Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Wir verwenden Ihre LinkedIn Profilangaben und Informationen zu Ihren Aktivitäten, um Anzeigen zu personalisieren und Ihnen relevantere Inhalte anzuzeigen. Sie können Ihre Anzeigeneinstellungen jederzeit ändern.
Wax Processing and
Purification
The word "wax" usually refers to a variety of organic
substances that are solid at ambient temperature but become
free-flo...
Naturally they are produced by plants and animals
and also found in petroleum.
Their melting point ranges from 35-100 de...
Classification of waxes
Waxes can be classified as Natural and Synthetic
1. Natural Waxes
Animal Waxes
Vegetable waxes
...
Mineral waxes
Mineral waxes are paraffin waxes which are obtained from petroleum.
For example:
Paraffin wax - made of lon...
Paraffin wax
Paraffin wax refers to a mixture of alkanes that falls within the 20 ≤
n ≤ 40 range; they are found in the so...
Petrolatum
Petrolatum is usually a soft product containing approximately 20%
oil and melting between 38°C (100°F) and 60°C...
Synthetic Waxes
Synthetic waxes are produced primarily from ethylene. These
materials are less variable than natural produ...
Polyethylene waxes
Polyethylene waxes are manufactured from ethylene which is
generally produced from natural gas.
Polypro...
Physical Properties of waxes
Melting point, boiling point and melt viscosity
The melting point of n-alkanes increases wit...
Density and thermal expansion
The density of paraffin waxes increases with their melting point
increases
Table . Densities...
Optical properties
The refractive index is a physical property frequently used for identifying
substances and for determi...
An important operation in the production of lubricating oils is the
dewaxing of the corresponding petroleum fractions and ...
Dewaxing Processes
Dewaxing is important from two points of view:
 producing products with suitable pour points from waxy...
Dewaxing Crystallizer
1. Large and well-developed crystals can be readily pressed and
filtered.
2. The needle-shaped crys...
1. Methyl ethyl ketone dewaxing
2. The propane dewaxing process
3. Dewaxing with a mixture of propylene and acetone
4. Dew...
De-oiling and fractional crystallization of slack
waxes and petrolatums
Oil and low-melting fractions removed from the sl...
Slack Wax, feedstock, is obtained from the dewaxing of refined
or unrefined vacuum distillate fractions. If the material h...
■ PARAFFINE WAX
A waxy crystalline substance that in the pure form is white, odorless and
translucent and has the approxim...
PROCESS FLOW DESCRIPTION - I
Paraffin Wax & Microcrystalline Wax
The slack wax, as by-product, is obtained in the lube oil...
SWEATING PROCESS
The sweating chamber, a steel structure covered with insulation, contains rectangular
trays with cone sha...
When the congealing point of the liquid drippings indicates that
melting temperature of desired wax product has been obtai...
Process Flow Diagram (Wax-Sweating Process)
PROCESS FLOW DESCRIPTION - II
Vaseline (Petroleum Jelly)
In the process, either petrolatum and lube base oil from oil refi...
After the transfer is completed, the blended is mixed and heated up to 80 ± 5
°C by hot water through heating coils equipp...
Process Flow Diagram (Vaseline-Acid Treatment Process)
FEEDSTOCK PROPERTIES
Table
Slack Wax;
Generic term for the mixture of wax and oil recovered in a
dewaxing process; may con...
Physical Properties of Slack Wax
* The above is a typical specification of the feedstock, which have
been used as main raw...
END PRODUCTS
The following specifications of the end products are typical, which can be
varied in accordance with code or ...
Specification of Refined Paraffin Wax
Specification of Petroleum Jelly(white)
APPLICATIONS
Purification of Waxes
The purity of paraffin waxes is an important aspect in their grading.
The required extent of purity,...
It is a common feature of all chemical purification processes that
to achieve the desired grade, rather vigorous condition...
The simplest process, essentially purification by adsorption, is by
mixing with bleaching earth.
After a satisfactory cont...
The essence of all refining hydrogenation processes can be
summarized as follows :
1. A suitable mixture of the feedstock ...
Blending of paraffin waxes
Paraffin waxes in their various fields of application require many
different specifications. Th...
Tests and application
of Waxes
Colour
Paraffin wax is generally white in color, whereas microcrystalline
wax and petrolatum range from white to almost bl...
TEST
• The test method for the color of petroleum products is
used for wax and petrolatum that are too dark for the
Saybol...
Density
• Density is an important property of petroleum products because
petroleum and especially petroleum products are u...
Test
• To determines density and specific gravity by means
of a digital densimeter. In the test, a small volume
(approxi- ...
Melting point
 The melting point is one of the most widely used tests to determine the quality and
type of wax.
 Due to ...
Test
• Method 1 :In the method , a molten wax specimen is placed in a test tube
fitted with a thermometer and placed in an...
Odor and Taste Test
• The odor of wax is an important property in some uses of wax
such as food packaging and is often inc...
Viscosity
 Viscosity of molten wax is of importance in applications
involving coating or dipping processes because it inf...
Applications of waxes
• They are many uses in
 Pharmaceuticals
 Cosmetics
 plastics
 textiles
 foods
 Corrugated boa...
Suitable Ingredients for
 Polishes
 Paste types , used for
i. Floors
ii. Furniture
iii. Cars
iv. footwear
Waxes are also used for
 candle making
 Coatings for waxed paper or cloth.
 Food-grade paraffin wax
 Food packing industry is the largest consumer of wax toda...
 Coating for many kinds of hard cheese, like Edam cheese
 Sealant for jars, cans, and bottle
 Solid propellant for hybr...
Chewing gum additive
Friction-reducer, for use on handrails and cement ledges,
commonly used in skateboarding .
Ink. Us...
Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form
of petroleum.
• It may be found in natural deposit...
Petroleum-Based Asphalts
 Asphalt is waste product from refinery processing
of crude oil
 Sometimes called the “bottom o...
Composition of Asphalt
 Oil-35 to 50%
 Resins – 5 to 20%
 Asphaltenes- 20 to 30%
 Acids- Up to 10%
Asphalt Cement Components
 Asphaltenes
 Large, discrete solid inclusions (black)
 High viscosity component
 Resins
 S...
Refinery Operation
FIELD STORAGE
PUMPING
STATION
LIGHT DISTILLATE
HEAVY DISTILLATE
PROCESS
UNIT
ASPHALT
CEMENTS
FOR PROCES...
Types
 Asphalt cements
 Generally refinery produced material
 Air blown asphalt cements
 Cutbacks
 Asphalt cements “c...
Air Blown Asphalt Cement
Asphalt Air Blowing Process
The physical properties of asphalts may further be modified by 'air
blowing'. This is an oxida...
Chapter 3 wax_processing_and_purification3
Chapter 3 wax_processing_and_purification3
Nächste SlideShare
Wird geladen in …5
×

Chapter 3 wax_processing_and_purification3

petroleum refining

  • Loggen Sie sich ein, um Kommentare anzuzeigen.

Chapter 3 wax_processing_and_purification3

  1. 1. Wax Processing and Purification
  2. 2. The word "wax" usually refers to a variety of organic substances that are solid at ambient temperature but become free-flowing liquids at slightly higher temperatures. The chemical composition of waxes is complex, but normal alkanes are always present in high proportion and molecular weight profiles tend to be wide. According to the chemical composition waxes are basically esters of long chain fatty acids and long chain monohydric or polyhydric alcohols, each containing 16-34 carbon atoms(C atoms). Introduction
  3. 3. Naturally they are produced by plants and animals and also found in petroleum. Their melting point ranges from 35-100 degree centigrade. They are soluble in organic solvents and in-soluble in water. In general, these are found in nature as a mixture of esters. So we can say that : “Waxes are the mixed esters of higher monohydric or polyhydric alcohols other than glycerol with fatty acids”.
  4. 4. Classification of waxes Waxes can be classified as Natural and Synthetic 1. Natural Waxes Animal Waxes Vegetable waxes Mineral waxes
  5. 5. Mineral waxes Mineral waxes are paraffin waxes which are obtained from petroleum. For example: Paraffin wax - made of long-chain alkane hydrocarbons Microcrystalline wax - with very fine crystalline structure Petroleum jelly-Petrolatum or petroleum jelly is essentially a mixture of microcrystalline wax and oil. Ceresin waxes -wax like the paraffin consists of a group of hydrocarbons relates to methane with low acid number so that it's important in rubber compounding. Mountain wax - extracted from lignite and brown coal Ozocerite - found in lignite beds Peat waxes-dark waxy substance extracted from peat using organic solvents.
  6. 6. Paraffin wax Paraffin wax refers to a mixture of alkanes that falls within the 20 ≤ n ≤ 40 range; they are found in the solid state at room temperature and begin to enter the liquid phase past approximately 37°C. Paraffin wax is a mixture of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons (with the general formula CnH2n+2). Pure paraffin wax is an excellent electrical insulator, with an electrical resistivity of between 1013 and 1017 ohm meter. Microcrystalline waxes Microcrystalline waxes are a type of wax produced by de-oiling petrolatum, as part of the petroleum refining process. In contrast to the more familiar paraffin wax which contains mostly unbranched alkanes, microcrystalline wax contains a higher percentage of isoparaffinic (branched) hydrocarbons and naphthenic hydrocarbons
  7. 7. Petrolatum Petrolatum is usually a soft product containing approximately 20% oil and melting between 38°C (100°F) and 60°C (140°F). Petrolatum or petroleum jelly is essentially a mixture of microcrystalline wax and oil. It is produced as an intermediate product in the refining of microcrystalline wax or compounded by blending appropriate waxy products and oils. Petrolatum colors range from the almost black crude form to the highly refined yellow and white pharmaceutical grades.
  8. 8. Synthetic Waxes Synthetic waxes are produced primarily from ethylene. These materials are less variable than natural products and less inclined to price fluctuations since supply is not dependent on weather, rain fall etc. which can affect Carnauba production. Polyethylene waxes Polypropylene wax Tetrafluoroethylen (PTFE) Ethylene-Acrylic Acid (EAA)
  9. 9. Polyethylene waxes Polyethylene waxes are manufactured from ethylene which is generally produced from natural gas. Polypropylene wax Polypropylene wax is generally polymerized from propylene and then either maleated or oxidized to give chemical functionality so that it is more easily emulsified. Tetrafluoroethylen (PTFE) PTFE is a fluorocarbon polymer. The fluorine component gives this product additional release, slip and rubs characteristics. Ethylene-AcrylicAcid (EAA) EAA co-polymer properties are more resin like than wax. These polymers have high 20% acrylic acid content. These products are high molecular weight with excellent adhesion to a wide range of substrates.
  10. 10. Physical Properties of waxes Melting point, boiling point and melt viscosity The melting point of n-alkanes increases with molecular weight. Over the carbon atom number range from C1 to C25 relationship between the melting point and the carbon atom number cannot be described with one single function for even- numbered and odd-numbered n-alkanes, i.e. the melting points are higher and lower, respectively, than the average values calculated from even- and odd numbered n-alkane melting points.
  11. 11. Density and thermal expansion The density of paraffin waxes increases with their melting point increases Table . Densities of microcrystalline paraffin waxes having different melting points
  12. 12. Optical properties The refractive index is a physical property frequently used for identifying substances and for determining their compositions. The refractive index of paraffin waxes is usually measured at 80 to 85 oC. The refractive indices of microcrystalline paraffin waxes at 84 oC vary between 1.4210 and 1.4315, their molar refraction between 100 and 154. Water vapor permeability In the manufacture of packaging materials, paraffin waxes are chiefly used to reduce water vapor permeability of paper. This is valid for both coating and laminating waxes, the latter being often applied for the sake of the low vapor permeability of the paraffin wax film. Water resistance Water and aqueous solutions come into direct contact with waxed paperboard used for containers of deep-frozen food, milk cartons, paper cups, etc. Therefore, resistance to water is an important requirement in those applications where no water must be allowed to penetrate through the paraffin wax film. Resistance to water of lower-melting microcrystalline paraffin waxes is superior to that of microcrystalline refined waxes. This difference is presumably due to the denser crystal structure
  13. 13. An important operation in the production of lubricating oils is the dewaxing of the corresponding petroleum fractions and residues, since it is only possible to manufacture lubricating and industrial oils with low pour points and with viscosities, suitable for use at low temperatures, from crudes containing paraffin. The manufacture of petroleum waxes includes the following technological processes : Production of slack waxes and petrolatum's by dewaxing petroleum products. De-oiling and fractional crystallization of slack waxes and petrolatum's. Purification of crude paraffin waxes. Blending of paraffin waxes with additives.
  14. 14. Dewaxing Processes Dewaxing is important from two points of view:  producing products with suitable pour points from waxy feedstock. particularly in the case of higher average molecular weight petroleum distillates and distillation residues no sharp dividing line can be drawn between the hydrocarbons forming solid paraffins and those that cannot be considered as solid. Dewaxing Operation
  15. 15. Dewaxing Crystallizer 1. Large and well-developed crystals can be readily pressed and filtered. 2. The needle-shaped crystalline types can be easily sweated 3. Microcrystalline paraffin waxes cannot be separated by filter pressing, but are readily separated by centrifuging. Dewaxing processes using solvents In these processes, organic solvents are used as diluents which, at the temperature of filtering, dissolve paraffin waxes only to a very slight extent, while they are good for dissolving the other components of lubricating oils. Rotary filters are mostly used to separate crystallized paraffin wax. Dewaxing Processes Methods
  16. 16. 1. Methyl ethyl ketone dewaxing 2. The propane dewaxing process 3. Dewaxing with a mixture of propylene and acetone 4. Dewaxing with chlorinated hydrocarbons 5. Dilchill dewaxing process 6. Filter aids
  17. 17. De-oiling and fractional crystallization of slack waxes and petrolatums Oil and low-melting fractions removed from the slack wax. The process is called de-oiling. De-oiling is fractional crystallization of slack or paraffin waxes by their melting point. Slack waxes obtained from light distillates by cooling and pressing were formerly-oiled exclusively by a process called sweating.
  18. 18. Slack Wax, feedstock, is obtained from the dewaxing of refined or unrefined vacuum distillate fractions. If the material has been separated from residual oil fractions it is frequently called Petrolatum. The slack waxes are de-oiled by sweating processes to produce commercial waxes with low oil content. The oil that is separated from these processes is known as Foot Oil. The refined petroleum waxes are known as Paraffine Waxes. Microcrystalline Waxes have higher molecular weight than the paraffine waxes and consist of substantial amounts of iso and cycloalkanes.
  19. 19. ■ PARAFFINE WAX A waxy crystalline substance that in the pure form is white, odorless and translucent and has the approximate chemical formula of C20H42 (and above). It is obtained from petroleum by distillation and is then purified by sweating or solvent refining. Paraffin, which is not a true wax, consists mainly of a mixture of saturated straight-chain solid hydrocarbons. Its melting points range from 50°C to 57°C. ■ MICROCRYSTALLINE WAX Microcrystalline waxes consist of odorless, tasteless, non-polar hydrocarbons with relatively high melting points. Multi wax grades vary in color from white to yellow, and in such physical properties as hardness and melting point. ■ VASELINE (PETROLEUM JELLY) Vaseline is a well-known brand of petrolatum (Petroleum Jelly). Petrolatum is a flammable, semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons, having a melting-point usually ranging from a little below to a few degrees above 37°C. It is colorless or of a pale yellow color, translucent and devoid of taste and smell.
  20. 20. PROCESS FLOW DESCRIPTION - I Paraffin Wax & Microcrystalline Wax The slack wax, as by-product, is obtained in the lube oil process of the refinery plant. Slack wax is a mixture of oil and wax, which serves as the wax industry's feedstock and that is further refined and blended to create value-added petroleum wax products.
  21. 21. SWEATING PROCESS The sweating chamber, a steel structure covered with insulation, contains rectangular trays with cone shape bottom, which are equipped with approx. 50 mesh screen plate in its lower part and coils for alternate cooling and heating purpose. These trays are installed inside of the sweating chamber by an arrangement of several vertical lines of which each has approx. 8 ~10 trays. In the first step of this process, the fresh water is filled in each tray until the level reaches slightly over the screen mesh before the feed wax feeds to keep 10 ~ 20 cm thick beds and then the cooling water is circulated through the coil. After the feed is completely crystallized, the filled water is drained off. The crystallized wax is then sweated while simultaneously draining the liquid drippings, so called foot oil, from each tray in the sweating chamber. The later fractions of foot oil is recycled through sweating process.
  22. 22. When the congealing point of the liquid drippings indicates that melting temperature of desired wax product has been obtained, sweating and drainage are stopped. Consequently, the remaining solid bed of wax in the sweating chamber is rapidly melted by heater and then flows to semi-finished product tanks. To produce refined wax from a product wax requires that the wax should be treated with activated clay for color and odor removal is filtered in filter press or rotary drum filter. In order to obtain the low oil content required in final wax products, sometimes two or three repeated treatments are required.
  23. 23. Process Flow Diagram (Wax-Sweating Process)
  24. 24. PROCESS FLOW DESCRIPTION - II Vaseline (Petroleum Jelly) In the process, either petrolatum and lube base oil from oil refinery or paraffin and micro wax produced from the sweating process as described are used as feedstock. The process, as semi-continuous process, can be divided either by the blending ratios of the feedstock or treatment methods. ACID TREATMENT PROCESS The feedstock from storage tanks are exactly pre-measured in proportion to each required fraction and then transferred by metering pumps to the acid treatment tank where they are blended and mixed to give certain desired properties such as melt point and penetration.
  25. 25. After the transfer is completed, the blended is mixed and heated up to 80 ± 5 °C by hot water through heating coils equipped within the tank. In case the blended meets the targeted qualities by sampling check, it proceeds to the next stage acid treatment. The sulfuric acid (H2SO4) solution with concentration of approx. 0.5 wt % is gradually injected into the tank with maintaining the pre-conditioned temperature and blending. In the reaction with sulfuric acid, most of traces of aromatics, resins and impurities are removed. As a form of finishing process, the treatment of the molten wax with activated earth (Clay) to neutralize acidity remaining from earlier sulphuric acid treatment and/or to improve color and reduce odor and taste of the finished wax, also to remove traces of possibly harmful compounds (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons). In the next filtration, the finishing product is filtered in filter press or rotary drum filter. This earth treatment may be repeated several times until the product meets the requirement of color and neutralization
  26. 26. Process Flow Diagram (Vaseline-Acid Treatment Process)
  27. 27. FEEDSTOCK PROPERTIES Table Slack Wax; Generic term for the mixture of wax and oil recovered in a dewaxing process; may contain 2 ~ 35% oil. Typical dispositions are to further process for finished wax, to process for fuels or to sell into certain end-use markets.
  28. 28. Physical Properties of Slack Wax * The above is a typical specification of the feedstock, which have been used as main raw materials.
  29. 29. END PRODUCTS The following specifications of the end products are typical, which can be varied in accordance with code or standard applied in the countries. All values are taken on samples of one batch and the specification may vary from batch to batch. Specification of Microcrystalline Wax
  30. 30. Specification of Refined Paraffin Wax
  31. 31. Specification of Petroleum Jelly(white)
  32. 32. APPLICATIONS
  33. 33. Purification of Waxes The purity of paraffin waxes is an important aspect in their grading. The required extent of purity, obviously, depends on the type of the field of application. Paraffin waxes used for candle manufacture, for instance, must be white and stable to color changes. Paraffin waxes applied in food conservation and packaging must be odorless and free from compounds damaging the human organism, above all from polycyclic aromatic substances. Similar, but even more strict specifications are applied for paraffin products to be used for medical purposes. purification processes based on 1. Treatment with chemicals 2. Adsorption 3. Hydrogenation.
  34. 34. It is a common feature of all chemical purification processes that to achieve the desired grade, rather vigorous conditions have to be used. The agents include potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, ammonia, alkaline solution of magnesia, zinc oxide. In this process, among many other intermediate reactions, oxidation, condensation, polymerization, sulfonation and resin- forming take place. The final effect of the purification depends on the composition of the initial product. By treatment with chemicals
  35. 35. The simplest process, essentially purification by adsorption, is by mixing with bleaching earth. After a satisfactory contact time, i.e. after equilibrium has been established, the paraffin wax is separated by filtration and the used bleaching earth is discarded. Various types of fuller’s earth activated carbon, silica gel, bauxites, betonies, natural or synthetic aluminum silicates are suitable adsorbents. By adsorption processes
  36. 36. The essence of all refining hydrogenation processes can be summarized as follows : 1. A suitable mixture of the feedstock and hydrogen is heated to the required reaction temperature. 2. The gas-phase or liquid-phase or gas-liquid phase reaction mixture enters the reactor packed with catalyst where the desired reactions and side reactions proceed. 3. The contents of the reactor are cooled, the hydrogen-rich gas phase is separated in a high-pressure separator, hydrogen sulfide formed in the reactions is removed and the gas is recycled into the process. 4. After reduction of pressure, the gases dissolved in the liquid reaction product are removed by flash distillation By hydrogenation
  37. 37. Blending of paraffin waxes Paraffin waxes in their various fields of application require many different specifications. These can only partly be satisfied by a suitable choice of feedstock and the above-discussed manufacturing processes, or even by some modifications of these processes. In order to fully meet the great variety of demands, and to further increase the assortment of paraffin wax grades, manufacturers resort to blending. The two groups used as additives to paraffin waxes are 1. microcrystalline paraffin waxes 2. polymers
  38. 38. Tests and application of Waxes
  39. 39. Colour Paraffin wax is generally white in color, whereas microcrystalline wax and petrolatum range from white to almost black. A fully refined wax should be virtually colorless when examined in the molten state. Absence of color is of particular importance in wax used for pharmaceutical purposes or for the manufacture of food wrappings..
  40. 40. TEST • The test method for the color of petroleum products is used for wax and petrolatum that are too dark for the Saybolt colorimeter. • A liquid sample is placed in the test container, a glass cylinder of 30- to 35-mm ID, and compared with colored glass disks ranging in value from 0.5 to 8.0 by using a standard light source. • If an exact match is not found, and the sample color falls between two standard colors, the higher of the two colors is reported.
  41. 41. Density • Density is an important property of petroleum products because petroleum and especially petroleum products are usually bought and sold on that basis or, if on a volume basis, then converted to a mass basis via density measurements. • For clarification, it is necessary to understand the basic definitions that are used:  Density is the mass of liquid per unit volume at 15°C  Relative density is the ratio of the density of liquid at 15°C to the density of pure water at the same temperature  specific gravity is the same as the relative density, and the terms a are used interchangeably
  42. 42. Test • To determines density and specific gravity by means of a digital densimeter. In the test, a small volume (approxi- mately 0.7 ml) of liquid sample is introduced into an oscillating sample tube and the change in oscillating frequency caused by the change in the mass of the tube is used in conjunction with calibration data to determine the density of the sample.
  43. 43. Melting point  The melting point is one of the most widely used tests to determine the quality and type of wax.  Due to the individual hydrocarbons does not melt at sharply defined temperatures because it is a mixture of hydrocarbons with different melting points but usually has a narrow melting range. Table Melting Point of Pure n-Hydrocarbons • Number of C Atoms Melting Point °C Number of C Atoms Melting Point °C • 9 -54 28 61 • 10 -30 29 64 • 11 -26 30 66 • 12 -10 31 68 • 13 -5 32 70 • 14 6 33 71 • 15 10 34 73 • 16 18 35 75 • 17 22 40 82 • 18 28 50 92 • 19 32 60 99 •
  44. 44. Test • Method 1 :In the method , a molten wax specimen is placed in a test tube fitted with a thermometer and placed in an air bath, which in turn is surrounded by a water bath held at 16–28°C (60–80°F). As the molten wax cools, periodic readings of its temperature are taken. When solidification of the wax occurs, the rate of temperature change decreases, and draw the cooling curve. The temperature at that point is recorded as the melting point of the sample. • Method 2: Drop melting point of wax , in this method samples are deposited on the two thermometer bulbs by chipping chilled thermometer into the sample. By heating when drop falls from thermometer temperature is checked and this point s drop melting point.
  45. 45. Odor and Taste Test • The odor of wax is an important property in some uses of wax such as food packaging and is often included in the specifications of petroleum wax. But wax is a colorless. • Odor Test • The odor of petroleum wax is determined by a method in which 10 g of wax is shaved, placed in an odor-free glass bottle, and capped. After 15 min the sample is evaluated in an odor-free room by removing the cap and sniffing lightly. • Taste • A specific example is wine tasting
  46. 46. Viscosity  Viscosity of molten wax is of importance in applications involving coating or dipping processes because it influences the quality of coating obtained.  paper converting, hot dip anticorrosion coatings, and taper manufacturing. Test  Kinematic viscosity is measured by timing the flow of a fixed volume of material through a calibrated capillary at a selected temperature . The unit of kinematic viscosity is the stokes, and kinematic viscosities of waxes are usually reported in centistokes.  By viscometer its viscosity can be measured.
  47. 47. Applications of waxes • They are many uses in  Pharmaceuticals  Cosmetics  plastics  textiles  foods  Corrugated board
  48. 48. Suitable Ingredients for  Polishes  Paste types , used for i. Floors ii. Furniture iii. Cars iv. footwear
  49. 49. Waxes are also used for  candle making
  50. 50.  Coatings for waxed paper or cloth.  Food-grade paraffin wax  Food packing industry is the largest consumer of wax today  Coating of fruit and cheese  For lining of cans and barrels  Manufacturing of anti-corrosives  Due to thermoplastic nature used for molding and making of replicas  Blends of waxes are used for dentists when making dentures  Used engineers when mass-producing precision casting  Shiny coating used in candy -makingalthough edible
  51. 51.  Coating for many kinds of hard cheese, like Edam cheese  Sealant for jars, cans, and bottle  Solid propellant for hybrid rocket motors  Component of surf wax, used for grip on surfboards in surfing  Component of glide wax, used on skis and snowboards.  Bone wax is used to help mechanically control bleeding from bone surfaces during surgical procedures
  52. 52. Chewing gum additive Friction-reducer, for use on handrails and cement ledges, commonly used in skateboarding . Ink. Used as the basis for solid ink different color blocks of wax for thermal printers. The wax is melted and then sprayed on the paper producing images with a shiny surface.  Thickening agent in many Paintballs, as used by Crayola.  Wax baths for beauty and therapy purposes .  Micro wax: food additive, a glazing agent.
  53. 53. Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum. • It may be found in natural deposits or may be a refined product. Asphalts are obtained by the oxidation of residual heavy oil in air at higher temperature and vacuum distillation. Asphalt has high viscosity, occur in semi- solid forms. It is used for road –making and water proofs Asphalts
  54. 54. Petroleum-Based Asphalts  Asphalt is waste product from refinery processing of crude oil  Sometimes called the “bottom of the barrel”  Properties depend on:  Refinery operations  Composition crude source-dependent Gasoline Kerosene Lt. Gas Oil Diesel Motor Oils Asphalt Barrel of Crude Oil
  55. 55. Composition of Asphalt  Oil-35 to 50%  Resins – 5 to 20%  Asphaltenes- 20 to 30%  Acids- Up to 10%
  56. 56. Asphalt Cement Components  Asphaltenes  Large, discrete solid inclusions (black)  High viscosity component  Resins  Semi-solid or solid at room temperature  Fluid when heated  Brittle when cold  Oils  Colorless liquid  Soluble in most solvents  Allows asphalt to flow
  57. 57. Refinery Operation FIELD STORAGE PUMPING STATION LIGHT DISTILLATE HEAVY DISTILLATE PROCESS UNIT ASPHALT CEMENTS FOR PROCESSING INTO EMULSIFIED AND CUTBACK ASPHALTS STILL AIR AIR BLOWN ASPHALT STORAGE TOWER DISTILLATION REFINERY RESIDUUM OR GAS PETROLEUM SAND AND WATER CONDENSERS AND COOLERS TUBE HEATER MEDIUM DISTILLATE
  58. 58. Types  Asphalt cements  Generally refinery produced material  Air blown asphalt cements  Cutbacks  Asphalt cements “cut” with petroleum solvents  Emulsions  Mixture of asphalt cement, water, and emulsifying agent
  59. 59. Air Blown Asphalt Cement
  60. 60. Asphalt Air Blowing Process The physical properties of asphalts may further be modified by 'air blowing'. This is an oxidation process which involves the blowing of air through the asphalts, either on a batch or a continuous basis, with the short residue at a temperature of 240°C to 320°C. This process is used to increase the viscosity of the resid to produce products such as roofing asphalts. Air blowing combines oxygen with hydrogen in the asphalt, producing water vapor. This decreases saturation and increases cross-linking within or between different asphalt molecules. Oxidation hardening of the asphalt cement due to air being continually injected results in a large increase in viscosity. This process can also be used to reduce the temperature susceptibility of a paving-grade asphalt cement.

×