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MEDIA
DISCOURSE
.
Overview:
• Definition of Discourse
• Critical Discourse Analysis
• Media Discourse
Two primary types
• Media Focus
• In N...
• Media Interaction & Casual Conversation
• Exchange structures
• Pragmatics markers
• Hedging
• Discourse markers
• Respo...
• Electronic media
• Background
• Criteria
Form
Content
Technique
• Genre
Drama
Talk shows
Songs
News
What is discourse?
Discourse is the use of language
both in written and spoken.
Discourse is neither absolutely
homogenous nor absolutely
heterogeneous.
Discourse
• Discourse is a group of sentences which link
one proposition to another one and makes a
coherent unit of the s...
Critical Discourse Analysis
Critical Discourse Analysis aims to help reveal
some of the hidden and ‘out of sight’ values,
...
Media Discourse
Media discourse refers to interactions that take
place through a broadcast platform, whether
spoken or wri...
Two primary types :
Written:
of written texts include newspapers and
magazines
Spoken:
Radio and television, News broadcas...
Media Focus:
• Immediacy: Specific actions and events
• Drama: Violence, crisis or conflict, extremist
behaviors, outrageo...
In NEWS:
• Government conflicts
• Disagreements
• Decisions
• Proposals
• Functions
• Protests
• Crimes, scandals
• Invest...
Discourse Influences on Micro and
Macro Levels:
• Micro Level Influences:
• Personal characteristics, professional
backgro...
Macro Level Influences:
• Individuals, organizations, interest groups,
public relations practitioners, government etc
macr...
In newspaper:
• Based on the editor’s own experiences,
attitudes, and expectations.
• Journalists sometimes follow their p...
Media Interaction & Casual
Conversation
• When a presenter or guest or interviewee interact on
television or radio they do...
Exchange structures
• Both media interaction and casual talk
comprise:
• speaker turns
• make up exchange structure
• Two ...
.
In media discourse but two way exchange
method is more common i.e.
initiation and response.
Pragmatics markers:
• Pragmatic markers can be described as those
constructions, such as you know, I mean, you see,
well, ...
Hedging
• We use hedges to soften what we say or write.
• an important part of polite conversation.
• They make what we sa...
Discourse markers
• Discourse marker is a word or phrase that is
relatively syntax-independent and does not
change the tru...
Response tokens
• Response tokens are the interjection that an
addressee makes in response to the speaker
utterances.
• Ex...
Vague Language
• It means one is not using precise language.
Vague language is basically unclear and not
giving a full pic...
• Electronic Media Discourse
Electronic media
• Electronic media are media that use
electronics or electromechanical energy for
the end user to access ...
Background
• The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory
Authority was formed in 2002.
• The first television station began b...
Criteria of electronic media discourse
• Form:
• -external appearance of a clearly defined area
• Content:
• -the subjects...
Genre in electronic media discourse
• Drama
• Talk shows
• Songs
• news
Drama
• Depiction of society
• Represent whatever audience wants to hear
and watch
• Likeness differ on the basis of gende...
Themes
• Marriage
• Wealth
• Money
• Love stories
• Necromancy
• Inferiority complex in women
Examples of discourse in Pakistani
dramas
• Titles of dramas are deceptive. For example
• “band kirkion ka pechy” and “ me...
• It also shows
1. hate.
2. violence.
3. social class.
4. police oppression.
Talk shows
• Pakistani talk shows deal
1. politically mostly
2. violence
3. police
4. social affairs
5. corruption
6. reli...
• Opening of show with the subject line such as
• “seyasi aasman par bad’gumanion key badal
kab ghaiyab hongey?”
• The ski...
• The ruling feels shame while speaking bluff in
live shows before the millions of the citizens.
When they are not able to...
• Politicians gave answers of their questions in a
very logical way. They deal people technicaly.
They also uses proverbs ...
News
• The topics of news on TV channels are mostly
deals with
1. inner city news
2. gang culture
3. drugs
4. guns
5. viol...
• The headlines of news are burning and anchors
speak in a very satirical tone. For example
• “Police ihalcar tez doop or ...
Music
• The themes of Pakistani music are
• love
• marriage
• pleasure
• fun
• In Pakistani music we have
• tappe
• sufiana kalam
• maiaye
classical songs.
Examples
• “chalo koi gal nai chalo koi gal nai”
• “jugni”.
Media discourse
Media discourse
Media discourse
Media discourse
Media discourse
Media discourse
Media discourse
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Media discourse

  1. 1. MEDIA DISCOURSE .
  2. 2. Overview: • Definition of Discourse • Critical Discourse Analysis • Media Discourse Two primary types • Media Focus • In NEWS • Discourse Influences on Micro and Macro levels • In newspaper
  3. 3. • Media Interaction & Casual Conversation • Exchange structures • Pragmatics markers • Hedging • Discourse markers • Response tokens • Vague Language
  4. 4. • Electronic media • Background • Criteria Form Content Technique • Genre Drama Talk shows Songs News
  5. 5. What is discourse?
  6. 6. Discourse is the use of language both in written and spoken.
  7. 7. Discourse is neither absolutely homogenous nor absolutely heterogeneous.
  8. 8. Discourse • Discourse is a group of sentences which link one proposition to another one and makes a coherent unit of the sentences.
  9. 9. Critical Discourse Analysis Critical Discourse Analysis aims to help reveal some of the hidden and ‘out of sight’ values, positions, and perspectives. CDA explores the connection between the use of language and the social and political contexts in which it occurs
  10. 10. Media Discourse Media discourse refers to interactions that take place through a broadcast platform, whether spoken or written, in which the discourse is oriented to a non-present reader, listener or viewer.
  11. 11. Two primary types : Written: of written texts include newspapers and magazines Spoken: Radio and television, News broadcasts, Drama
  12. 12. Media Focus: • Immediacy: Specific actions and events • Drama: Violence, crisis or conflict, extremist behaviors, outrageous acts. • Simplicity: Clear-cut opinions, images, major personalities, two-sided conflicts. • Ethnocentrism: ‘Our’ beliefs, myths and symbols, ‘Our’ suffering, the brutality of some ‘Oth.
  13. 13. In NEWS: • Government conflicts • Disagreements • Decisions • Proposals • Functions • Protests • Crimes, scandals • Investigations and disasters.
  14. 14. Discourse Influences on Micro and Macro Levels: • Micro Level Influences: • Personal characteristics, professional background, personal attitudes and professional role, conception of media workers are micro level influences that affect upon media content.
  15. 15. Macro Level Influences: • Individuals, organizations, interest groups, public relations practitioners, government etc macro level influences that affect upon media content. • Sources that provide news to media organizations sometimes withhold information or lie.
  16. 16. In newspaper: • Based on the editor’s own experiences, attitudes, and expectations. • Journalists sometimes follow their personal agenda that influences on the content. • The selection or rejection of stories..
  17. 17. Media Interaction & Casual Conversation • When a presenter or guest or interviewee interact on television or radio they do so with the knowledge not only that they have been over heard but also they are having a conversation in front of audience. • Involvement of audience. • Institutional setting • Turn taking rights • Includes host, interviewer, interviewee, presenter, guests and callers
  18. 18. Exchange structures • Both media interaction and casual talk comprise: • speaker turns • make up exchange structure • Two types of exchange: 1. initiation and response 2. initiation, response and feedback
  19. 19. . In media discourse but two way exchange method is more common i.e. initiation and response.
  20. 20. Pragmatics markers: • Pragmatic markers can be described as those constructions, such as you know, I mean, you see, well, yeah, that are present in speech to support interaction but do not generally add any specific semantic meaning to the message. • In media discourse these are use widely to explain certain points.
  21. 21. Hedging • We use hedges to soften what we say or write. • an important part of polite conversation. • They make what we say less direct • It involves: • tense and aspect, • modal expressions • modal verbs and adverbs • vague language such as sort of, any kind of, like and some verbs.
  22. 22. Discourse markers • Discourse marker is a word or phrase that is relatively syntax-independent and does not change the truth conditional meaning of the sentence. • For example: oh", "well", "now", "then", "you know", and "I mean", and the connectives "so", "because", "and", "but", and "or".
  23. 23. Response tokens • Response tokens are the interjection that an addressee makes in response to the speaker utterances. • Examples are mm, ummhmm, yeah, o really, wow, that’s right, absolutely,
  24. 24. Vague Language • It means one is not using precise language. Vague language is basically unclear and not giving a full picture • For example: You write 'I walked across the road'. This is vague. Precise would be 'I sprinted/trotted/trudged/jogged across the road‘.
  25. 25. • Electronic Media Discourse
  26. 26. Electronic media • Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical energy for the end user to access the content.
  27. 27. Background • The Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority was formed in 2002. • The first television station began broadcasting from Lahore in November 1963. • The government-owned Pakistan Broadcasting Corporation (PBC) was formed on 14 August 1947. • At independence, Pakistan had radio stations in Dhaka, Lahore, and Peshawar. A major programmed of expansion saw new stations open at Karachi and Rawalpindi in 1948.
  28. 28. Criteria of electronic media discourse • Form: • -external appearance of a clearly defined area • Content: • -the subjects or topics covered • Technique - method of performance; way of accomplishing .
  29. 29. Genre in electronic media discourse • Drama • Talk shows • Songs • news
  30. 30. Drama • Depiction of society • Represent whatever audience wants to hear and watch • Likeness differ on the basis of gender, age and social class. • FEMALES – musicals, love story/romance • Kids– Animations, animals etc • MALES- action/adventure, gangster, war
  31. 31. Themes • Marriage • Wealth • Money • Love stories • Necromancy • Inferiority complex in women
  32. 32. Examples of discourse in Pakistani dramas • Titles of dramas are deceptive. For example • “band kirkion ka pechy” and “ mery mehrban”. • Criticism on society • typical quarrel between mother in law and daughter in law. • “Tum bhut manhoos ho.”
  33. 33. • It also shows 1. hate. 2. violence. 3. social class. 4. police oppression.
  34. 34. Talk shows • Pakistani talk shows deal 1. politically mostly 2. violence 3. police 4. social affairs 5. corruption 6. religion
  35. 35. • Opening of show with the subject line such as • “seyasi aasman par bad’gumanion key badal kab ghaiyab hongey?” • The skilled and bold personality of anchor person raises people’s voice and clearly asks the real point of the crisis. • Aap Batain-e-na Qom Sunna Chahti hai…
  36. 36. • The ruling feels shame while speaking bluff in live shows before the millions of the citizens. When they are not able to give logic or reason. • Main aap ko kal bataaon ga… iska jawab nahi de sakta….naam nahi bata sakta…
  37. 37. • Politicians gave answers of their questions in a very logical way. They deal people technicaly. They also uses proverbs in their disscussions. For example • “ ount ka mun me ziry wali bat” ask burning questions to politicions. • “Fauzia Wahab sahiba aapkey colleague kehty hein key muamla abhe nahi nimta….”
  38. 38. News • The topics of news on TV channels are mostly deals with 1. inner city news 2. gang culture 3. drugs 4. guns 5. violence 6. political affairs and international news
  39. 39. • The headlines of news are burning and anchors speak in a very satirical tone. For example • “Police ihalcar tez doop or lo me jalty ry” • Titles stand alone; no explanation is given for example • “iltaf hussain ka mulk bar me darny katam krny ka ilan” • “mulk bhar me garm havaon or shadeed garmi ka raj”
  40. 40. Music • The themes of Pakistani music are • love • marriage • pleasure • fun
  41. 41. • In Pakistani music we have • tappe • sufiana kalam • maiaye classical songs.
  42. 42. Examples • “chalo koi gal nai chalo koi gal nai” • “jugni”.

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