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Mobile IOT Framework in Emerging Economies

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This paper proposes a unified delivery mechanism using Interoperability Testing to address various socio-economic problems in emerging economies, with special focus on India. Rather than focusing on different products for every single problem, this framework focuses on using the existing system to resolve problems in one go.

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Mobile IOT Framework in Emerging Economies

  1. 1. Mobile IOT Framework in Emerging Ec nomies
  2. 2. Abstract Interoperability Testing Table of Contents Definition Significance of Mobile phone IOT Framework Proposed IOT Framework Challenges and their Solution Growing Emergency Numbers Safety Devices Disaster Management System Smartphone Management System Vision Mobile phone manufacturers Apprise TRAI about IOT Framework Test Equipment Vendors Network Operators Common Issues Conclusion Reference Author Info 3 3 3 3 4 5 5 6 7 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 © 2014, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  3. 3. Abstract Mobile IOT Framework in Emerging Economies | 3 How many emergency numbers we have in India dedicated to women, children, and senior citizens? How many do we actually remember? Do we need a separate device for women’s safety in metros? Will we ever be able to manage natural calamities better? Will the growing number of smartphones be manageable in times to come? The focus of this paper is on understanding the importance of mobile phone interoperability testing (IOT) framework and the need to create a healthy mobile phone IOT ecosystem in emerging economies like BRICS, with special focus on India. References have been taken ffrroomm tthhee aaddvvaanncceedd evolving interoperability testing ecosystems in the US and Japan that have been able to combat some of these problems using their IOT capabilities. In this paper, we propose Interoperability Testing as the solution that can address all your problems through a unified and single delivery mechanism. This framework has immense potential of finding a unique solution through years of research and development better than existing frameworks. This paper elucidates ways to solve many of these problems using Interoperability testing framework. *China is already working on an organized IOT mechanism where operators like CMCC, China Unicom have set of requirements which are not a part of 3GPP Conformance testing. Interoperability Testing Definition Interoperability is the ability of systems, units, or forces to provide services to and accept services from other systems, units or forces. Additionally they use the services exchanged to enable them to operate effectively together. Significance of Mobile phone IOT Framework India is the fastest emerging mobile phone market in the world with a subscriber count of 554.8 million1. This creates huge opportunities for the telecommunication ecosystem in the country. With huge opportunities come great challenges in ensuring high quality services to the end user. To ensure great user experience, every mobile phone needs to be tested at every phase of its development starting from initial chipset development till its release in the market. Following are the four major testing phases: Development Testing Conformance Testing Interoperability Testing (IOT) Performance Testing © 2014, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  4. 4. Mobile IOT Framework in Emerging Economies | 4 Of these, Development Testing is more module specific and is used in development of protocol stack/chipset. Conformance testing ensures that the device is developed as per industry standards or specification (e.g. 3GPP Technical Specifications for GSM/UTRAN/LTE conformance). Though Conformance testing is used throughout the globe, it is losing ground due to following limitations Extensive efforts required to check all protocol message exchange scenarios Cannot ensure interoperability in multi-vendor, multi-network and multiservice environment Complex ICT systems are often based on multiple standards (e.g. from ETSI, IETF, IEEE, ITU-T) as well as requirements published by industrial forums. Interoperability Testing helps in overcoming all the above limitations faced by Conformance Testing. This is achieved by additionally handling ambiguities, errors, unclear requirements, conflicting options and other factors that lead to non-interoperability. Proposed IOT Framework Figure 1 illustrates a typical IOT framework used by the operators in developed countries like the US and Japan (except orange lines). In these markets, mobile phones are mostly sold by the operators. These operators ensure interoperability testing along with conformance testing, before letting the phones out in the market. This is a robust framework for the Government and regulating bodies to get the needful implementation done on the devices over and above the implementation defined in global standards bodies. Mobile Phone Vendor O K O Conformance Testing Market Release IOT Testing OK K Network Operator OK* OK Regulations* Regulations Regulating Body *This model can additionally be used in markets like India where mobile phones are sold by Mobile vendors and not Operators. Figure 1 : Typical IOT framework used by mobile operators in developed countries © 2014, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  5. 5. How does the model work? Mobile IOT Framework in Emerging Economies | 5 1. Government/regulatory bodies define regulations based on regional needs or latest technological developments. 2. Operators too may have their needs for managing the networks better. 3. Above 2 points taken together constitute the requirements for devices released in the country. 4. Third party/operator labs certify the devices as a part of IOT Testing* followed by device release in the market. This is how the IOT framework impacts and improves mobile phone development: 1. As per guidelines of regulating bodies over and above standard specifications 2. As required by the operator to maximize Network implementation efficiency 3. To make devices predictable in handling abnormal conditions by defining expected behavior either by the regulatory bodies or operator. Challenges and their Solution A few real-life problems with specific context have been illustrated below to understand the challenges faced by BRICS with emphasis on India and how they can be effectively resolved using IOT framework. The benefits lie in the lost opportunities seen in the country solely because of lack of a working mechanism on problems related to social security and natural calamity management. Growing Emergency Numbers Problem In Delhi (India), Police Control number is 100, Women Helpline numbers are 23317002, 23317004 and 23411091, DCW Helpline numbers are 23379181 and 233705972. While the irony is that these numbers are far too many and cannot be dialed in emergency (without unlocking the phone) as emergency numbers defined for GSM Mobile phones in global standards (3GPP) are 121 and 911. It’s fairly possible for the regulating bodies like TRAI to setup wireless standards beyond global conformance standards as a part of IOT. What is really required is to route all tthhee ccaallllss uussiinngg aa standard emergency number such as 112 or 911 (which can be dialed without unlocking the phone). Having such an integrated service needs a stronger infrastructural support and can be seen as a good opportunity for BPO, IT and IT enabled services industry as well. © 2014, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  6. 6. An effective interoperability testing mechanism will ensure that 1. Regulating bodies can define a single standard number that works for all emergencies 2. Network operators/BPO/emergency services/policing system can be integrated to follow guidelines from regulating bodies 3. Mobile vendors can implement this feature on their phones released in India with/without operator. Benefits Safety Devices Recently, the Government has been trying to develop safety device for women and senior citizens. This device would be used to trigger alarm and send signals to pre-identified phone numbers in case of emergency. IIT-Delhi and C-DAC Thiruvananthapuram have been roped in for this project. There are a few pointers that the Government might have overlooked: 1. A unified vision of telecommunications convergence seems missing in this idea. The world today has been converging towards mobile phones, making products like music players, gaming displays, traditional digital watches virtually obsolete. In such a case, having a specific device to send emergency signals needs further brainstorming. 2. Keeping such a device regularly updated in terms of charging battery and keeping SIM cards active can be an additional burden. 3. Possibility of introducing regulations for emergency features in mobile phones. IIff aa FFaacceebbooookk button can be introduced on Nokia and HTC phones, why can’t Emergency button be introduced on phones rather than having a separate gadget for emergency? © 2014, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved. Solution 1. State/central authorities don’t need to keep creating new emergency numbers 2. Existing emergency numbers defined in global standards (3GPP in this case) can be used (as these numbers can be dialed in without unlocking the phones during emergency) 3. Above all, people can actually remember a single number in times of emergency and thus seek timely help. Problem Mobile IOT Framework in Emerging Economies | 6
  7. 7. An effective interoperability testing mechanism will ensure that 1. Regulating authorities can introduce safety features with requirements like: a. A single button press for few seconds will trigger SMS to your near ones b. This will work in all the networks irrespective of the subscription of the end user c. This might/might not work with/without SIM in the device, etc. 2. Network operators and mobile vendors work in sync with this regulation and get it implemented into the existing firmware within the mentioned timelines 33.. IIOOTT TTeesstt llaabb cceerrttiififieess tthhee ddeevviiccee bbeeffoorree llaauunncchh iinn tthhee mmaarrkkeett Disaster Management System Natural disasters like flood, tsunami and earthquake are beyond human control. But a warning system in place has the potential to save many lives. In the Indian Ocean, tsunami warning is currently broadcast through SMS, about which UNESCO says “…New communication tools – like short messaging services (SMS) – are vulnerable to saturation when they are most needed…”4. Even though SMS has limitations and is not the best mechanism to broadcast disaster warning, it is still widely used. Let’s see what the drawbacks of an SMS are: 1. Have you ever noticed why the SMS you send on a new year night/Diwali evening gets delayed? The answer lies in the utility that SMS has been designed to work for. It’s a peer-to-peer communication with dedicated signaling required between the network and the sender (or recipient). You can compare it with a local courier boy delivering packages to its recipients. If the number of couriers increases all of a sudden and the available courier boys to deliver them remain the same, a delay is bound to happen. But in critical times of natural disasters, delays are not an acceptable wwaayy ooff ooppeerraattiioonn.. 2. The language of an SMS matters. A tourist on the shores of Kerala might not understand Malayalam. So even if he receives the SMS, it is unlikely to be understood. SMS, even though a better mode of communication as compared to the older mechanisms, comes with its own riders. Hence a better mechanism is called for. © 2014, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved. Solution Problem Mobile IOT Framework in Emerging Economies | 7
  8. 8. Solution 1. Regulatory authorities can introduce regulations that compel the network operators to trigger Cell Broadcast services in case of emergencies and mobile phone device manufacturers to implement this feature. 2. Operators in US and Japan use interoperability testing framework in managing disaster. For example, The Commercial Mobile Alert System (CMAS), also known as Wireless Emergency Alerts (WEA) or Personal Localized Alerting Network (PLAN), is an alerting network in the United States designed to disseminate emergency alerts ttoo mmoobbiillee ddeevviicceess such as cell phones5. 3. Interoperability Testing labs test this feature and certify devices before the device can be released in the market. Benefits 1. As already mentioned SMS is not a reliable way of alerting in emergencies. Cell broadcast service (like CMAS in the US) can be implemented. 2. India’s Disaster Management System could ramp up with this approach. Smartphone Management System Smartphones are changing the business dynamics in telecommunications industry. IMS Based Architecture: SMS are now getting obsolete in social networking area and are replaced by chatting service which works on data plans offered by operators. This is true for multimedia based services as well. To sustain a more robust revenue model, operators are expected to shift towards service based architecture rather than data based architecture. Let’s say, a 1 minute video call charge is enormously high compared to chatting for longer durations. If the model is services based, then Video calls can also be made cheaper keeping the chatting charges same. This is possible with IMS based aarrcchhiitteeccttuurree wwhheerree cchhaarrggiinngg bbaasseedd oonn sseerrvviicceess ccaann bbee mmaaddee ppoossssiibbllee.. © 2014, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved. Problem Mobile IOT Framework in Emerging Economies | 8
  9. 9. Mobile IOT Framework in Emerging Economies | 9 Network resource management: As smart phones always try to remain in online modes they consume more network resources. This challenges operators to move towards more efficient network models in which devices also behave in an efficient manner in using the existing network resources. Solution 1. Regulating authorities really don’t have much of a role to play in this but network operators can get devices in sync with their networks while implementing an IMS based architecture giving an upward trend to network bound devices like data cards and smartphones. 2. Regarding ‘Network Resource Management’ problem, mobile interoperability testing framework is an answer. Device Aggregation Management is currently one of the requirements for device manufacturers that want to sell their phones with a given operator in markets like US and China. 3. This is beneficial to both the operators and the mobile device manufacturers ccrreeaattiinngg hheeaalltthhyy competition in the market. This section raises some points on how the Indian Telecommunication Industry is going to benefit from the proposed framework. The Government is entrusted with devising and passing regulations. Mobile phone manufacturers are in the business of making devices based on the mentioned regulations and not compete with Government offerings like the Aakash Tablet. Apprise TRAI about IOT Framework Test Equipment Vendors © 2014, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved. Vision Mobile phone manufacturers TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) is the regulations body in India. One of TRAI’s functions include “…render advice to the Central Government in the matters relating to the development of telecommunication technology and any other matter reliable to telecommunication industry in general…” Hence, TRAI must be apprised of its obligations to use the interoperability testing framework in order to leverage latest technological developments in telecommunications to resolve socio-economic problems in the country. Test Equipment Vendors are going to benefit due to a boost in the sales of test equipment in the Indian Market.
  10. 10. Network Operators Mobile IOT Framework in Emerging Economies | 10 Mobile Network Operators too are going to gain in following ways: Operators will be able to implement all the points mentioned in section “Challenges and their Solution” with specific focus on “Smart Phone Management System”. Operators can foray into mobile retailing in a more cost effective manner than other mobile retailers, as their focus will not be on profit margins, but services and value given to the end users. For 3G/4G related services, operators have already done this with data cards in India. COMMON ISSUES A few issues in setting up a robust interoperability testing framework in India are covered in this section. 1. Funding model: Department of Telecommunication (DoT) is already in talks with companies specialized in telecom testing to setup state-of-the-art test labs. This project has a mission to ensure that India’s telecom networks are free from potential bugs and malicious software that may be used remotely for spying. The major challenge this project is expected to face is the workable funding model which has led to vendors shying away. 2. Delays in setting up a working mechanism risking CCRA authorizing member bid. 3. Focus on new products for specific problems, rather tthhaann IIOOTT ffrraammeewwoorrkk.. © 2014, HCL Technologies. Reproduction Prohibited. This document is protected under Copyright by the Author, all rights reserved.
  11. 11. CONCLUSION As India is viewed as a rising Asian superpower, the Telecommunications industry is expected to rise further with focus on data and IMS based architecture. The need for effective solutions to solve socio-economic problems like disaster management and public safety needs to be addressed on priority. Further growth of the ‘always-online-Smartphone’ will pose challenges to network management Operators. TThhee iinntteerrooppeerraabbiilliittyy tteessttiinngg ffrraammeewwoorrkk ssuuggggeesstteedd iinn tthhiiss ppaappeerr pprroovviiddeess aa ssoolluuttiioonn ttoo tthheessee pprroobblleemmss and will potentially give a thrust to the growing Telecommunication ecosystem in India. Rather than focusing on different products for every single problem, this framework focuses on using the existing system to resolve problems in one go. 1. http://ibnlive.in.com/news/india-has-5548-crore-mobile-owners-1432-crore-internet-users/420444-11.html 2. http://dcw.delhigovt.nic.in/Helpline%20No.htm 3. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/government-developing-safety-device-for-women-senior-citizens/1170362/ 4. http://portal.unesco.org/en/ev.php-URL_ID=33442&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html 5. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commercial_Mobile_Alert_System This whitepaper is published by HCL Engineering and R&D Services. The views and opinions in this article are for informational purposes only and should not be considered as a substitute for professional business advice. The use herein of any trademarks is not an assertion of ownership of such trademarks by HCL nor intended to imply any association between HCL and lawful owners of such trademarks. For more information about HCL Engineering and R&D Services, Please visit http://www.hcltech.com/engineering-rd-services Copyright@ HHCCLL TTeecchhnnoollooggiieess All rights reserved. Designed By: Mayuri Infomedia REFERENCE AUTHOR INFO Jeetendra Vishwakarma HCL Engineering and R&D Services Mobile IOT Framework in Emerging Economies | 11