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Intro to Orthomolecular Medicine“An amazing number of people with anxiety- depression lose their chronic fatigue, inertiaand depression when given proper nutritional treatment.” Dr Abram Hoffer MD PhD
Disclaimer• We’re not trying to convince you to stop taking your prescription medications• That decision lies with you and your physician• We must always take responsibility for our own health
Bioindividuality• One person is not the same as the other• No one size ﬁts all• There is a connection between the physiology of the body and the chemistry of the brain
What is Orthomolecular?• Orthomolecular medicine, as conceptualized by double-Nobel laureate Linus Pauling, aims to restore the optimum environment of the body by correcting imbalances or deﬁciencies based on individual biochemistry, using substances natural to the body such as vitamins, minerals, amino acids, trace elements and fatty acids.
Dr Abram Hoﬀer MD PhD• Canadian Physician, Psychiatrist, Biochemist• Discovered that nutrients and vitamins help heal Schizophrenia• Treated 10,000 schizophrenics in his life and 75% of them recovered
Placebo or Not?• Young adult prisoners who were given 1 multivitamin pill and 2 EFA supplements were less violent• 25mg of Zinc given to people on antidepressants helped reduce their depression moreso than antidepressants alone• “Nutritional deﬁciencies aﬀect brain function in every developmental stage of life,” Dr Fernando Gomez-Pinilla
Myth of taking too much vitamins • In past 4 decades, handful of alleged deaths from vitamins vs. hundreds of thousands of deaths from prescription drugs – Src: The Toxic Exposure Surveillance System• “For decades, I have asked my students to provide me with scientific evidence of a confirmed death from any vitamin. I have seen none to date.” Dr Abram Hoffer
What causes depression?• Stress• Death of a loved one / Divorce• Disability• Lack of social support• Accident• Loss of job• Loss of personal dreams or goals• Etc…
What causes depression?• Biochemical factors • Imbalances in neurotransmitters: serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine • Can be due to deﬁciencies in amino acids/ vitamins/minerals/cofactors• Physical factors% • Co-occurring disorder (cancer, heart attack, pain, stroke, Parkinson’s…)
Causes of depression: Overactive immune system• During prolonged infection or injury, chemicals called proinﬂammatory cytokines, produced during the inﬂammation process, can contribute to depression by causing changes in neurotransmitters.• Cytokines can also lead to deﬁciencies in neurotransmitters by continually stimulating their release• Several studies show high levels of proinﬂammatory cytokines and low levels of anti inﬂammatory cytokines in people with depression• This and several other studies support the idea that depression may be in some cases due to an overactive immune system
Genetic Factors• Depression occurs at higher rates in families where either a grandparent or parent had depression• Personality traits such as anxiety and neuroticism strongly correlate with depression
Other links/causes• Toxic metal buildup• Hormonal imbalances• Vitamin deﬁciencies• Amino acid and fatty acid imbalances• Low or high levels of minerals• Parasites• Food allergies (gluten, dairy, food dyes, etc)• Imbalanced levels of digestive enzymes• “Bad” bacteria, yeast or other ﬂora in your intestines
Did you know…• It’s illegal for drug companies to advertise directly to consumers except in USA and NZ• Nondepressed individuals accounted for 94% of new antidepressant use due to direct-to-consumer advertising (Src Adam Block, economist in U.S. Congress)
Side eﬀects: risk of suicide and worsening of depression• In March 2004, FDA told manufacturers to add a warning label to following drugs: • Wellbutrin (bupropion)• Prozac (ﬂuoxetine) • Eﬀexor (venlafaxine)• Zoloft (sertraline) • Serzone (nefazodone) • Remeron (mirtazapine)• Paxil (paroxetine)• Luvox (ﬂuvoxamine)• Celexa (citalopram)• Lexapro (escitalopram)
Sugar• Overconsumption of sugars and processed foods exasperate depression• White bread, pastries, breakfast cereal, crackers, cakes, cookies, etc• Downsides: • Leech nutrients from the body • Removes protein from the body • Leads to negative moods, thoughts and nightmares
Vitamin A• indirect impact on depression• cofactor in the metabolism of essential fatty acids• dark greens, cantaloupe, carrots, squash, sweet potato, spirulina, blue green algae, wheatgrass, barley grass • highly rich in beta carotene and other cartenoids
B Vitamins• Many of the Bs are critical for both mood and energy regulation • B1 (thiamine), B3 (niacin), B6 (pyridoxine), B9 (folate), B12 (cobalamin), Inositol• Folic acid and B12 strongly linked to depression• Reﬁned sugar and carbs, alcohol, and prescriptions deplete vitamin B stores• Found in raw vegetables, greens, sprouted grains
B-Vitamins• Young women who regularly take birth control pills often deﬁcient in Bs• B6 increases mood of women on the pill• Correcting a deﬁciency wards oﬀ sadness, irritability, fatigue
• B-vitamins crucial for • hormone secretion • neurotransmitter production • nerve transmission • cellular metabolism • preventing damage from cortisol
Dr Gabriel Cousens MD• “in my experience, the B-complex vitamins have more dramatic mood elevating eﬀects than most other nutrients”• “various B-Vitamins are crucial for proper nerve function and nerve cell metabolism, which produces optimal neurotransmitter levels”
thiamine B1• psychiatric patients admitted to hospitals have abnormally low thiamine levels in blood• vegetables, whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes
riboﬂavin B2• necessary for essential fatty acid metabolism• improves energy production in brain ells• whole grains, legumes, green leafy vegetables, beans
niacin B3• regulates blood sugar• crucial component of another B-complex vitamin, NADH, which has prominent antidepressant eﬀects• indirect eﬀect on serotonin • body uses tryptophan to produce niacin• long term deﬁciency = psychosis and dementia.• sesame seeds, sunﬂower seeds, jungle peanuts, brown rice, whole grains, barley, almonds
pantothenic acid B5• forms coenzymes necessary for proper functioning of essential fatty acids• helps production of adrenal hormones • thus, vital for anyone subject to extreme stress• avocado, mushrooms, collard greens, sunﬂower seeds, lentils, broccoli, brown rice
pyridoxine• most dramatic mood elevating eﬀects of all Bs• correct brain metabolism dysfunctions that cause depression• heightens serotonin function through its ability to slow the destruction of tryptophan in the brain• acts as a cofactor for enzymes that convert tryptophan to serotonin• spinach, walnuts
Folate• Journal of Clinical Psychiatry reported on a Harvard study. 28 weeks of Prozac treatment, 40mg/day• Relapse rate for patients with low folate levels were 42.9% (less than 2.5ng/mL)• Relapse rate for patients with normal levels was 3.2%• Hundreds of studies since 1970s reporting relationship b/w folate and depression
Folate• Folic acid is synthetic• Serum folate is not an accurate measure• Folate is the real one needed from food• Destroyed through cooking & processing• Synthetic supplements get stuck in the receptors and block natural supplements from getting in
B12• How much is too little?• “I aggressively treat people with B12 levels of under 500pg.” Dr James Greenblatt MD• Take methylcobalamin subcutaneously• Deﬁciency more of an absorption issue• Necessary for myelin sheath that insulates nerve ﬁbers• Allows for the free ﬂow of neurotransmitters
• Signs of B12 Deﬁciency • Apathy • Depression • Memory loss • Irritability • Anxiety • Clumsiness, Confusion • Weakness • Tremors • GI Problems • OCD• Paranoid psychotic depression is sometimes confused with a B12 deﬁciency
B12• sea vegetables• green and blue-green algae: spirulina, Klamath Lake algae, chlorella• bee pollen• mushrooms
Inositol• studies show beneﬁcial eﬀects for treating depression, panic disorder, ADD, OCD• “I see inositol lift depression in 5% of my patients” Dr Cousens MD• protects cell membranes from damage• act as precursor for compounds that carry messages in nervous system and brain• citrus fruits, cantaloupe, nuts, beans, whole grains
Choline• involved in the synthesis or release of certain neurotransmitters• when neurons are deprived of it, result may be memory loss or mood disorders• elevates mood, improves memory• improves alertness and mental energy• leafy greens, jungle peanuts, bee pollen
Vitamin C • Vitamin C is an anti-oxidant, anti-inﬂammatory agent • Ascorbic acid is a pro-oxidant • Must get a natural supplement derived from food source, not one with synthetic ascorbic acid • An important cofactor of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline synthesis • Strengthens adrenals and endocrine glandsChronic treatment with ascorbic acid enhances cortical spreading depression in developing well-nourished and malnourished rats. Department of Nutrition, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, 50670901, Recife, PE, Brazil. firstname.lastname@example.org
Vitamin C• “95% of my clients with depression require additional vitamin C.” Dr Gabriel Cousens MD• green and red peppers, strawberries, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cauliﬂower, greens, camu camu berry, sauerkraut, sprouted chickpeas
Vitamin C• Highly linked to depression• Every medical textbook until a few years ago indicated that one of the most common eﬀects of inadequate vitamin C is depression (Src Dr Hugh Riordan MD)• Dr Riordan had a patient who was profoundly depressed • 3 years psychotherapy • Fatigue, barely able to function • Blood test showed no detectible vitamin C • Given 500mg of C per day (not much!) • After couple weeks, she thought a miracle occurred• 30% of new admissions to health centres with a diagnosis of depression has low plasma vitamin C levels
Vitamin D• Patients suﬀering from SAD (seasonal aﬀective disorder) have been found to be low in Vit D• Mood stabilizer• Vitamin D3 is synthesized in skin from its precursor• UV-dependent• More needed in the winter
Vitamin D• Inﬂuences the growth and regulation of every cell in the body• 41% to 57% of the population are deﬁcient• Minimum 30 mins of sunshine needed - ideally avoiding the noon hours.
Vitamin E• protects neurons from free radical damage• low levels of vitamin E can quickly limit serotonin activity• major protect of brain cell membranes• helps slow Alzheimer’s• vegetable oils, dark leafy greens, whole grains, nuts, seeds, legumes
• Low bloodwith depressionhave been associated levels of EFAs• The brainand glucoseand uses 20% of body’s nutrients is 60% fat supply• Brain is most metabolically active organ in body• Omega 3s: DHA, EPA, Linolenic acid • Flaxseed (linseed) oil • Green leafy vegetables • Walnuts, sprouted chia seeds, sprouted ﬂax • Linolenic acid slowly converted into DHA and EPA in the body• Needed for growth, integrity ofin the body membranes, in many reactions cell
EFAs• Made in cold-climate plants: more resistant to freezing• Lower melting point – liquid at room temp• Highly reactive• Must be in balance with Omega 6s in body• Omega 3 highly lacking in an average diet• Modern diet contains barely 20% of omega 3s needed
EFAs• 81 adolescents with sub-threshold psychosis (lost touch with reality, schizotypical)• Supplemented with 1.2g omega 3 fatty acids or placebo daily for 12 weeks• After 40 weeks • 5% in omega 3 group developed psychosis • 28% in placebo group developed psychosis Src: Archives of General Psychiatry
EFAs• Takes about 10 weeks with Omega 3 fatty acid supplementation to see an eﬀect on the brain
E3Live• 100% AFA, an edible blue-green algae• Wild harvested from Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon• Highest concentration of chlorophyll and protein• 22 amino acids including 8 essential• Easily digested, rapid absorption
E3Live• Contains phenylethylamine (PEA), which enhances concentration and attention.• PEA is a natural mood elevator and anti-depressant.
E3Live• Contains a complete balance of vitamins except for vitamins D and E• Contains almost every mineral in trace amounts• Chlorophyll Content per 10 grams AFA Algae 300 mg Spirulina 115 mg Chlorella 280 mg Barley Grass 149 mg Wheat Grass 55mg
E3Live•“Within an hour of taking E3Live, my suicidal thoughts went away for the ﬁrst time in months.” 34, Female, Toronto
• "I personally consume fresh-frozen, liquid E3Live daily and consider it to be one of natures most beneﬁcial superfoods.• It provides 64 easily absorbed vitamins, minerals and enzymes, as well as providing antioxidants and valuable protein.• If you think of your bodys constitution like the foundation of a house, with all its cracks and crevices, you can think of E3Live as being able to ﬁll in those nutritional cracks and crevices to give you superior health.• We here at Hippocrates consider it the most vital wild-grown foundational food on Earth.”• Src Dr. Brian Clement ND PhD
E3Live• "I take it myself daily.• E3Live and E3 BrainON® oﬀer speciﬁc beneﬁts to the nervous system and brain function.• Ive had people who have been depressed for years and years, and literally, within a few days after receiving E3 BrainON®, their depression lifts.• This is because E3Live® gets to the root of helping heal the addictive brain chemistry that underlies a lot of depression.” Dr. Gabriel Cousens, MD, MD(H)
• “My staﬀ and I noticed a leap in our stamina during our workouts, an incredible boost in our mental clarity and ability to stay focused, and a decrease in our appetite.• Our patients have commented that they are losing cravings for "the bad foods" as they continue to drink E3Live®.” Dr. Baxter D. Montgomery, MD
E3Live• Study: Favorable Effects of Blue-Green AlgaeAphanizomenon flos-aquae on Rat Plasma Lipids Kushak RI, Drapeau C, Van Cott EM. JANA. 2000;2(3):59-65. • ABSTRACT• Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are essential for human health. There are indications that the lipid fraction of blue-green algae Aphanizomenon ﬂos-aquaecontains about 50% of PUFA and may be a good dietary source of PUFA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the eﬀect of diets fooded with algae on blood plasma lipids.• Methods: Rats were fed with four diﬀerent semisynthetic diets: i) standard, with 5% soybean oil; ii) PUFA-free with 5% coconut oil; iii) PUFA-free with 10% algae; iv) PUFA-free with 15% algae. After 32 days the levels of plasma fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterol were studied.• Results: Rats fed the PUFA-free diet demonstrated an absence of linolenic acid (LNA) in plasma; however, supplementation with algae resulted in the same level of LNA as controls, an
E3Live• "I was taking 7 diﬀerent medications for bi-polar disorder. As a result of these anti-depressants, I went from a size 10 to a size 18 in six months. I tried for 2 years to get the weight oﬀ. Nothing happened. After just a few days of taking E3Live®, I went from being seriously depressed to the world suddenly being a wonderful place. Two weeks later, I had lost 13 pounds, with a total of 40 pounds in 3 months. I havent been on any medication for depression since.” Debra Belton- Harkley
E3Live • Fantastic for depressive symptoms and various other psychological disorders. If my clients are not on E3live, then I recommend Brain On."• — Dr. Cinzia Genuardi, N.D., BSc.
Rancidity of oils• When oils are heated or exposed to high amounts of light and oxygen, they turn rancid• Healthy “cis” shaped fat molecules turn into extremely unhealthy “trans” shared fat molecules (trans fat)• Anything in a package has trans fat...hydrogenated oils or a fat that was heated in processing
Rancidity of oils• Products with 0.0g of trans fat actually probably contain under 500mg of trans fat per label laws• Keep liquid oils away from heat• Never heat a liquid oil in cooking• Use only coconut oil in cooking - it’s solid at room temp, liquid at cooking temp• Rancid oils damage organs, proliferate disease, prevent weight loss
Zinc• “Zinc is the new prozac” Dr James Greenblatt MD• Majority of enzymes in the brain are zinc dependant• You need zinc to help serotonin convert to melatonin• Best zinc supplements are liquid form• Too much zinc supplementation copper deﬁciency
Zinc• Keeps immune system strong• Keeps memory sharp• Important role in production of neurotransmitters• Involved in at least 100 enzyme systems in the brain alone• Low levels have been linked to major depression• Supplemental zinc has antidepressant eﬀect• Zinc supplementation signiﬁcantly reduces depression in people who had not been helped by antidepressants in the past• Every depressed patient should be tested for zinc deﬁciency
Copper• You need copper to make dopamine into noradrenaline• However, high copper can make someone with anxiety more irritable, aggressive, or hyper• Low copper can lead to depression• Get a lot of copper from every day sources (pollution)
Magnesium • Humans are most likely to be deﬁcient in magnesium • Magnesium deﬁciency can trigger mental health problems (depression, insomnia, anxiety, apathy, irritability, nervousness, migraines)• “In my own practice, magnesium supplementation has been invaluable in relieving the insomnia and anxiety often associated with depression.” Dr James Greenblatt MD
Magnesium• whole grains, nuts, seeds, kelp and other sea veg• almonds, black eyed peas, avocados, oatmeal• apples, beets, ﬁgs, lentils, grapefruit• spirulina, chlorella• processed foods have lower magnesium contents
Calcium• necessary for smooth functioning of nervous system• suﬃcient serotonin activity• prevention of irritability and depression• kelp, almonds, kale, collards, sesame seeds, beans• pasteurization reduces calcium absorption• soft drinks, meat, and other acid foods reduces bodily levels of calcium
Iron• dairy foods inhibit iron absorption• vitamin C supplements enhance absorption• anemia an lead to fatigue, lethargy and other depression symptoms• cofactor in process by which tyrosine is metabolized into L-dopa and dopamine• kelp, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds, sunﬂower seeds, almonds, cashews, raisins• whole grains, legumes, dark greens
Selenium• elevates mood• decreases anxiety• low levels linked to symptoms of depression/anxiety• seafoods most reliable source because don’t know if it’s in the soil
Chromium• controls hunger and weight• reduces body fat• high amounts can reverse atypical depression• allows glucose to enter cells when insulin is present• whole grains• rare in foods: must supplement 100mcg to 500mcg
Acne • Both skin and nervous from a common tissue during structures (originating system are ectodermal embryonic development) • Have similar nutritional needs • Many psychiatric patients have skin problems • Patients who recover on orthomolecular see their skin issues go away• “Severe to moderate acne and psychiatric symptoms are both the result of malnutrition. Orthomolecular treatment removed both the acne and the depression.” Dr Hoffer.
Amino Acids• Amino acids are necessary for synthesis of all major neurotransmitters• Tryptophan --> Serotonin• Phenylalanine --> Dopamine• Noradrenaline• GABA• SAMe• Glutamate• Need strongdown to digest protein,& this is worn HCl due to poor diet but antacids
Neurotransmitters• Essential for good mood • Serotonin • Dopamine • Adrenaline • Noradrenaline• Messengers between nerve cells (neurons)• Chemicals that cross the gap (synapse) between 2 ends of nerve ﬁbres or between neurons and muscle cells• At the targetacell, the neurotransmitter is received and binds to protein receptor
Neurotransmitters• When neurotransmitter molecules activate a critical mass of receptors, the receiving nerve initiates an electrical impulse• Those that aren’t destroyed by enzymes or blocked (ex. By drugs) can be reabsorbed at the original neuron.• They can then be sent back across the synapse to help initiate another impulse• Messages are transferred
Neurotransmitters• Tryptophan is the precursor to serotonin and melatonin• In any normal diet, tryptophan is the least available. 9:1 other aminos to tryptophan.• Tryptophan depletion in studies has a mood lowering eﬀect
Serotonin• Diverse & complex eﬀects on the heart, intestines, blood vessels, other organs• 95% of serotonin is synthesized in the gut. 5% is synthesized and stored in the brain.• You have 100 million neurons in your gut! Small intestine. “Trust your gut feeling.”• Src: Dr Patrick Holford MD• In the November 26, 2008 issue of "Cell," Dr. Gerard Karsenty of the Columbia University research group discovered that a gene in the gut, Lrp5, controlled serotonin synthesis.
Serotonin• Extra serotonin in the brain may help to alleviate pain• Primary activator of pleasure in the brain• Feelings of: • emotional stability • well-being • personal security • relaxation • calmness • tranquility • conﬁdence
Serotonin• Low serotonin linked to • depression and anxiety • appetite (cravings for sweets & carbs) • OCD (part of brain that controls voluntary movements)• Dietary sources of serotonin not as important as serotonin manufactured in the body• Tryptophan --> 5HTP --> Serotonin
Serotonin• B3 is a cofactor of 5HTP synthesis• B6 is most critical cofactor of serotonin synthesis• Vitamin C a cofactor of serotonin synthesis• Doesn’t matter how much 5HTP you supplement with -- if there’s not enough B6, it won’t convert
Neurotransmitter Deﬁciencies• Genes• Diet• Stress Amino acids• Neurotoxins are lost in• Inﬂammation cooking
Dopamine• Signs of deﬁciency • anxiety • low self esteem • lack of libido • fatigue • eating disorders • cravings for carbs and sugar • impatience and impulsiveness• Crucial role in elevating the mood
Dopamine• Generates feelings of pleasure & euphoria• Encourages assertiveness• Vital for short-term memory, concentration and learning• Boosts secretion of growth hormone and promotes the body’s ability to repair damaged cells• Phenylalanine --> Tyrosine --> Dopa --> Dopamine
What causes a dopamine deﬁciency?• Use of alcohol or recreational drugs• Caﬀeine, sugar• Nicotine• Amphetamines, Opiates, Cocaine• Addiction partly due to repeated use of a substance, causing a decrease in the # of dopamine receptors• Research found that recovering cocaine addicts much less able to process glucose in brain (glucose is brain’s main fuel)
Dopamine• Studies show it’s possible to repair dopamine pathways that have been harmed by drugs, poor diet, stress• Can reactivate brain’s pleasure centers• Brain can rebuild with proper nutrition
Noradrenaline• Controls heart rate and blood pressure• Factor in how quickly glucose is converted to energy• Factor in how body responds to stress and anxiety• Phenylalanine --> Tyrosine --> Dopa --> Dopamine --> Noradrenaline• Can be further metabolized into adrenaline
Noradrenaline• Noradrenaline may be more of a factor when depression is melancholic rather than manic• Too much noradrenaline activity: • nervousness • restlessness • diﬃculty falling asleep • weight loss • (similar to pattern of mania)
Signs of Noradrenaline Deﬁciency• Lack of energy• Reduced libido• Sluggish thinking• Lack of enthusiasm
Glutamine: Brain Fuel• Cabbage juice especially rich in glutamine• Important in protein metabolism• Crucial for optimal brain function• Stimulating or “excitatory” neurotransmitter• Beneﬁcial eﬀect on mood and energy• Although brain’s main fuel is glucose, it doesn’t store glucose in large quantities. • Without suﬃcient glutamine, the brain can only shuﬄe along at a fraction of its capacity
Glutamine Deﬁciency• Craving for sweets• Tendency toward alcoholism• Low sex drive
GABA• Nonessential amino acid (neurotransmitter)• Opposite eﬀects as glutamine• Prevents nerve cells from ﬁring too quickly• Slows things down, inhibits message transmission, leads to you feeling calmer• Reduces anxiety
GABA• Formed in body from amino acid glutamate• ...With help(Vitamin B6) such as Vitamin C and pyridoxine of cofactors• Too much GABA • sluggish thinking • extreme sleepiness • memory problems• GABA overactivity more likely to cause anxiety depression than GABA deﬁciency
GABA Deﬁciency• frequently nervous and anxious• panic attacks• exhaustion from stress• excessive stress reactions from normal situations
Antacid Use• Pepto bismol, milk of magnesia, Alka-seltzer, Maalox, Tums, Mylanta• Depletes HCl in the stomach• Leads to low levels of amino acids• Aminoto depression linked acids are precursors to neurotransmitters• Sometimes depression is a chronic digestion issue ﬁrst and foremost• Probiotics, digestive enzymes, and fermented foods are therefore essential
Amino Acids• 10 females with a history of bulimia vs 12 healthy controls• 7 hours following administration of an amino acid mixture, study subjects with a history of bulimia had more increased ratings of their body image concern.• Subjective loss of control of eating following drinking a tryptophan-free mixture.
Digestion• For your body to make HCl, you need zinc and B- vitamins• Stress interferes with HCl production• Green smoothies help body to create HCl• HCl supplements available• Fermented foods • Kombucha, kimchi, sauerkraut, natto, miso, tempeh, pickles• Probiotics• Digestive Enzymes
Digestion• “Sciencebrain’ producing neurotransmitters, such acts like a ‘second is discovering that the digestive system as serotonin, hormones and immune-transmitters, called cytokines, that literally cross-talk with the brain.”• Our gut bacteria affect our mood. • We have more bacteria in the vitalthan proper immunity. body, and they are absolutely gut for cells in our entire • Probiotics help signal to the brain to calm down, reducing stress reactions. • Research hasto improve mood in those who are prone to been shown found that supplementing probiotics has depression.• Src Dr Patrick Holford MD
Cholesterol• Cholesterol is essential for good mental health• Low levels associated with heightenedbeingof developing major depressive disorder, risk hospitalized and an increased death from suicide• Depressed than 165mg/dL) were 7x more levels (less men with low total cholesterol likely to die prematurely from unnatural causes such as suicide & accidents
Cholesterol• Low cholesterol decreases the # of serotonin receptors in the brain• Decreasing the number of serotonin receptors may lead to decreases in serotonin levels
Statins• Statins are #1 prescribed med in U.S.• Antidepressants are #2• Signiﬁcant link between low cholesterol and depression, anxiety, mood and memory• “Statins can cause depression” Dr James Greenblatt MD• Post mortems on suicide cases: dissect brain and ﬁnd much lower cholesterol levels than average
Dr Duane Graveline MD• Astronaut with NASA• Doctor of Aerospace Medicine• Flight surgeon• When put on statins, he developed transient global amnesia and couldn’t recognize his family• Recovered after stopping his medication• NASA physicians prescribed half the dose, but amnesia returned• Now completely oﬀ statins
SSRIs• 1/3 of the negative trials submitted to the FDA were never published• Actual number of positive studies are 50%• Half of antidepressant trials failed to show a beneﬁt that exceeded that of a placebo• If someone goes to a doctor, and the doctor gives them a Tic Tac and says “this’ll help your depression,” 50% of the time, it’ll work!
Short term ﬁx• Why are depression and suicide a side eﬀect of SSRIs?• Chronic SSRI use chronic down-regulating your body learns not to produce your own neurotransmitters anymore. No need.
Withdrawal• Can’t just stop antidepressants cold• Withdrawal eﬀects• Taper oﬀ slowly by introducing nutrients and amino acids gradually• Never literature but it’s serotonin syndrome in the been a report of theoretical• Serotonin syndrome happens in hospitals with multiple or psychiatric drugs – not with natural supplements like 5HTP mixing with just one antidepressant.