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Reading and Writing
Research Reports, part 1
Lecture 6.2: Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences , Chapter...
Reading and Writing
Research Reports, part 1
Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010)
2
1. Journals are...
Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010)
3
1. The communication of research results is far from
straigh...
Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010)
4
4. IMRAD: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion—mos...
Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010)
5
http://www.cmpharm.ucsf.edu/~lle8/lee_lawrence_NLM_poster_20...
Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010)
6
Reading and Writing
Research Reports, part 1
The Logic of Sc...
Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010)
7
Introducing the Research Problem
Reading and Writing
Researc...
Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010)
8
4. Three moves: 1) establish topic and significance, 2) esta...
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Chapter 4 Part 1

  1. 1. 1 Reading and Writing Research Reports, part 1 Lecture 6.2: Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences , Chapter 4(2010)
  2. 2. Reading and Writing Research Reports, part 1 Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 2 1. Journals are the principle medium through which individual scientists share their theories and results with the scientific community (92) 2. Most journals are quite explicit about their audience and goals (92) 3. The ultimate influence of a paper in the scientific community may be significantly determined by the journal in which it appears (92) Research Journals and Their Readers
  3. 3. Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 3 1. The communication of research results is far from straightforward; they serve an interpretive and persuasive function (93) 2. Reports do not just explain what was done, but why it is important and useful; they are carefully constructed arguments (93) 3. Researchers seek to convince readers that their research questions are important, methods were sensibly chosen and carried out, their interpretations are sound, and their work serves a valuable contribution (93) Argumentation in Science Reading and Writing Research Reports, part 1
  4. 4. Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 4 4. IMRAD: Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion—most common structure. Each section contains an argument (93) 5. Framing sections = Introduction & Discussion (current state of field before and after study was conducted—typically use present verb tense) Argumentation in Science Reading and Writing Research Reports, part 1
  5. 5. Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 5 http://www.cmpharm.ucsf.edu/~lle8/lee_lawrence_NLM_poster_2006.png Reading and Writing Research Reports, part 1 Argumentation in Science 6. Describing sections = Methods and Results (where the study is actually described—typically use past verb tense) (94) Examples: Framing: “Factors that limit the distribution of the cougar are not known entirely but include climatic features, availability of prey, and habitat features.” Describing: “We searched for cougar tracks between December and April each year”; “Summer and winter home ranges…overlapped extensively” 7. One of the effects of past tense is to localize and limit findings to particular researchers or labs, whereas present tense identifies a claim or conclusion as part of the current understanding (95)
  6. 6. Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 6 Reading and Writing Research Reports, part 1 The Logic of Scientific Inquiry 1. IMRAD is not suitable for theoretical or historical research—the primary goal of such research is not to test hypotheses but to formulate hypotheses, to propose theories or models that account for the field’s observations to date 2. But theoretical and historical research still uses framing sections (introductions and conclusions); the body, however, tends to vary (96)
  7. 7. Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 7 Introducing the Research Problem Reading and Writing Research Reports, part 1 1. Introductions explain research objectives, argue that the research is important, and places study in context of previous research (97) 2. READ SCRAMBLED INTRODUCTION IN FIGURE 4.2 In this brief paragraph, authors identify the research area, describe the state of the field’s knowledge in this area, and have shown how their study will advance that knowledge (98) 3. Introductions are designed to create a space or niche that new research will fill—Create a Research Space (CARS) (98)
  8. 8. Adapted from Penrose & Katz, Writing in the Sciences (2010) 8 4. Three moves: 1) establish topic and significance, 2) establish need for research, 3) introduce present research 5. Introducing present research not always necessary in IMRAD format, but absolutely necessary where format is less predictable (100) 6. CARS method is useful to know, but recognize that it is a flexible sequence of rhetorical moves that authors combine to achieve rhetorical goals 7. Effectiveness of argument largely rests on describing what the field knows now Introducing the Research Problem Reading and Writing Research Reports, part 1

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