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FISH
CLASSIFICATION
• KINGDOM ANIMALIA
• PHYLUM CHORDATA
• SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA (BACK BONE
PRESENT)
• SUPRACLASS AGNATHA (JAWLESS FISH)
• CLASS MYXINI (HAGFISH)
• CLASS CPHALOSPIDOMORPHI (LAMPREY)
• SUPRACLASS GNATHOSTOMATA (JAWED FISH)
• CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES (CARTILAGINOUS
FISH)
• CLASS OSTEICHTHYES (BONY FISH)
PHYLUM CHORDATA
FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHORDATES
• 1. HOLLOW NERVE CORD- IN VERTEBRATES IT
DIFFERENTIATES INTO BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD
• 2. NOTOCHORD- FLEXIBLE ROD PRESENT AT ONE STAGE IN ALL
CHORDATES; IN VERTEBRATES IT DIFFERENTIATES INTO
VERTEBRAL COLUMN THAT FORMS AROUND THE NERVE CORD
• 3. PHARYNGEAL SLITS - POUCHES THAT CONNECT PHARYNX
WITH OUTSIDE (BETWEEN MOUTH AND ESOPHAGUS). GILLS IN
SHARKS, FISH; PRESENT IN TERRESTRIAL ANIMAL EMBRYOS
BUT DISAPPEAR LATER EXCEPT EUSTACHIAN TUBE
(CONNECTING THROAT AND MIDDLE EAR)
• 4. POSTANAL TAIL- EXTENDS BEYOND ANUS; PRESENT AT
LEAST IN EMBRYO; REGRESSES INTO TAIL BONE IN HUMANS
• 5. SEGMENTATION- REFLECTED IN ARRANGEMENT OF
MUSCLES & IN VERTEBRAL COLUMN
3
SUPRACLASS AGNATHA
(JAWLESS FISH)
4
Class Cephalspidomorphi (Lamprey)
• Parasite
• attaches to other fish & sucks their blood
• lives in ocean
Class Myxini (Hagfish)
• Scavenger
• lives in the ocean
• known for its slimy secretions
Both have cartilaginous skeletons
and sucker-like mouths
5
SUPRACLASS GNATHOSTOMATA
(JAWED FISHES)
CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES
(SHARKS & RAYS)
• HAVE SKELETONS MADE OF CARTILAGE NOT BONES (HAVE
BONE JAW).
• MOST SALTWATER/ VERY FEW FRESHWATER
• HAVE NO OPERCULUM (GILL COVER)
• SOME MUST KEEP MOVING TO BREATHE & OTHERS CAN PUMP
WATER OVER THEIR GILLS
• SPIRACLE- A MODIFIED SLIT BEHIND THE EYE, ASSISTS THE
SHARK WITH TAKING IN WATER DURING RESPIRATION AND
PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN BOTTOM DWELLING SHARKS.
• HAVE DIFFERENT KINDS OF SCALES THAT FEEL AND LOOK
MORE LIKE SANDPAPER.
• MULTIPLE ROWS OF REPLACEMENT TEETH THAT STEADILY
MOVE FORWARD LIKE A CONVEYOR BELT. SHARKS CAN LOSE
UP TO 30,000 OR TEETH IN THEIR LIFETIME.
• MOST SHARKS ARE COLD BLOODED
• CONTROL BUOYANCY WITH LARGE LIVERS THAT EXCRETE OIL
7
CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES
(SHARKS & RAYS)
REPRODUCTION
• VIPAROUS- LIVE BIRTH
• VIVIPAROUS- EGGS HATCH INTERNALLY
• OVOVIVIPAROUS- LAY EGG CASES EXTERNALLY
(CALLED MERMAID’S PURSE)
• SEPARATE SEXES
• MALES HAVE CLASPERS
8
CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES
(SHARKS & RAYS)
SENSORY
• AMPULLAE OF LORENZINI- ELECTRORECEPTOR
ORGANS USED TO DETECT THE
ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ALL LIVING THINGS
PRODUCE. THEY NUMBER IN THE HUNDREDS TO
THOUSANDS.
• LATERAL LINE SYSTEM- DETECTS MOTION OR
VIBRATIONS IN WATER
9
GENERAL ANATOMY OF A SHARK
10
GENERAL ANATOMY OF A RAY
11
16
Basking Shark is a filter feeder
17
18
CLASS OSTEICHTHYES
(BONY FISH)
• BACKBONE MADE OF BONE
• FRESHWATER & SALTWATER
• GILLS WITH OPERCULUM (FEW HAVE LUNGS)
• FINS - DORSAL, CAUDAL, PECTORAL, PELVIC,
ANAL.
• SWIM BLADDER- A GAS FILLED SAC THAT HELPS
THE FISH MAINTAIN BUOYANCY. SHARKS DON’T
HAVE A SWIM BLADDER
• LATERAL LINE SYSTEM
TYPES OF OSTEICHTHYES
RAY FINNED:
– MOST FISH ARE THIS TYPE
– FINS ARE SUPPORTED BY BONY
STRUCTURES CALLED RAYS.
LOBE FINNED:
– FINS ARE LONG, FLESHY,
MUSCULAR, SUPPORTED BY
CENTRAL CORE OF BONES.
– THOUGHT TO BE ANCESTORS OF
AMPHIBIANS.
– EXAMPLES ARE: COELACANTH,
LUNGFISH
FINS
ADAPTATIONS
SWIM R BLADDER OPERCULUM
LATERAL LINE SYSTEM
Swim
Bladder
FISH ANATOMY
RESPIRATION
• WATER FLOWS OVER GILLS
AS FISH OPENS MOUTH AND
SWIMS.
• WATER FLOWS OPPOSITE
DIRECTION OF BLOOD FLOW.
• O2 DIFFUSES FROM THE
WATER INTO THE BLOOD.
• GILLS ARE MADE OF
THOUSANDS OF GILL
FILAMENTS.
• GILLS ARE COVERED BY THE
OPERCULUM.
CIRCULATION
• FISH HEART HAS 2 CHAMBERS
• SINGLE LOOP CIRCULATION
• BLOOD FLOWS INTO GILLS, PICKS UP O2, GOES TO THE
BODY, RETURNS TO THE HEART.
REPRODUCTION
• MOST FISH REPRODUCE SEXUALLY, AND
FERTILIZE THEIR EGGS EXTERNALLY
• SPAWNING IS THE PROCESS OF
FERTILIZING EGGS.
• BABY FISH ARE CALLED FRY.
29
Coelacanth: living fossil, lobe-finned
30
Cichlids
31
Clown Fish (Nemo)
32
Kissing Fish
33
34
35
36
37The puffer fish uses air to expand its body
to look intimidating to predators
38

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Fish Taxonomy & Charateristics

  • 2. CLASSIFICATION • KINGDOM ANIMALIA • PHYLUM CHORDATA • SUBPHYLUM VERTEBRATA (BACK BONE PRESENT) • SUPRACLASS AGNATHA (JAWLESS FISH) • CLASS MYXINI (HAGFISH) • CLASS CPHALOSPIDOMORPHI (LAMPREY) • SUPRACLASS GNATHOSTOMATA (JAWED FISH) • CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES (CARTILAGINOUS FISH) • CLASS OSTEICHTHYES (BONY FISH)
  • 3. PHYLUM CHORDATA FIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF CHORDATES • 1. HOLLOW NERVE CORD- IN VERTEBRATES IT DIFFERENTIATES INTO BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD • 2. NOTOCHORD- FLEXIBLE ROD PRESENT AT ONE STAGE IN ALL CHORDATES; IN VERTEBRATES IT DIFFERENTIATES INTO VERTEBRAL COLUMN THAT FORMS AROUND THE NERVE CORD • 3. PHARYNGEAL SLITS - POUCHES THAT CONNECT PHARYNX WITH OUTSIDE (BETWEEN MOUTH AND ESOPHAGUS). GILLS IN SHARKS, FISH; PRESENT IN TERRESTRIAL ANIMAL EMBRYOS BUT DISAPPEAR LATER EXCEPT EUSTACHIAN TUBE (CONNECTING THROAT AND MIDDLE EAR) • 4. POSTANAL TAIL- EXTENDS BEYOND ANUS; PRESENT AT LEAST IN EMBRYO; REGRESSES INTO TAIL BONE IN HUMANS • 5. SEGMENTATION- REFLECTED IN ARRANGEMENT OF MUSCLES & IN VERTEBRAL COLUMN 3
  • 4. SUPRACLASS AGNATHA (JAWLESS FISH) 4 Class Cephalspidomorphi (Lamprey) • Parasite • attaches to other fish & sucks their blood • lives in ocean Class Myxini (Hagfish) • Scavenger • lives in the ocean • known for its slimy secretions Both have cartilaginous skeletons and sucker-like mouths
  • 5. 5
  • 7. CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES (SHARKS & RAYS) • HAVE SKELETONS MADE OF CARTILAGE NOT BONES (HAVE BONE JAW). • MOST SALTWATER/ VERY FEW FRESHWATER • HAVE NO OPERCULUM (GILL COVER) • SOME MUST KEEP MOVING TO BREATHE & OTHERS CAN PUMP WATER OVER THEIR GILLS • SPIRACLE- A MODIFIED SLIT BEHIND THE EYE, ASSISTS THE SHARK WITH TAKING IN WATER DURING RESPIRATION AND PLAYS A MAJOR ROLE IN BOTTOM DWELLING SHARKS. • HAVE DIFFERENT KINDS OF SCALES THAT FEEL AND LOOK MORE LIKE SANDPAPER. • MULTIPLE ROWS OF REPLACEMENT TEETH THAT STEADILY MOVE FORWARD LIKE A CONVEYOR BELT. SHARKS CAN LOSE UP TO 30,000 OR TEETH IN THEIR LIFETIME. • MOST SHARKS ARE COLD BLOODED • CONTROL BUOYANCY WITH LARGE LIVERS THAT EXCRETE OIL 7
  • 8. CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES (SHARKS & RAYS) REPRODUCTION • VIPAROUS- LIVE BIRTH • VIVIPAROUS- EGGS HATCH INTERNALLY • OVOVIVIPAROUS- LAY EGG CASES EXTERNALLY (CALLED MERMAID’S PURSE) • SEPARATE SEXES • MALES HAVE CLASPERS 8
  • 9. CLASS CHONDRICHTHYES (SHARKS & RAYS) SENSORY • AMPULLAE OF LORENZINI- ELECTRORECEPTOR ORGANS USED TO DETECT THE ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS ALL LIVING THINGS PRODUCE. THEY NUMBER IN THE HUNDREDS TO THOUSANDS. • LATERAL LINE SYSTEM- DETECTS MOTION OR VIBRATIONS IN WATER 9
  • 10. GENERAL ANATOMY OF A SHARK 10
  • 11. GENERAL ANATOMY OF A RAY 11
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  • 15.
  • 16. 16 Basking Shark is a filter feeder
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  • 19.
  • 20. CLASS OSTEICHTHYES (BONY FISH) • BACKBONE MADE OF BONE • FRESHWATER & SALTWATER • GILLS WITH OPERCULUM (FEW HAVE LUNGS) • FINS - DORSAL, CAUDAL, PECTORAL, PELVIC, ANAL. • SWIM BLADDER- A GAS FILLED SAC THAT HELPS THE FISH MAINTAIN BUOYANCY. SHARKS DON’T HAVE A SWIM BLADDER • LATERAL LINE SYSTEM
  • 21. TYPES OF OSTEICHTHYES RAY FINNED: – MOST FISH ARE THIS TYPE – FINS ARE SUPPORTED BY BONY STRUCTURES CALLED RAYS. LOBE FINNED: – FINS ARE LONG, FLESHY, MUSCULAR, SUPPORTED BY CENTRAL CORE OF BONES. – THOUGHT TO BE ANCESTORS OF AMPHIBIANS. – EXAMPLES ARE: COELACANTH, LUNGFISH
  • 22. FINS
  • 23. ADAPTATIONS SWIM R BLADDER OPERCULUM LATERAL LINE SYSTEM Swim Bladder
  • 25. RESPIRATION • WATER FLOWS OVER GILLS AS FISH OPENS MOUTH AND SWIMS. • WATER FLOWS OPPOSITE DIRECTION OF BLOOD FLOW. • O2 DIFFUSES FROM THE WATER INTO THE BLOOD. • GILLS ARE MADE OF THOUSANDS OF GILL FILAMENTS. • GILLS ARE COVERED BY THE OPERCULUM.
  • 26.
  • 27. CIRCULATION • FISH HEART HAS 2 CHAMBERS • SINGLE LOOP CIRCULATION • BLOOD FLOWS INTO GILLS, PICKS UP O2, GOES TO THE BODY, RETURNS TO THE HEART.
  • 28. REPRODUCTION • MOST FISH REPRODUCE SEXUALLY, AND FERTILIZE THEIR EGGS EXTERNALLY • SPAWNING IS THE PROCESS OF FERTILIZING EGGS. • BABY FISH ARE CALLED FRY.
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  • 37. 37The puffer fish uses air to expand its body to look intimidating to predators
  • 38. 38