1. A – Level Media
Lesson 2 – Representation (1)
• Understand the range of different representations that could
appear within the exam.
• Understand the individual representations and there contexts
• Be able to understand the impact of representations from a
critical perspective – Gender.
• Be able to use gender theory to analyse text.
• The focus of Section A is to identify how technical conventions
are impacting the representation in the extract.
• This requires you to identify the identified technical elements
and use these to justify the way representation has been
created for the film TV drama.
• The list of potential representations that could appeal in the
• Class and status
• Physical ability/disability
• Regional identity
• Audience Theory – We will also explore related audience
theories to evidence the points and representations being
made – Today Gender – Male Gaze
• How are women
in this image,
consider if it is a
• How are women
being portrayed in
this image is it a
different or similar
• Considering the two
images consider what
it could be suggesting
• What does this image
convey about gender and
• Considering the three
images consider what it
could be suggesting
about representations of
women in film/media.
8. What is gender
• “SEX” refers to the biological and physiological
characteristics that define men and women.
• “Gender” refer to the socially constructed roles,
behaviours and attributes that a given society considers
appropriate for men and women.
• Due to these points the representation of masculinity
and femininity are determined by us and reinforced
through Media products.
9. Video - Gender
• An introduction of Gender
10. Gender Identity
• We ‘learn’ gender identity and what is expected from us as
we grow taking in the range of expectations fed to us
through the Media, books, social group school etc.
• The social demand to conform is so strong that individuals
tend to conform so as to fit within society's expectations,
by the time children start school learnt they have learnt
how to be masculine or feminine.
• NOTE – transgender, LGBT are beginning to challenge these
preexisting gender types while still remaining excepted within
society – HAS TAKEN A LONG TIME, mostly due to recent changes in
societies view of this and celebrities – Caitlyn Jenner.
12. TASK – Gender Labeling
• Using the gender labels consider one tv shows that challenge
these conventions of gender representation and one that
conforms with them.
• Traditionally men have power and
status and control society this is
• This has resulted in a set of
stereotypes where men are seen to
be powerful and superior to female
attributes while women are often
shown as sub servant or objects of
desire / possession for the men.
• This is changing, oldest son inherits
is now eldest sibling NOT SON.
Royal family included.
14. Femininity in Film
• Women were traditionally within TV and film limited in the
roles they could get. These roles were often as:
• Objects of Desire
• Why did these stereotypes suited the patriarchy?
15. Gender Stereotypes
We all know the stereotypes—
the femme fatale, the
supermom, the sex kitten, the
nasty corporate climber.
Whatever the role, television,
film and popular magazines
are full of images of women
and girls who are typically
white, desperately thin, and
made up to the hilt—even
after slaying a gang of
vampires or dressing down a
The Joker is a very popular character with
boys, perhaps because laughter is part of
their own “mask of masculinity.”
The Jock is always willing to “compromise
his own long-term health; he must fight
avoid being soft; and must be aggressive.”
The Strong Silent Type focuses on “being in
charge, acting decisively, containing
emotion, and succeeding with women.”
The Big Shot is defined by his professional
status. The Action Hero is “strong, but not
necessarily silent. He is often angry.
The Buffoon commonly appears as a
bungling father figure in TV ads and sitcoms
• The previous stereotypes leads into
objectification the way women are often
portrayed on screen.
• Women are made to look / dress alluring in
film ad tv to appeal to male audience.
• Defining women as sex objects – something
males are viewing for their pleasure.
• Definition of voyeurism – erotic pleasure
gained from looking at a sexual object.
17. Male Gaze – Laura Mulvey
• Mulvey wrote this theory in 1975.
• She states that women are objects to be observed
by the audience and that the camera is the male
perspective viewing them, often why the camera
will linger on female curves etc.
• She argued that women took the passive part of
film while the male were the active part of the film.
• It denies women an identity other than as an
• Scopophilia - It is an act of voyeurism where the
female is viewed as of visual pleasure both for
characters and actors.
• In cinema the women are viewed from the
perspective of a heterosexual male and that women
are viewed unequally and sexualised for the viewers
The masculinisation of the viewer
18. Gender - Example
• Misfits – Episode 1 – end scene.
• How is gender represented within this sequence?
• The question is always open to encourage debate!
Prepare a plan of how you would answer this question.
Keep this Plan the essay is soon.
19. Additional Reading
• An interesting study on male to female screen time – the invisible
women theory - https://seejane.org/research-informs-
• Also look at Media Representation stereotypes
• Sexual orientation is a pattern of emotional,
romantic, and/or sexual attractions to men,
women, both genders, neither gender, or
Heterosexual male =
Tough, protector and
leaders. They are usually
higher in society as
Strauss' idea of dominant
figures state the men who
are around their 40's who
have high paying jobs
dominate in the general
Strauss' idea of
binary opposites is
evident as they
are typically seen
23. Stereotypes about Bisexuals
People deny that bisexuality is real
They are confused, undecided, dabblers, insecure,
experimenting or “just going through a phase”.
People are either ‘gay, straight or lying’
They are promiscuous
They are greedy
24. Stereotypes about Heterosexuals
• They are always monogamous
• It is the ‘norm’
• ‘There is nothing at all wrong with
• Male partners are the abusers
• Straight couples always have children
26. Examples of how homosexual males
and females are portrayed in TV
Gay Men: Kurt Hummel
Kurt Hummel in Glee is conforms to the Stereotype of a
homo-sexual man in Glee.
This is due to his costume consisting of over-the-top,
glittery outfits, he has quite a feminine face and cares a lot
about the way his hair is styled and the products he uses in
He also is very outgoing as he is an avid member in the
school's Glee club and is not afraid to express his sexuality
and is very naive when it comes to typical male likes such as
Kurt conforms to the stereotype to add drama to the show
and create situations that can be humorous (e.g. his
ignorance of American football) to make his character more
comedic as a person. However his sexuality isn't a gimmick
as he is a regular lead character and his very manly father is
supportive of his sexuality thus he isn't just categorised by
27. Examples of how homosexual males and
females are portrayed in TV Drama:
Gay Men: Thomas Barrow
Thomas Barrow in Downton Abbey does not conform
to the stereotype of a typical gay man.
This is because due to his job of being high up in the
housekeeping ranks; he wears a formal costume every
day and speaks with no exaggerated tone and makes
no reference to his sexuality of tries to show off as a
He does not conform as Downton Abbey is a period
time and in the era it was set, being homosexual was
illegal. Thus Thomas defies the stereotype as he is
represented to be ashamed of his sexuality as he has
to hide it and furthermore this shows how the
stereotype/s have developed with the more
welcoming view in society.
28. Examples of how homosexual males
and females are portrayed in TV
Lesbians: Shane Mccutcheon
Shane Mccutcheon in the US drama The L
Word conforms to the stereotype of a
This is seen in one clip as she has quite a
deep voice; her costume consists of quite
baggy male clothes (including a bowler hat)
and is seen to be uninterested with typically
girly activities such as shopping and taking
great care in materialistic appearance.
This shows that she conforms to the
stereotype of being quite butch and manly
yet because she's in a show which is centred
on a group of lesbian/bi people, her
characteristics are most likely present to
show that there is variation in sexuality and
some people can conform to stereotypes.
29. Examples of how homosexual males and
females are portrayed in TV Drama:
Lesbians: Sophie Webster
Sophie Webster in Coronation Street goes against the
typical stereotype of homosexual women.
This is because she appears to be very feminine looking
with long brown hair, she wears a fair amount of
makeup and wears costumes that consist of fashionable
clothes of the latest trends.
She is considered to fit in as she has both male and
female friends and has a job at the local corner shop
and gets on with everyone in the street without
Moreover she is a Christian meaning she defies the
stereotype that all lesbians are against religion as she
believes in faith herself.
Overall Sophie Webster represents what would typically
be a 'normal' heterosexual girl with the only difference
being her sexuality.
• Prepare a short presentation identifying a show which
challenges the traditional values sexuality or gender.
• Half of you will present sexuality and the other half gender –
• Include a video extract of your show – Youtube to high light
the points you are making – No more than four slides. It could
compare the represesentations of differing characters. Are
they positive or negative.