Prosumer entrepreneurial ‘smart’ cities?
  67. 67. Спасибо  за  внимание     Thanks  for  your  avenTon     Eskerrik  asko  zuen  arretagaTk       Dr  Igor  Calzada  MBA   @icalzada   www.igorcalzada.com/about     igor.calzada@compas.ox.ac.uk    

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