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FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A
Taking Stock of the Evidence: What we know
Chair...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A
Taking Stock of the Evidence: What we know
Chair...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A
Gaps & Constraints
Chairperson: Barbara Underwoo...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Serum retinol concentration
Olson,1981
Serum retinol concentration homeostatic...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A
How do we maximize impact and speed delivery?
Ch...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Progress and challenges in iron
and zinc biofortification: status
• Genetic va...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Major challenge is to demonstrate
improved absorption and efficacy
• High leve...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
The Way Forward
• Improvement of efficacy protocols (i.e. better
control of in...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Building Public Trust in Transgenic
Biofortified Crops
• All scientific eviden...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Building Public Trust in Transgenic
Biofortified Crops
• Important to consider...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Building Public Trust in Transgenic
Biofortified Crops
• Scientific research w...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Symposium: Biofortification through
Agronomic Practices.
• The ultimate goal o...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Symposium: Biofortification through
Agronomic Practices.
• Repeated production...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Symposium: Biofortification through
Agronomic Practices.
• One problem with Zn...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Symposium: Biofortification through
Agronomic Practices.
• Se fertilization of...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Navigating the Regulatory System:
Lessons learned from Golden Rice
by Gerard B...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Consumer Acceptance and Delivery of Biofortified Maize in Zambia:
by Victor Ma...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Developing EffectiveDelivery Systems for Biofortified Crops:
Some Thoughts on ...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Symposia: Delivering Iron and Zinc Crops:
An invisible Nutrients
• Whatdrives ...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
• Farmers today are influenced by the agronomical
characteristics, but the cha...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
• Food industries for years has been marketing
products successfully with invi...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
• Opportunities:
– incorporating in Food and Nutrition security
missions.
– Pu...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Weaving Biofortification into the
Global Development Agenda
• We have moved fr...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Strategies at 3 Levels
• Global
– Biofortificationengages all MDGs and multipl...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Crafting the Narrative
• Country ownership key
• The ethical dimension
– Valui...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Biofortification for the
Developed World: Progress with
Antioxidants & Other N...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Major BiologicalAntioxidants
• AntioxidantEnzymes
Superoxidedismutase(SOD)
Cat...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Key Points
• Major focus on foods to help prevent heart disease,
obesity, canc...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Selenium
1. The real story is often more complex than the
theory
2. Understand...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Fruits and Vegetables
• Increased consumptionof Fruits and Vegetables is criti...
FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE
ON BIOFORTIFICATION
Summary: Improving Human Nutrition
with Biotechnology-Derived Soybean Traits
2...
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Rapporteur summary slides wednesday

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Rapporteur summary slides wednesday

  1. 1. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A Taking Stock of the Evidence: What we know Chairperson: Barbara Underwood Panelists: Sherry Tanumihardjo, Marjorie Haskell,Guangwen Tang Animal Study Bioconversion Reference Maize: β-carotene 3:1 Howe,J Nutr 2006 β-cryptoxanthin 2.8:1 Davis et al., BJN 2008 α-carotene 5.5:1 Tanumihardjo, J Nutr 2005 Human Study Maize (n=5) 6.5:1 Li et al., AJCN 2010 (n=8) 3.2:1 Muzhingi et al FASEB J 2010 GoldenRice (n=5) 3.8:1 Tang et al., AJCN 2009 (n=24, children) 2.0:1 Tang et al., FASEB J 2010 Carrot (n=7) 15:1 Tang et al., AJCN 2005 Spinach (n=14) 21:1 Tang et al., AJCN 2005
  2. 2. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A Taking Stock of the Evidence: What we know Chairperson: Barbara Underwood Panelists: Sherry Tanumihardjo, Marjorie Haskell,Guangwen Tang Effectiveness The effectiveness of OFSP for improving vitamin A status in preschool children has been demonstrated
  3. 3. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A Gaps & Constraints Chairperson: Barbara Underwood Panelists: Sherry Tanumihardjo, Marjorie Haskell,Guangwen Tang Target groups and indicators of vitamin A status should be chosen carefully to optimize chances of demonstrating efficacy or effectiveness Target Population: High risk VAD Children:6-24 mo and 2-5 y Women: pregnant and lactating Indicator : Appropriate to measure change in vitamin A status Dark adaptation Breastmilkretinol concentration
  4. 4. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Serum retinol concentration Olson,1981 Serum retinol concentration homeostaticallycontrolled; not an optimal indicator of change in vitamin A status Serum retinol concentration declines transiently in infection; difficult to interpret; high infection rates in target populations
  5. 5. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposia: Nutrition Vitamin A How do we maximize impact and speed delivery? Chairperson: Barbara Underwood Panelists: Sherry Tanumihardjo, Marjorie Haskell,Guangwen Tang Win the community support!!! Large scale community efficacy intervention trials will bring the new crops to the community daily life, gain first-hand health impact information, and promote the acceptance
  6. 6. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  7. 7. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Progress and challenges in iron and zinc biofortification: status • Genetic variability of selected staples has been documented • Minimum targets for iron and zinc levels based on consumption,requirements and bioavailabilityhave been set (30-40% EAR) • New high iron and zinc varieties under development • Consumptionpatterns and human bioavailabilityconducted in target populations
  8. 8. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Major challenge is to demonstrate improved absorption and efficacy • High level of absorption inhibitors in cereals and legumes with no enhancers • In absorption studies biofortified staples increased mg Zn absorbed but not Iron mg absorbed • No demonstration of efficacy with zinc-biofortified crops (no sensitive biomarker) • Proof of concept for iron biofortification (Philippines rice study) still needs to demonstrate reduced prevalence of iron deficiency in target populations • Time frame to scientific consensus may be10-20 years
  9. 9. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION The Way Forward • Improvement of efficacy protocols (i.e. better control of infection, biomarkers,functional outcomes) • Reconsider breeding for low phytate (particularlyfor iron) • Iron levels in wheat and rice relatively low; genetic engineering should be further considered
  10. 10. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  11. 11. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Building Public Trust in Transgenic Biofortified Crops • All scientific evidence in favour of biofortification is merely reality. Resistance isn't based on reality but on perceptions. • The fear of a risk is inversely correlated to actual hazard. • In a high-stress/highly controversial environment, empathy is the number one dimension: – “Do you care what I care about?” – Other factors include competence/expertise, honesty/transparency, cultural interpretation, etc. • In high-stress situations, people can only process a maximum of three points.
  12. 12. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Building Public Trust in Transgenic Biofortified Crops • Important to consider – Messages – Messenger – Means that we use to communicate • Be prepared with message: there’s no longer any time to react – Be the first with the messages – Use the same messages consistently to build trust
  13. 13. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Building Public Trust in Transgenic Biofortified Crops • Scientific research will not carry the day, people will rely on who they trust, opinions of trusted peers – Build a credibility ladder using three or more additional sources who support your work • Media will help generate awareness and interest but it takes interpersonal communicationto influence evaluation, social trial and decision
  14. 14. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  15. 15. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposium: Biofortification through Agronomic Practices. • The ultimate goal of HarvestPlus is to increase the density of bioavailable Zn, Fe and Vitamin A in staple foods. • Session dealt with: – Large areas of Zn deficientcalcareoussoilsin regions where malnourishedpersonsreside. • India, China, Iran, Iraq, Turkey, western US, Australia, etc. • Significant yield loss as well as Zn poor crops – Fertilizationto increase crop Zn and Se – Agronomic management(fertilizers, cultivars, cropping)to preventhighlevelsof crop Cd and As.
  16. 16. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposium: Biofortification through Agronomic Practices. • Repeated production of crops for centuries depletessoils of available Zn. 5 t wheat grain/ha times 25 mg Zn/kg dry grain = 125 g Zn/ha-yr. – Zn deficient soils have only about 1000 g plant available Zn (DTPA-extr.)/ha. – Ultimately have to add Zn to deficient soils even if we use breeding to improve Zn in edible crop portions. – Added Zn is converted to unavailable forms over time. – Grain Zn response to soil-applied Zn is slight. – Grain Zn response to foliar Zn can be significant.
  17. 17. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposium: Biofortification through Agronomic Practices. • One problem with Zn biofortificationis that the Zn ends up in the aleurone layer which is removed during milling. – Foliar Zn during late grain fill increased endosperm Zn enough to significantly improve flour Zn. – Still need technology to increase Zn sink in endosperm of cereals; with Zn fertilization and genetic endosperm storage, can achieve nutritional goals. – Need limits on Cd in Zn fertilizers enforced in developing nations; extreme case with Cd in Chinese Zn product; affected many nations and others unknown.
  18. 18. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposium: Biofortification through Agronomic Practices. • Se fertilization of alkaline soils can increase crop Se. – Se added to livestockdiets provides needed Se in human diets. – Alternativeis supplements or biofortified foods. – High Se natural wheat does notcommand higher price in marketeven though it has clearly been available fromDakotas and Canada. • Cd and As in crops is a minor problem compared to malnutrition due to low bioavailable Fe and Zn in crops. – Lowrice Fe and Zn strongly increases Cd bioavailability in rice diets. – Marketlimits on Cd in durumwheat,and single dominantgene which halves grain Cd led to adoption of lowCd genotype to keep market. – Cd contamination of rice soils in Asia continues due to poor regs.May require phytoextractionto remove Cd to allowsafe rice production:Japan,Chain, Thailand,Korea.LowCd cultivars can help with problem. – As in cooking and drinking water much more importantthan As in rice; do not recommend breeding for lowerAs in rice exceptfor polluted Bangladeshiand Indian fields.
  19. 19. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  20. 20. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Navigating the Regulatory System: Lessons learned from Golden Rice by Gerard Barry • Golden Rice Progress - Carotenoid levels upto 25ug/g • Leading Countries have policies that support the use of modern biotechnology for national development (e.g. India, Philippines, Indonesia, China) • An integrated approach to Hazards Assessment and characterization involved in producing new GM varieties • Way forward: efficacy , bioavailability and consumer acceptance studies planned for the next few years. • Planned first release and launch of Golden rice in early 2013.
  21. 21. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Consumer Acceptance and Delivery of Biofortified Maize in Zambia: by Victor Manyong and Marx Mbunji • Maize Varieties with 8ppm Vitamin A are already in the pipeline. Goal is to reach 15ppm. • Results show that acceptability of Maize is enhanced when there is a message through radio or Community information • Contrary to low acceptance of yellow maize, consumers ready to accept orange maize when there is a Nutrition Message. • How to keep track of the different fortification interventions? e.g. Sugar. • Potential for Contamination of white maize with orange maize may downgrade the price when orange maize is introduced • Way forward – Fast track variety testing and release, use school feeding program and Government subsidy as an entry point for delivery, ensure Superior agronomic traits, efficient extension systems needed for delivery
  22. 22. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Developing EffectiveDelivery Systems for Biofortified Crops: Some Thoughts on the Integrated Delivery of Orange-fleshed Sweetpotatoin Sub-Saharan Africa by Jan Low • Nutrition education essential for increased frequency of consumption. Orange Color accepted but preferences differ in adults and children • Retention and efficacy studies has shown that OFSP is a rich and bioavailable source of vitamin A • For delivery, large no of households can be reached effectively with the less intensive model. • Integrated approach shows agronomic competitiveness essential • Demand creation campaign at community level essential and the orange color is an asset. • For successful delivery, invest in Marketing and marketing linkages • Way forward – Building the evidence for linking Agriculture and Nutrition with health to Maximize impact from OFSP.
  23. 23. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  24. 24. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Symposia: Delivering Iron and Zinc Crops: An invisible Nutrients • Whatdrives farmers preference ? – Ekin Birol, HarvestPlus • Gettingbiofortificationinto the public food distributionsystems – AkhterAhmed,IFRI • SeedSystems & Marketingbiofortifiedtraits to farmers – Marcelle van den Kommer, Oriri Strategy & Transformation • Branding staple crops with invisible micronutrients – Ashish Wele, Nirmal Seeds India
  25. 25. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION • Farmers today are influenced by the agronomical characteristics, but the challenge for the future is how farmers can be influenced by the special traits ( nutritional). • We have experience to deliver seeds based on the agronomical parameters, delivering seeds with nutritional trait is new to the seed industry.
  26. 26. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION • Food industries for years has been marketing products successfully with invisible traits. We should explore these innovative marketing /branding strategies, which can targeted at the bottom of pyramid. • Building strategic partnership between Public- Private. The strategy would be to find a win- win partnership to leverage the social goals of HarvestPlus and the commercial goal of private companies.
  27. 27. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION • Opportunities: – incorporating in Food and Nutrition security missions. – Public food distribution systems, school feeding programs and other national nutritional programs.
  28. 28. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  29. 29. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Weaving Biofortification into the Global Development Agenda • We have moved from getting the science right to a more political phase – Scaling up – Achieving public health impact • Being able to tell stories to key stakeholders and allies now essential – Give science a human face – Bolster public support
  30. 30. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Strategies at 3 Levels • Global – Biofortificationengages all MDGs and multiple development discourses • Regional – CAADPFramework for African Food Security puts nutrition squarely on agenda • National (Uganda case) – Strong NARS – Supportive policy framework – Multi-stakeholderengagement
  31. 31. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Crafting the Narrative • Country ownership key • The ethical dimension – Valuing nutritious food for everyone – Biofortification targets most deprived, women, children • Some questions: – Has “bio-” become a dirty word? – Who are the trusted intermediaries who will help us make the case?
  32. 32. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION
  33. 33. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Biofortification for the Developed World: Progress with Antioxidants & Other Nutrients Speakers: Sridevi Devaraj, John Finley, Sekhar Boddupalli,Joe Cornelius Rapporteur: Ray Glahn
  34. 34. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Major BiologicalAntioxidants • AntioxidantEnzymes Superoxidedismutase(SOD) Catalase Glutathione peroxidase • AntioxidantNutrients Other Vitamin C Curcumin Vitamin E Cinnamon Carotenoids AlphaLipoicAcid Betacarotene,lycopene, Broccoli,Green Tea,Aloe vera lutein Flavonoids • Non-enzymaticscavengers Uricacid Glutathione Thiols in proteins
  35. 35. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Key Points • Major focus on foods to help prevent heart disease, obesity, cancer and diabetes. • Antioxidant studies should be targeted to populations who have increased attendant oxidative stress • Compliance assessment should be made by measurement of circulating antioxidant levels • Assessment of combinations of antioxidant vitamins should be made carefully • Mechanistic studies and biomarkers of oxidative stress should be assessed • Long term safety and efficacy should be monitored • In the future, genotype may dictate utility of antioxidants in preventing chronic disease
  36. 36. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Selenium 1. The real story is often more complex than the theory 2. Understandingnutritional chemistry is essential 3. Understandingthe soil/plantinteraction is essential. 4. Food selenium safer than supplements.
  37. 37. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Fruits and Vegetables • Increased consumptionof Fruits and Vegetables is critical for Human Sustainability  Diabetes, Obesity Epidemic • Focuson taste and convenience to drive consumption;then build on the nutrition
  38. 38. FIRST GLOBAL CONFERENCE ON BIOFORTIFICATION Summary: Improving Human Nutrition with Biotechnology-Derived Soybean Traits 2010 Dietary Guidelines Recommendations • Avoid industrial trans fat • Substitute with MUFA and PUFA • Reduce saturated fat in diet • Reduce to less than 7% en. • Substitute with MUFA and PUFA • Consume LC sources of Omega-3 • Two 4 oz. servings of fatty fish/week • Averageof 250mg LC PUFA/week 38 38 Soymega™ SDA Omega-3 SoybeanOil Vistive® Gold Low Saturate High Oleic Low Linolenic SoybeanOil

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