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Collaborative aspects of Decision Making and its impact on Sustainability

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Collaborative aspects of Decision Making and its impact on Sustainability

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In this talk I made an effort to link together sustainability, architecture design decision, and group decision making. Take a look and contact me for questions.

In this talk I made an effort to link together sustainability, architecture design decision, and group decision making. Take a look and contact me for questions.

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Collaborative aspects of Decision Making and its impact on Sustainability

  1. 1. Collaborative aspects of Decision Making and its impact on Sustainability @SAGRA 2017 Henry Muccini DISIM Department University of L’ Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy henry.muccini@univaq.it - @muccinihenry Slides available at: http://www.slideshare.net/henry.muccini/
  2. 2. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 2 Sustainability • “capacity to endure” [1] and • “preserve the function of a system over an extended period of time.” [2] [1] Sustainability: Can our society endure? http://www.sustainability.com/sustainability [2] Hilty, L.M., Arnfalk, P., Erdmann, L., Goodman, J., Lehmann, M., and Wäger, P.A. The relevance of information and communication technologies for environmental sustainability: A prospective simulation study. Environmental Modelling & Software 21, 11 (Nov. 2006) 1618–1629. Maintaining and preserving (certain properties/abilities) in the long-term…
  3. 3. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 3 Sustainability – four dimensions Patricia Lago, Sedef Akinli Koçak, Ivica Crnkovic, Birgit Penzenstadler: Framing sustainability as a property of software quality. Commun. ACM 58(10): 70-78 (2015)
  4. 4. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 4 Focus of this talk cost-effective longevity and endurance maintained and evolved collaborative and intercultural aspects requirements traceability economics
  5. 5. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 5
  6. 6. Architecture Design Decision
  7. 7. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 7 Software Architecture perspectives 4 (main) perspectives:  A set of components and connectors communicating through interfaces (since ‘90s)  Written according to architectural styles (since mid ‘90s)  Focus on set of views and viewpoints (since ‘00)  A set of architecture design decisions (since ‘05)
  8. 8. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 8 From C&C to Today Constraints on topology, behaviour, communication
  9. 9. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 9 Architecture Design Decisions Architecting is the process of creating software architecture knowledge and artifacts for engineering software systems A Software Architecture consists of –A blueprint for the chosen solution (product) –A set of design decisions (co-product)
  10. 10. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 10 Taking decisions Design problem Problem space sub- problem (or issue) sub- problem (or issue) Design option Design option Design option Design option Solution space Alternative solutions Alternative solutions Decision = best option Decision = best option Best, with respect to some criteria
  11. 11. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 11 From ISO/IEC/IEEE 42010:2011
  12. 12. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 12 ADD challenges Dependencies among decisions Granularity of design decisions Collaborative ADD Evolving ADD
  13. 13. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 13 Note A different set of ADD brings potentially very different Architectures
  14. 14. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 14
  15. 15. Group Decision Making
  16. 16. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 16 Architecting in a picture ADD
  17. 17. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 17 Collaborative Decision Making ADD ADD ADD ADD GDM
  18. 18. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 18Three decades of research on group decision making in the business domain Group Decision Making GDM has been studied from multiple perspectives that includes Psychology, Organizational Behavior, Operations Research and Economics Processes and Methods Group Characteristics: size, diversity, roles, cohesion Information Exchange Issues: Groupthink, Group Shift Process Enhancement Conflict Resolution GDM
  19. 19. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 19
  20. 20. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 20 GDM methods • The participants freely propose a list of alternatives. Then, brainstorm over them to arrive at a final decision. A leader moderates. (supports the generation of ideas) Brainstorming • Alternatives are provided by the participants, and then voted.Voting • Experts answer questionnaires in a distributed and anonymous way. A facilitator provides an anonymous summary of the experts’ forecasts (after each round). (avoids influence between experts) Delphi Consensus: several alternatives are listed, an effort is made to achieve maximum level of consensus. Selection: once there is high level of agreement among participants selected and the decision is made the best alternative are selected. Consensus- Selection • The problem is modelled as goals, alternatives and criteria. Participants are normally experts who do a pairwise comparison of alternatives based on certain criteria. The results are then synthesized to make the final decision AHP
  21. 21. GDM: example
  22. 22. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 22 https://goo.gl/6CHi4e
  23. 23. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 24 Example of a different GDM process List Alternatives: Given a list of design issues, each member writes down his or her choice of alternatives individually (without discussion) Once everyone has individually written down the choices, each one reads out his/her alternative solutions These alternative solutions are noted down in the shared excel QOC sheet and the names of person proposing the alternative is also written against each alternative Discuss and Evaluate: The group discussion on alternative starts. Each design issue is taken and each alternative for a specific design issue is evaluated against the criteria relevant to that issue. Make sure every member participates in this discussion regarding the alternatives. The evaluation details are noted in the QOC sheet Consensus: After discussing on the design issues, the group must now proceed closer to making final decisions. – During the discussion for each issue, there may one alternative solution that emerges as winner. In that case, it is chosen – Else, top 2 alternatives are listed. One more round of discussion may happen on pros and cons of each alternative and 1 may be chosen.. If this too leads to tie, members may vote for one of these alternatives. The alternative with most votes is chosen
  24. 24. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 25 Notes
  25. 25. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 27 Architecture GDM in practice  5-10 people involved in decision making  21 different macro-roles represented  80%-20% distributed- colocated V. Smrithi Rekha, Henry Muccini: A Study on Group Decision-Making in Software Architecture. WICSA 2014: 185-194 how practitioners arrive at a consensus  Drivers: time, cost and quality  Decision pattern: group discussion -> if no agreement, a leader/small group decides (35%)
  26. 26. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 28 GDM Factors Design Issue 1: how many gateways shall be used to collect sensored data in a building? Single Gateway 1 gateway per floor 1 Gateway per apartment Cost Reliability Availability Design alternatives CriteriaDesign issue Stakeholders’ concerns Stakeholders’ reputation Stakeholders’ roles Consensus Mechanisms Social links Decision Patterns GDM
  27. 27. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 29 Recap A different set of ADD brings potentially very different Architectures Collaboration adds social and organizational aspects into the group decision making process
  28. 28. Impact (Considerations) on GDM and Sustainability
  29. 29. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 32 Let us go back to the initial illustrations... What do they have in common?
  30. 30. Consideration 1: Decision making at the time of Sustainability
  31. 31. Provides methods to support multi-stakeholders, with different concerns and roles, to take design decisions collaboratively Requires multi-stakeholders, with different sustainability- specific concerns, to take decisions
  32. 32. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 35 Tech concerns Software Architecture Description Tech Concerns Economic Concerns Economic Concerns Env concerns Env concerns Social concerns
  33. 33. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 36 Consideration 1 Trade-offs between all the four dimensions of Sustainability  Competing forces  E.g. Environmental vs Economics  Fundamental to capture direct vs indirect dependecies among solutions  Multi-objective function  Different stakeholders and glossaries
  34. 34. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 37 Examples Env concerns Economic Concerns Economic Concerns Social concerns
  35. 35. Consideration 2: Explicit handling of Sustainability-related properties
  36. 36. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 39 Explicit handling of sustainability 1. Sustainability as a Quality Requirement 2. Sustainability as a tactic 3. Sustainability as a new Architecture Framework
  37. 37. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 40 Sustainability as a new requirement category  Efficiently incorporates environmentally friendly materials.  Minimal consumption of water energy, resources in all stages of production till end-of-life  Causes minimal emissions in gas, liquid and solid form during both manufacturing and it’s use  Has a long life is repairable and is efficient in use for all energy, consumables and emissions  Unlike traditional products with minimal life, these products can be upgraded to extend their life  At the end of life these products can be reused and the materials can be separated and recycled.  These products are in harmony with people and nature, they consider their well-being In the process of Design and manufacture both commercial and sustainability have to be considered. https://www.slideshare.net/vasudhanair/sustainability-requirements-3
  38. 38. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 41 Sustainability as a Quality Property Patricia Lago, Sedef Akinli Koçak, Ivica Crnkovic, Birgit Penzenstadler: Framing sustainability as a property of software quality. Commun. ACM 58(10): 70-78 (2015)
  39. 39. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 42 Sustainability as a new Architecture Framework Software VP Hardware VP Physical Space VP HWML SPML Software Architect Developer System Integrators System Engineer Space coverage Data exchange Networking and communication Energy Consumption Viewpoints System Concerns Stakeholders The Modeling Languages DSLDSL DSLDSL SAML DSLDSL Smart Building / Physical Space modelers (Sensor network & IoT ) experts MAPML DEPML
  40. 40. Consideration 3: Reqs traceability
  41. 41. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 44 Challenge Building traceability links among possibly very different artifacts
  42. 42. Henry Muccini @ ICSA2017 45 Need of an approach that 1) supports the creation of traceability links to arbitrary artifacts. 2) supports the definition of custom traceability link types for projects. 3) supports the visualization of artifacts connected by traceability links through matrix or graph view.
  43. 43. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 46
  44. 44. Consideration 4: Social aspect of Sustainablity and Organizational Social Structure
  45. 45. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 48 Social Sustainability “Social sustainability aims at preserving the societal communities in their solidarity and services.”[Manifesto] [Manifesto] The Karlskrona Manifesto for Sustainability Design. http://sustainabilitydesign.org/karlskrona-manifesto/
  46. 46. Henry Muccini – SAGRA 2017 49 On the Social Dimensions of Architectural Decisions Henry Muccini, Damian Andrew Tamburri, V. Smrithi Rekha: On the Social Dimensions of Architectural Decisions. ECSA 2015: 137-145 Architecture Design Decisions Group Decision Making Organizational Social Structure OSS= “the graph of interactions, patterned relations and arrangements emerging between individuals in the same endeavor”...
  47. 47. Collaborative aspects of Decision Making and its impact on Sustainability @SAGRA 2017 Henry Muccini DISIM Department University of L’ Aquila, L’Aquila, Italy henry.muccini@univaq.it - @muccinihenry Slides available at: http://www.slideshare.net/henry.muccini/

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