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The purpose of this paper is to calculate the cooling load in frozen shrimp cold storage, calculate the performance of the vapor compression cycle including mass flow rate, compressor power, and COP. This study uses a theoretical design method. The design of cold storage for shrimp commodity, with the capacity of one container, will be calculated how much cooling should be given so that the maximum cold storage efficiency is obtained. Design data obtained from observations in the field. When the research was conducted in April 2015. The calculation results show that the Refrigerant used is Refrigerant 12 (R-12), Cooling load = 14.3022 TR = 50.254 kW, Shrimp product = 12 tons = 12,000 kg, Cold storage temperature: 10 ° C, Superheated: 5 ° C, Sub cooled: 5 ° C, refrigerant temperature in the condenser: 35 ° C, refrigerant temperature in the evaporator: 5 ° C, condenser pressure: 0.80 MPa Pressure in the evaporator: 0.40 Bar and COP: 4.76.

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- http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 643 editor@iaeme.com International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology (IJMET) Volume 10, Issue 01, January 2019, pp. 643–649, Article ID: IJMET_10_01_065 Available online at http://www.iaeme.com/ijmet/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&IType=01 ISSN Print: 0976-6340 and ISSN Online: 0976-6359 © IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed COLD STORAGE DESIGN IN CONTAINER Peter Sahupala and Reinyelda D. Latuheru Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Musamus, Merauke, Indonesia ABSTRACT The purpose of this paper is to calculate the cooling load in frozen shrimp cold storage, calculate the performance of the vapor compression cycle including mass flow rate, compressor power, and COP. This study uses a theoretical design method. The design of cold storage for shrimp commodity, with the capacity of one container, will be calculated how much cooling should be given so that the maximum cold storage efficiency is obtained. Design data obtained from observations in the field. When the research was conducted in April 2015. The calculation results show that the Refrigerant used is Refrigerant 12 (R-12), Cooling load = 14.3022 TR = 50.254 kW, Shrimp product = 12 tons = 12,000 kg, Cold storage temperature: 10 ° C, Superheated: 5 ° C, Sub cooled: 5 ° C, refrigerant temperature in the condenser: 35 ° C, refrigerant temperature in the evaporator: 5 ° C, condenser pressure: 0.80 MPa Pressure in the evaporator: 0.40 Bar and COP: 4.76. Keywords: Refrigerant, Cooling Load, Performance Cite this Article: Peter Sahupala and Reinyelda D. Latuheru, Cold Storage Design in Container, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 10(01), 2019, pp.643–649 http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/issues.asp?JType=IJMET&VType=10&Type=01 1. INTRODUCTION Shrimp is one of the seafood products that are liked and consumed by many people. Compared to land animals, shrimp meat has better eating quality because it is not clay, homogeneous and does not contain large blood vessels and muscles. Shrimp is very popular in the market because of its distinctive taste, therefore marketing shrimp in fresh form is very popular with consumers. One way to maintain the quality and freshness of the shrimp to be marketed is by freezing. Because of its high protein content, shrimp is a perishable commodity caused by enzyme and bacterial activities, therefore the handling of shrimp greatly affects the quality of processed products. In order to maintain good quality, there is already a quality standard that includes raw materials, handling methods, cooling and sanitation methods, both those carried out in factories and in marketing and distribution. The quality and freshness of shrimp must be maintained properly so that the shrimp reaches the market or into the hands of consumers. Handling shrimp yields must be done quickly, because the quality of shrimp is easily damaged. Errors or delays in handling result in shrimp not being expected to become export commodities.
- Peter Sahupala and Reinyelda D. Latuheru http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 644 editor@iaeme.com To maintain that the quality of shrimp remains good, it must be handled with care and not carelessly, handling that must be paid attention to is the cleanliness of the equipment used, handling must be fast and careful, avoid being exposed to direct sunlight, washing shrimp from dirt and mud with clean water put in baskets, buckets or barrels and doused with clean water, better than starting early using ice cubes to cool them, and grouping them according to their type and size. Cold Storage is one of the uses of refrigeration systems in the field of food preservation. Food ingredients such as shrimp can rot easily, therefore to extend the shelf life of shrimp need to be cooled. To inhibit bacterial growth and inhibit the activity of enzymes that can reduce the quality of food, especially shrimp, shrimp is frozen in the freezer and then lowered in temperature and experienced storage in cold storage. From the above problems, the objectives of this paper are: a) Calculate cooling load in frozen shrimp cold storage. b) Calculate the performance of vapor compression cycles including mass flow rates, compressor power, and COP. 2. METHODOLOGY 2.1. Research design This study uses a theoretical design method. The design of cold storage for shrimp commodity, with the capacity of one container will be calculated how much the cooling load must be given so that the maximum cold storage efficiency. Design data obtained from observations in the field. The time of the study was conducted in April 2015. Methods were provided (Maulany et al., 2018; Samudro et al., 2018; Waremra, RS and Bahri, 2018). 2.2. Design of Cold Storage Designing a cooling system in containers for shrimp commodity using referigeran R-12. Recommended design data include the electrical installation refrigerator container ignored, water flow rate rate 96.3 - 77 m3 / min, uniform shrimp temperature between 0oC-17.8oC, steady state air condition and steady flow refrigerant flow, mean air temperature outside the 300C container, the outer surface temperature of the container is 36.8oC, cooling load calculation using the reference method of the cooling load carrier method (TETD method). The dimensions of the container are as follows: 1. Container dimensions = 2,438 m (height); 2,438 m (width); 6.096 m (length) 2. The type of product is shrimp 3. Place of shrimp: carton 4. Cardboard size: 46 cm (length) + 43 cm (width) + 40 cm (height) 5. Temperature of the outside air cooler 30o C. The container material layer can be shown as follows:
- Cold Storage Design in Container http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 645 editor@iaeme.com Figure 1. Layer of container building material 3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Furthermore, as explained earlier, the design dimensions are as follows: a. Container Size: Height: 2,438 meters; Width: 2,438 meters; Length: 6.096 meters b. Product type: Shrimp c. Maximum load: 12 tons d. Place of shrimp: Carton e. Carton Dimension: Height: 40 cm; Width: 43 cm; Length: 46 cm f. The outside air temperature is 300C g. The air temperature in the container is assumed to be uniform which is -17.8oC h. The average air flow rate is 96.3-77 m3 / minute. By knowing the data above, we can calculate the cooling load. 1. Outside air temperature of the container Tf = T∞ + Ti Tf = 32+ 273 = 305 K 2. Air temperature in the container Tf '= -17.8 + 273 Tf '= 255.2 K 3. Transmission load a. Outer container The type of flow is determined using the Reynold Number equation. where: ρ : Type of fluid mass (1.17 kg/m3) μ : Absolute viscosity (4.81 x 10-6 kg/m.s) V : Initial fluid speed (5.5 m/s) L : Container length (6.096 m)
- Peter Sahupala and Reinyelda D. Latuheru http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 646 editor@iaeme.com So that it is obtained: (turbulence) The type of convection heat transfer is determined by the comparison equation of the Grasof Number with the Reynold Number. where: g : Gravity acceleration (9.81 m/s2) ν : Kinematic viscosity (20.75 x 10-6 m2/s) β : Volumetric Thermal Expansion Coefficient β = 1/Tf = 1/255,2 = 0,00392 K-1 Then obtained: 0,00386 < 1 (Forced convection) The comparison is as follows: = = 5.79873 x 10-15 The surface area of walls and doors is: Awalls = (2.438 x 6096 x 1.219) + (2.438 x 2.438 x 1.219) = 25.362 m2 Then large cooling loads through walls and doors: The surface area of the roof is: Aroof. = 2.438 m x 6.096 m = 14.862 m2 then large cooling loads through the roof: The surface area of the floor is: Afloor = 2.438 m x 6.096 m Afloor = 14.862 m2 Then the large cooling load through the floor is: So that the total cooling load through the building / container is: Qbuilding = q1 + q2 + q3 Qbuilding = 386.645 + 219.868 + 165.209 Qbuilding = 771.722 Watt The product cooling load is above freezing: q1 = 6081 kJ/hour Cooling load for the freezing process: q2 = 118338.33 kJ.hour Cooling load below freezing: q3 = -10203.72 kJ/hour So the total cooling load of the product above is: Qproduct = q1 + q2 + q3 = 114215.63 kJ/hour As a result of the cold storage door that is sometimes opened so that it will cause air permeation or air change, therefore the cooling load can be determined by the following equation: V = Volume of room V = P x L x T V = 6,096 x 2,438 x 2,438 V = 36.2336 m3 = 1279.5775 ft3
- Cold Storage Design in Container http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 647 editor@iaeme.com If it is assumed that within 24 hours the cold storaga door is opened for 5 times to carry out work activities then 5/24 = 0.2083 and air change factors at room temperature 30oC (86 F) and cold storage temperatures 10oC (50 F) with a humidity ratio of 60% 1.50 BTU / cu.ft, then obtained: Qpu = 1279.577508 x 0.2083 x 1.50 Qpu = 399.804 BTU/hour Qpu = 421.817 kJ/hour The light beam radiation will also affect the cold storage cooling load, this also depends on the number and specifications of the lights. In this design, the lamp data installed is as follows: a. Number of lights: 1 piece b. Lamp power: 5 Watts c. Ignition time: 24 hours d. Lamp type: TL (allowance factor value = 1.25) From the data above, the cooling load is obtained due to lighting factors: qWatt = Watt total x use factor x allowance factor qWatt = 5 x 3.4 x 1.25 qWatt = 21.25 kJ/hour Electric motors are used in the cooling cycle, which serves to rotate the evaporator fan so that the evaporator can emit heat. It is planned that the electric motor power is 8 HP and works 24 hours so that the cooling load can be determined as follows: qm = motor load factor x motor power x number of motors qm = 3700 BTU/HP.hour x 8 HP x 1 qm = 29600 BTU/hour qm = 31229.766 kJ/hour It is assumed that the entry limit for cold storage is 5 workers and the working time per day is 3 hours, the heat from the human body is equivalent to 1000 BTU / hour so that it is obtained: qpek = the number of workers x work hour x equivalent heat qpek = 5 x 3 x 1000 qpek = 15000 BTU/hour qpek = 15840 kJ/hour The total heat generated is equal to: Qtotal = ql + qm + qpek Qtotal = 21.25 + 31229.766 + 15840 Qtotal = 47090.016 kJ/hour The total cooling load for cold storage is: Qteo = qbuilding + qproduct + Qk + Qpu + Qtot Qteo = 2778.1992 + 114215.63 + 96 + 421.817 + 47090.016 Qteo = 164601.6622 kJ/hour Qteo = 156024 BTU/hour If there is an excessive load, so that there is no over load on the engine, it needs to add a safety factor of 10%, so that it is obtained: 10% safety factor = 156024 BTU/hour = 171626.4BTU/hour
- Peter Sahupala and Reinyelda D. Latuheru http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 648 editor@iaeme.com So the total cooling load is = 14.3022 TR (ton refrigerant) = 50.254 kW The P-h diagram for R-12, we assume the initial data is as follows: a. Refrigerant used: R-12 b. Cold storage temperature: 10oC c. Superheated: 5oC d. Subcolling: 5oC e. The temperature of the refrigerant is in the condensor: 35oC f. Pressure on the condenser: 0.80 Mpa g. Pressure on the evaporator: 0.40 MPa Obtained the following results: Point 1 P1 = 0,40 Mpa h1 = 215 kJ/kg Point 2 P2 = 0,80 Mpa H2 = 240 kJ/kg Point 3 P3 = 0,80 Mpa h3 = 96 kJ/kg Point 4 P4 = 0,40 Mpa h4 = 96 kJ/kg a. Reynolds numbers Re = h1 – h4 Re = 215 – 96 Re = 119 kJ/kg b. The refrigerant cycle in the evaporator c. Compressor power P = G x (h2 – h1) P = 0,4223 x (240 – 215) P = 10.5575 kW Thus the COP is obtained, determined by the following equation: COP = 4.76 4. CONCLUSION Based on the calculation of cooling load, it can be concluded as follows: 1. The design of this type of refrigerant used is Refrigerant 12 (R-12). The cycle cooling load is 14.3022 TR or 50.254 kW. Cold storage designed for the preservation of shrimp with a capacity of 12 tons or 12,000 kg.
- Cold Storage Design in Container http://www.iaeme.com/IJMET/index.asp 649 editor@iaeme.com 2. Design parameters include Cooling temperature in cold storage 10 ° C, Superheated temperature is 5 ° C, Sub cooled temperature is 5 ° C, Refrigerant temperature in the condenser is 35 ° C, Refrigerant temperature in the evaporator is 5 ° C, Pressure in the condenser is 0.80 MPa, the pressure in the evaporator is 0.40 MPa so that the coefficien of performance (COP) of 4.76 is obtained. REFERENCES [1] Arismunandar W. Dan Saito Heizo. (2005). Penyegar Udara. PT. Pradnya Paramita – Jakarta. [2] Cahyo Purnomo. (1993). Penanganan Pasca Panen Udang Windu. Pendidikan Guru Kejuruan Pertanian. Fateta Institut Pertanian Bogor [3] Dereta Andy Irwanto. (1976). Proses Pembekuan Udang di PT Pumar Cold Jakarta. Fakultas Mekanisasi dan Teknologi Hasil Pertanian Institut Pertanian Bogor. [4] Diknas RI. (2003). Standar Kompetensi Bidang Keahlian THP. Direktorat Pendidikan Fatemeta Institut Pertanian Bogor [5] Florence Buzin, Violaine Baudon1, Mireille Cardinal, Laurent Barillé, Joël Haure. (2011). Cold storage of Pacific oysters out of water: biometry, intervalval water and sensory assessment. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. September 2011, Volume 46, Issue 9, pages 1775–1782. (http://archive.bu.univ-nantes.fr/pollux/.../b38c4ccf-c4aa- 4c77-a177-42a68ad703.Dikutip pada tanggal 10 Maret 2015) [6] Ilyas (1980). Teknologi Refrigerasi Hasil Perikanan. Paripurna.Jakarta [7] Irwan Djaya .1980. Penanganan Udang Untuk Konsumsi Dalam Negeri dan Ekspor. [8] Maulany, GJ; Manggau, FX; Jayadi, Waremra, RS and Fenanlampir, CA. (2018). Radiation Detection of Alfa, Beta, and Gamma Rays with Geiger Muller Detector, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology, 9(11), 2018, pp. 21–27. [9] Merdiagung, Hari Prastowo dan Taufik Fajar Nugroho. (2015). Modifikasi Kinerja Cold Storage 10 Ton Menggunakan CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic). Jurnal Teknik Pomits Vol. 3, No. 1, (2014) ISSN: 2337-3539 (2301-9271). Jurusan Teknik Sistem Perkapalan, Fakultas Teknologi Kelautan, Institut Teknologi Sepuluh Nopember (ITS). ( http://ejurnal.its.ac.id/index.php/teknik/article/1638. Dikutip pada tanggal 10 Maret 2015) [10] Samudro, G., Syafrudin, Wardana, IW., Samudro, H. and Mangkoedihardjo, S. (2018). Determination of the Specific Energy of Mixed Waste Decomposition in Compost Solid Phase Microbial Fuel Cells (CSMFCS), International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(11), pp. 1316–1324. [11] Setyo Darmanto Prihadi. (1995). Teknik Pendingin. ITB-Bandung. Stoecker W. F. 1992. Refrigeration And Air Conditioning. McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York. [12] Sulaeman Miru. (2006). TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT PERUSAHAAN COLD STORAGE EKSPORTIR UDANG DI MAKASSAR. Maret 2006, Vol 3 No. 1: 53-60 ISSN 0852-8144 (http://digilib.itb.ac.id/.../jbptitbpp-gdl-sulaemanmi-31327-1. Accessed on 6 April 2015) [13] Ugwu, Hyginus Ubabuike, Ogbonnaya, Ezenwa Alfred. (2012). IOSR Journal of Engineering May. 2012, Vol. 2(5) pp: 1234-1250. Design and adaptation of a Commercial Cold Storage Room for Umudike Community and Environs Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, P.M.B. 7267, Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. (www.iosrjen.org/Papers/vol2_issue5/BA2512341250. Dikutip pada tanggal 28 April 2015) [14] Wahyudi, (2003). Penerimaan dan Persiapan Bahan Baku Udang. Bagia Pengembangan Kurikulum, Direktorat Pendidikan Menengah Kejuruan Direktorat Jenderal Pendidikan Dasar dan Menengah Departemen Pendidikan Nasional [15] Waremra, RS and Bahri, S. (2018). Identification of Light Spectrum, Bias Index and Wavelength in Hydrogen Lights and Helium Lights Using a Spectrometer, International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Technology 9(10), pp. 72–76.

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