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Report writing

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Report writing sometimes may be a challenge to learners, this presentation gives all the necessary concepts to guide report writing.

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Report writing

  2. 2. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... REPORT VERSUS RESEARCH REPORT REPORT:  Refers to a spoken or written account of something that summarizes findings and recommendations about a particular matter based on what someone has observed, heard, done, or investigated. — That is; report is used as a means of conveying information about an event, subject or situation in the form of an official document. WHILE; RESEARCH REPORT:  A research report can be based on practical work, research by reading or a study of an organisation. 2
  3. 3. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... To Conclude: • Report (both report and research report) is used as a guiding tool for higher authorities including company executives, directors, managers: — to make timely and informed decisions, and — follow up actions. 3
  4. 4. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... TYPES OF REPORTS  Report can be classified into four possible groups based on their structure: — Technical reports — Consultancy reports — Business reports — Research reports  In our current discussion: — We are going to have a look on research reports in terms of critical aspects to be considered and not to be considered in writing4
  5. 5. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... THE RATIONALE OF A RESEARCH REPORT  As the last part of the research process, research report enables the researcher to communicate with audiences interested in the research outcome by serving the following purposes: 1. Acquaint the reader with the problem that has been researched and explain its implications. 2. Express the justification for carrying out the study and how the study was conducted. 3. Present and interpret information derived from the data; fully and adequately for readers. 4. Demonstrate exactly how the data revolve around the problem. 5
  6. 6. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... GUIDELINES FOR RESEARCH REPORT WRITING  The following are the key guidelines that should be considered in writing a research report: 1. Finding a regular and good writing space or environment. 2. Write the report when you have time; if you don’t have the time, you have to create the appropriate time. 3. Never submit a research report before someone else has read it. — That is, getting someone to read your work. 4. Avoid plagiarism and excessive paraphrasing. 6
  7. 7. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... 5. Write the report when your mind is fresh. 6. Generating a plan for writing. 7. Setting goals (targets or purposes) and achieving them.  Other possible guidelines to be considered: —Keep it brief and clear. —What to write first, next and last. —Thinking on the screen when writing a report by using word processor. —Thinking about your audiences. 7
  8. 8. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... THE COMPONENTS OF A RESEARCH REPORT/PAPER Part 1: Preliminary Pages  Cover Page followed by Title Page  Certification  Declaration and Copyright  Acknowledgement  Dedication (if any)  List of Abbreviations or Acronyms  Abstract or Synopsis or Executive Summary  Table of Contents  List of Tables, and 8
  9. 9. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... Part 2: Main Body Chapter 1: Introduction  Background of the study  Statement of the problem  Objectives of the study  Research questions and/or Hypotheses  Significance of the study  Organization of the study Chapter 2: Literature Review  Theoretical literature review  Empirical literature review  Conceptual framework/model 9
  10. 10. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... Chapter 3: Research Methodology • Type of the study • The study area • Study population • Units of analysis • Sample size and sampling techniques • Types and sources of data • Data collection methods • Validity and reliability issues • Measurement of the research variables • Data analysis methods • Expected results 10
  11. 11. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... Chapter 4: Research Findings and Discussions  Presentation of research findings with a thorough analysis of the data collected. — no interpretation under this subsection — testing of hypotheses (if any)  Presentation of an interpreted and evaluated results related to the research objectives, questions and/or hypothesis. — Draw together different aspects of the findings: Existence of the problem and relevance of the results as how they fit with other11
  12. 12. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations • Conclusions: Brief statement of what was found by drawing a conclusion made form the study without forgetting policy implications. • Recommendations: Suggest suitable changes or solutions. • Limitation(s) of the study. • Suggestions for further studies. 12
  13. 13. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... Part 3: Back or Supplementary Pages •References: List of all references used in the research report. •Appendices: Attachments of any additional material or information (e.g. questionnaires, interview guides, glossary, tabulations, charts, maps, etc) that were mentioned but not included in the main body of the research report are supposed to be included in this section. 13
  14. 14. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... RECOMMENDED WRITING STYLE  In order for the research report to be understood by the intended audience or readers the following writing styles should be observed: a)The researcher should try to be short (not too long not too short), clear (logical arguments) and simple in terms of the use of jargons as well as the use long sentences and paragraphs to avoid confusions. b)The use of quotations from the literature should be minimized. 14
  15. 15. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... d) When writing a report confidentiality and anonymity should be preserved (if requested) with respect to individuals or organizations that volunteered information or were part of the study. e) It is important to provide all information that is required by the reader. f) Proper use of visual aids like maps, figures and charts when writing a report. g) Make sure that the audience in which the report is being written is known. 15
  16. 16. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... h) While you are writing a report make sure that it is containing more facts than opinion (unless report dictates that). i) It is important to check for facts if they are accurate as well as spelling and grammar used in the report. 16
  17. 17. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... Key Competence Required in Writing the Research Report:  In order for the report to be understood by the intended audience apart from the writing styles; there are key areas of competence that a researcher needs to develop for the same: 1) Technical expertise and adequate knowledge in the field or discipline one is writing upon is important: — Education, experience and personal skills 2) Transparency in allowing others to read, evaluate and criticize. 3) Communication skills. 17
  18. 18. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... THE MAJOR RESEARCH REPORT CHARACTERISTICS 1. There should be no exhortation — You should describe issues rather than convince readers or audiences. 2. It should be creative, short, simple, clear and concise. 3. Avoid personal pronouns like I, We, Me. — Use such phrases like the researcher or the author or the investigator believes... 4. When citing any researcher, use the last name/surname only; or as recommended in the manual of citation style. 18
  19. 19. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... 6. Writing is not an easy task and, therefore do not hurry writing your report but think critically 7. It is recommended to present computations in the appendices. 19
  20. 20. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... EVALUATING THE FIRST DRAFT  There are key issues to be considered in evaluating the first draft of a research report whether it is satisfactory enough for submission: a)Check if the research title reflect the contents. b)Check if the report is having a clear structure. c) Check if there is a clear storyline in the report. d)Check if the abstract reflect accurately the contents of the report. e)Check if the introduction address clearly the background to the problem at hand. f) Check if the literature review informs later contents of the report. 20
  21. 21. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... g) Check if the methods applied in the study are clearly explained. h)Check if the researcher has made a clear distinction between research results, findings and conclusions in relevant chapters. i) Check if all references are presented in the required manner as suggested in the manual of citation style. j) Check if there is any material which should be in the appendices and vice versa. k) Check if the report has divided the text throughout with suitable headings. l) Check if you are happy with the clarity, simplicity21
  22. 22. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... m) Check if each chapter have a preview and summary. Concluding Remark: “Writing never ends, it is a continuous process.” Consequently; People will judge the report writers based on the quality of their work. 22
  23. 23. THE RESEARCH PROCESS cont... Food for thought: “It is easier to build strong children than to repair broken men” – Frederick Douglass (1818 – 1895) 23