1.“Health is a state of complete physical mental and social well-being.
It's not only the absence of disease”-WHO.
2.A person is said to be healthy when he/she is free of any type of
disease (infectious/deficiency) when he/she is mentally happy and
healthy, and when his/her social relationships are healthy in society.
3.Hence, to have a healthy life one has to be physically, mentally, and
3. Right to Health
• The right to health is a universally recognized principle. The right to
health refers to every person’s right to achieve good health. Through
this right, a person is entitled to access to healthcare, medical
awareness, a better standard of living, clean and sanitary water,
• Fundamental Rights: Article 21 of the Constitution of India guarantees
a fundamental right to life & personal liberty. The right to health is
inherent to a life with dignity.
• Directive Principles of State Policy (DPSP): Articles 38, 39, 42, 43, &
47 put the obligation on the state in order to ensure the effective
realization of the right to health.
4. • Judicial Pronouncements:
• The Supreme Court in Paschim Bangal Khet Mazdoor Samity case (1996)
held that in a welfare state, the primary duty of the government is to secure
the welfare of the people and moreover it is the obligation of the government
to provide adequate medical facilities for its people.
• In Parmanand Katara Vs Union Of India (1989) judgement, the Supreme
Court had ruled that every doctor whether at a government hospital or
otherwise has the professional obligation to extend his services with due
expertise for protecting life.
5. • Universal Declaration of Human Rights: India is a signatory of the
Article 25 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) by the
• It grants the right to a standard of living adequate for the health and
well-being of humans including food, clothing, housing and medical
care and necessary social services.
6. • Essentials of right to health
• A healthcare system is made up of public health and healthcare facilities,
healthcare goods and services, as well as programmes. As per the General
Comment no. 14 of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,
the right to health contains the following essential elements, the application
of which will depend on the prevailing conditions in the state party:
• The state must make provision for a functioning and adequate healthcare
system for the public and individuals throughout its territories. The precise
nature of the healthcare system may vary. Still, it must necessarily include
safe water, sanitation facilities, medical infrastructure, trained medical
professionals, and essential drugs.
7. • Accessibility
• Accessibility is of four kinds:
• There must be no discrimination in access to healthcare. It must be accessible to all, especially vulnerable and
• Physical accessibility
• The area of access to healthcare must be in a safe and physically reachable place. The area must be safe and
physically reachable even for women, children, vulnerable and marginalised communities, adolescents, older
persons, persons with disabilities, persons with HIV/AIDS, and rural area residents.
• Healthcare should be affordable for all. It must follow the principle of equity. The principle of equity dictates
that healthcare expenses must be somewhat proportionate to the income level of the person so as to not
induce poverty due to medical debt. Poor households must not be disproportionately burdened with healthcare
expenses compared to richer households.
• Information accessibility
• A person has the right to:
• Look for, Receive, and Convey
• information and ideas concerning health. Information about health must be accessible to all.
8. • Quality
• Healthcare must be of good quality. It must be appropriate as per the scientific
and medical standards. For example, trained medical professionals, safe and
potable water, scientifically approved hospital equipment, etc.
• Healthcare must be respectful of medical ethics and culturally appropriate. It
should have respect for the culture and be sensitive to gender and life-cycle
9. Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 1948
As per Article 25(1), every person has a right to a standard of living satisfactory to the
health and well-being of the person or their family.
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966
As per Article 12 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural
• The states recognise the right to health.
• The states must take steps to achieve the right to health, and such steps must
include those necessary for:
oReduction of the stillbirth rate;
oLowering of infant mortality;
oBettering environmental and industrial hygiene;
oPreventing, treating, and controlling epidemics, endemics, and occupational and
other diseases; and
oAssurance of medical services and medical attention in the event of sickness.
10. • International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination,
• As per Article 5 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
• The states will guarantee the right to health to everyone without distinction as to
their race, ethnicity, colour, or national origin.
• Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, 1979
• According to Article 12 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women, 1979-
• The states shall make all efforts to remove discrimination against women in health
• The states should make all efforts to ensure equality between men and women in
terms of treatment and access to health care.
• The states must also ensure appropriate care concerning pregnancy, confinement,
and the postnatal period. Such care must include adequate nutrition and free
services during pregnancy and lactation.
11. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, 2006
According to Article 25 of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities,2006-
• The parties to the convention are to recognise the right to health of persons with
• The states shall ensure gender-sensitive health care services for persons with disabilities.
• The states shall ensure that the health professionals are providing to persons with
disabilities the quality of care as given to others.
• The states shall raise awareness of human rights, respect, autonomy, and needs of
persons with disabilities by way of ethics and training in public and private health care.
• The states shall ban discrimination against persons with disabilities in health insurance
and life insurance.
• The states shall prevent discriminatory denial of health care, health services, or food and
fluids by reason of disability.
12. • The states shall:
• Give persons with disabilities the same range, quality, and standard of free,
affordable health care as given to others;
• Provide health care needed by the persons with disabilities specifically
because of their disabilities;
• Provide services designed to minimise and prevent further disabilities; and
• Establish health care services in close proximity to the communities.
The Constitution of the World Health Organisation
The right to health was first recognised in the Constitution of the World Health
Organisation. The right to health is said to be the enjoyment of the highest
attainable standard of health without distinction of race, religion, political
belief, economic or social condition.
13. Right to health recognized in international forums
• The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial
Discrimination: Article 5(e)(iv)
• Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Article 25
• International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights: Article 12
• Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women:
Article 11(1)(f), Article 10(h), Article 12, and Article 14(2)(b).
• Convention of the Rights of the Child: Article 24 and Article 25
• Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities: Article 23(1)(c) and Article
• African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights: Article 16
• European Social Charter: Article 11
• American Declaration of Rights and Duties of Man: Article XI
• Additional Protocol to the American Convention on Human Rights in the Area of
Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: Article 10
• The World Health Organisation’s Constitution
• International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
14. Right to Health as a Fundamental Right
Guaranteed by the Constitution of India
• The Constitution of India does not expressly recognize Right to Health as a
fundamental right under Part III of the Constitution (Fundamental Rights).
However, through judicial interpretation, this has been read into the
fundamental right to life & personal liberty (Article 21) and is now considered
an inseparable part of the Right to Life. Article 23 of the Constitution of India
also indirectly contributes to protecting the Right to Health as it prohibits
human trafficking and child labour.
15. • The role of Indian Supreme Court in protecting the health of the public at large
is noteworthy. The Supreme Court has repeatedly observed that the expression
“life” in Article 21 means a life with human dignity and not mere survival or
animal existence (Francis Coralie Mullin vs The Administrator, Union Territory
of Delhi AIR 1981 746). Right to life has a very broad scope which includes
right to livelihood, better standard of life, hygienic conditions in the workplace
& right to leisure. Right to Health is, therefore, an inherent and inescapable
part of a dignified life. Article 21 should also be read in tandem with the
directive principles of state policy, cited above, to truly understand the nature
of the obligations of the state in this respect.
• In the case of Bandhua Mukti Morcha v. Union of India AIR 1984 SC 812, the
Supreme Court held that although the DPSP are not binding obligations but
hold only persuasive value, yet they should be duly implemented by the State.
Further, the Court held that dignity and health fall within the ambit of life and
liberty under Article 21.
16. • In the case of Paschim Banga Khet Mazoor Samity v. State of West Bengal
(1996) 4 SCC 37, the scope of Article 21 was further widened, as the court
held that it is the responsibility of the Government to provide adequate
medical aid to every person and to strive for the welfare of the public at
• Further, the Supreme Court in the case of Parmanand Katara v Union of
India AIR 1989 S.C. 2039, held that every doctor at Government hospital or
otherwise has the professional obligation to extend his services with due
expertise for protecting life of a patient.
• In the subsequent case of Consumer Education and Research Centre V.
Union of India AIR 1995 SC 922, held that right to health and medical aid to
protect the health and vigor of a worker, both while in service and post-
retirement, is a fundamental right under Article 21.
17. • Further, According to Article 19 (1) (g) of the Indian Constitution, the
fundamental right of all citizens to practice any profession, or carry on
any occupation, trade or business is subject to restrictions imposed in
the interest of the general public under Article 19(6). The Hon’ble
Supreme Court in the case of Burrabazar Fire Works Dealers
Association and Others v. Commissioner of Police, Calcutta AIR 1998
Cal. 121, held that Article 19 (1) (g) does not guarantee any freedom
which is at the cost of the community’s safety, health and peace.
18. indigenous and allopathic health system
• The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines Indigenous health
systems as ‘the sum total of the knowledge, skills, and practices based
on the theories, beliefs, and experiences indigenous to different
cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of
health as well as in the prevention, diagnosis, improvement or
treatment of physical and mental illness’.
19. • India is known for its traditional medicinal systems—Ayurveda, Siddha, and
Unani. Medical systems are found mentioned even in the ancient Vedas and
other scriptures. The Ayurvedic concept appeared and developed between
2500 and 500 BC in India.
• The literal meaning of Ayurveda is “science of life,” because ancient Indian
system of health care focused on views of man and his illness. It has been
pointed out that the positive health means metabolically well-balanced
human beings. Ayurveda is also called the “science of longevity” because it
offers a complete system to live a long healthy life. It offers programs to
rejuvenate the body through diet and nutrition. It offers treatment methods
to cure many common diseases such as food allergies, which have few
modern treatments. However, one should be aware that Ayurvedic nutrition
is not a “magic bullet” system but requires the full participation of the
patient to succeed. It is an interactive system that is user-friendly and
educational. It teaches the patient to become responsible and self-
empowered. Ayurveda is not a nutritional system for those seeking an escape
or excuse to further abuse their body or mind. It is a system for
empowerment, a system of freedom, and long life.
20. • Ayurveda is a traditional medical system from India that comes from the
Sanskrit words “ayur” (life) and “veda” (knowledge).
• A combination of these ayurvedic elements make up what are known as the
three humors, also called constitutions or energies, of the body. Constitution
varies by individual, and per ayurvedic philosophy, it may influence how well
your body functions during specific times of the year, according to Douillard:
• Vata dosha (air and space) is associated with the cold, dry winter.
• Pitta dosha (fire) is associated with summer.
• Kapha dosha (earth and water) is associated with wet, rainy, muddy spring
21. • Ayurveda is an ancient system of medicine and healthcare that originated in India more
than 5,000 years ago. It is based on the belief that health and wellness depend on a
delicate balance between the mind, body, and spirit.
• The Ayurvedic health system aims to promote good health and prevent illness by focusing
on a holistic approach to healthcare. This approach includes diet and lifestyle
recommendations, herbal remedies, massage, meditation, and other natural therapies.
• According to Ayurvedic principles, each person has a unique constitution, or "dosha,"
which is determined by their physical, emotional, and mental characteristics. There are
three main doshas: Vata, Pitta, and Kapha. By understanding a person's dosha, Ayurvedic
practitioners can tailor treatments to help restore balance and promote good health.
• Ayurveda is recognized as a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) system and
is becoming increasingly popular in many parts of the world. However, it is important to
note that the effectiveness and safety of Ayurvedic treatments have not been fully
evaluated by Western medical standards, and some treatments may not be appropriate
for everyone. It is always important to consult with a qualified Ayurvedic practitioner or
healthcare provider before starting any new treatment.
• Siddha system is one of the oldest systems of medicine in India. The term ‘Siddha’ means
achievements and ‘Siddhars’ were saintly persons who achieved results in medicine.
Eighteen Siddhars were said to have contributed towards the development of this medical
system. Siddha literature is in Tamil and it is practised largely in Tamil speaking part of India
and abroad. The Siddha System is largely therapeutic in nature.
• This principles and doctrines of this system, both fundamental and applied, have a close
similarity to Ayurveda, with specialization in Iatro-chemistry. According to this system the
human body is the replica of the universe and so are the food and drugs irrespective of
their origin. Like Ayurveda, this system believes that all objects in the universe including
human body are composed of five basic elements namely, earth, water, fire, air and sky.
The food, which the human body takes and the drugs it uses are all, made of these five
elements. The proportion of the elements present in the drugs vary and their
preponderance or otherwise is responsible for certain actions and therapeutic results.
• As in Ayurveda, siddha system also considers the human body as a conglomeration of three
humours, seven basic tissues and the waste products of the body such as faeces, urine and
sweat. The food is considered to be basic building material of human body which gets
processed into humours, body tissues and waste products. The equilibrium of humours is
considered as health and its disturbance or imbalance leads to disease or sickness. This
system also deals with the concept of salvation in life. The exponents of this system
consider achievement of this state is possible by medicines and meditation.
23. • The Unani system of medicine, also known as Yunani medicine, is a traditional system of
medicine that originated in ancient Greece and was later developed and refined by Muslim
scholars, particularly in Persia and the Indian subcontinent. It is based on the principles of
humorism, which holds that the human body is composed of four basic humors - blood,
phlegm, yellow bile, and black bile - and that health depends on maintaining a balance of
• The Unani system of medicine employs a holistic approach to health and healing, focusing
on the physical, mental, and spiritual aspects of human health. It uses natural remedies,
including herbs, minerals, and animal products, as well as dietary and lifestyle
recommendations to restore and maintain balance in the body.
• The Unani system of medicine has been practiced for centuries and has made significant
contributions to the development of modern medicine. It has a strong emphasis on
preventive medicine and has been successful in treating a wide range of chronic and acute
• Today, the Unani system of medicine is practiced primarily in India, Pakistan, and other parts
of South Asia, as well as in some Arab countries. It is recognized as a traditional system of
medicine by the World Health Organization (WHO) and has gained popularity as a
complementary and alternative medicine in other parts of the world as well.
24. • Yoga is a holistic system of medicine that originated in ancient India and has been
practiced for thousands of years. It is a spiritual and physical practice that aims to
promote overall health and well-being by harmonizing the mind, body, and spirit.
• The practice of yoga involves various physical postures (asanas), breathing techniques
(pranayama), and meditation practices to promote relaxation, reduce stress, and
improve mental and physical health. In addition, yoga also emphasizes the
importance of a healthy diet and lifestyle, including adequate sleep, exercise, and
• Yoga has been found to be effective in managing various health conditions, including
chronic pain, anxiety, depression, and cardiovascular diseases. It has also been shown
to improve flexibility, strength, and balance.
• Today, yoga is widely practiced around the world and has gained recognition as a
complementary and alternative medicine. It is often used in conjunction with
conventional medical treatments to enhance their effectiveness and promote overall
health and well-being.
25. • Homeopathy is a system of alternative medicine that was developed in the late 18th
century by a German physician named Samuel Hahnemann. It is based on the principle of
"like cures like", which means that a substance that causes symptoms in a healthy person
can be used to treat similar symptoms in a sick person.
• Homeopathic remedies are made from natural substances, such as plants, minerals, and
animal products, that are highly diluted and potentized. The remedies are believed to
stimulate the body's natural healing process and restore balance to the body's vital energy.
• Homeopathy is often used to treat chronic and acute conditions, including allergies,
asthma, migraines, arthritis, and digestive disorders, among others. The treatment involves
a detailed evaluation of the patient's physical and emotional symptoms, as well as their
medical history and lifestyle, to identify the most appropriate remedy.
• Critics of homeopathy argue that the remedies are highly diluted and therefore have no
therapeutic effect beyond that of a placebo. However, many people around the world
continue to use homeopathy and report positive results. It is important to note that
homeopathy should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical treatment and
should be approached with caution, especially for serious or life-threatening conditions.
26. • Naturopathy is a type of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) that focuses
on using natural remedies and therapies to promote healing and prevent disease. It is
based on the principle that the body has an innate ability to heal itself and that natural
substances and therapies can help to support and enhance this healing process.
• Naturopathic practitioners use a wide range of natural therapies, including herbal
medicine, nutritional counseling, physical therapy, acupuncture, and other holistic
approaches, to treat a variety of health conditions. They also emphasize the
importance of preventive care and lifestyle changes, such as exercise, stress
management, and a healthy diet, in maintaining good health and preventing disease.
• Naturopathic medicine is often contrasted with allopathic medicine, which is based on
the use of drugs and other medical interventions to treat disease. While naturopathy is
not widely accepted by the mainstream medical community, many people find it to be
a helpful complement to conventional medical treatments, especially for chronic
conditions such as arthritis, allergies, and digestive disorders. It is important to note
that naturopathic treatments should be used under the guidance of a trained
practitioner and should not be used as a substitute for conventional medical care in
cases of serious illness or emergency situations.
27. • The allopathic health system is a term used to refer to conventional or Western
medicine, which focuses on treating disease symptoms with medication, surgery,
and other invasive procedures. Allopathic medicine is based on the principle of
using drugs or other interventions that have opposite effects to the disease or
condition being treated, with the aim of correcting or balancing the body's natural
• Allopathic medicine is the dominant form of medical practice in the Western world
and is based on evidence-based scientific research, clinical trials, and medical
training programs. It is often contrasted with alternative or complementary
medicine, which uses non-conventional approaches such as herbal remedies,
acupuncture, and other therapies that are not widely accepted by the mainstream
• While allopathic medicine has been highly effective in treating many diseases and
conditions, it has also been criticized for its overreliance on drugs and other
interventions, as well as for its tendency to focus on treating symptoms rather than
addressing the underlying causes of disease.
28. The Indian government has implemented several policies and initiatives to improve healthcare in the country,
especially in the areas of primary healthcare, maternal and child health, and infectious disease control. Some of the
major healthcare initiatives launched by the government include:
• Ayushman Bharat: This is a flagship healthcare scheme launched in 2018, which aims to provide health coverage
to more than 100 million poor and vulnerable families in India. Under this scheme, eligible beneficiaries can
receive cashless health insurance cover of up to INR 5 lakh per family per year for secondary and tertiary care
• National Health Mission: This is a program launched in 2013, which aims to improve the availability and quality
of primary healthcare services across the country. The program focuses on maternal and child health, family
planning, immunization, and communicable diseases.
• Pradhan Mantri Matru Vandana Yojana: This is a maternity benefit program launched in 2017, which provides
financial assistance of INR 5,000 to pregnant women for their first live birth. The program aims to reduce maternal
and infant mortality rates in the country.
• Swachh Bharat Mission: This is a cleanliness and sanitation campaign launched in 2014, which aims to improve
public health and reduce the incidence of diseases caused by poor sanitation and hygiene practices.
• National Tuberculosis Elimination Program: This is a program launched in 1997, which aims to eliminate
tuberculosis (TB) from India by 2025. The program provides free diagnosis and treatment for TB patients and
promotes awareness and prevention of the disease.
Overall, the Indian government has taken several steps to improve healthcare in the country, but there is still a long
way to go in terms of providing accessible and quality healthcare to all citizens, especially those in remote and
29. Types of Government Health Insurance Scheme
Ayushman Bharat Yojana
Ayushman Bharat is a universal health insurance scheme of the Ministry of Health
and Family Welfare, Government of India. PMJAY was launched to provide free
healthcare services to more than 40% population of the country. The scheme
offers a health cover of Rs 5 Lakh.
In this scheme, it covers medicines, diagnostic expenses, medical treatment, and
pre-hospitalization costs. The poorest families of India can benefit from this
Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana
Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana aims to provide accident insurance cover
to the people of India. People in the age group of 18 years to 70 years who have
an account in a bank can avail benefit from this scheme.
This policy provides an annual cover of Rs 2 lakh for total disability and death
cover and Rs 1 lakh for partial disability. The policy premium gets automatically
debited from the policyholder’s bank account.
30. Aam Aadmi Bima Yojana (AABY)
• This is one of the latest National Health Insurance schemes having been
established in the year 2007, October. It basically covers individuals from the
age of 18 years-59 years. AABY insurance scheme is tailored for all those
citizens living in the upcountry and in the rural areas.
• It also covers the landless citizens who are tenants living both in urban and
rural areas. It also includes giving scholarships to underprivileged children.
• Basically, the head of the family or the earning member is the one protected by
this scheme. The premium of 200 rupees per annum is shared equally by the
state and the central government. Upon a natural death, the family is
compensated at 30000 rupees. However, upon death caused by a permanent
disability, the family is compensated at 75,000 rupees.
31. • Central Government Health Scheme (CGHS)
• This scheme was started in the year 1954 and provides comprehensive health
care facilities for central government officials and pensioners residing in cities.
Operations of this scheme take place in cities such as Kolkata, Mumbai,
Lucknow, Delphi, Nagpur, and Pune.
• The people covered by this scheme are required to be residing in India. This is a
National Health Company Online Renewal program that includes the privilege
of health education to the beneficiaries.
32. Employment State Insurance Scheme
This is a multidimensional National Health insurance scheme due to the fact that
it provides social security as well as socio-economic protection to all workers in
India. In addition, it provides the same privileges those who depend on workers
protected under this scheme.
This insurance scheme commences upon the first day of insurable employment
to each and every worker. They are provided with full medical care insurance for
themselves and their families as well.
This scheme is not applicable to each and every person or company. It is only
applicable to all permanent factories employing more than ten employees.
Recently, the scheme has been extended to various businesses including shops,
restaurants, road and motor transports and newspaper entities that employ
more than 20 people.
33. • Janshree Bima Yojana
• Janshree Bima Yojana is designed for individuals in the poor category who are
within the age group of 18-59 years. The scheme includes special features
like Women SHG Groups and Shiksha Sahyog Yojana. At present there are 45
occupational groups under this scheme.
• Chief Minister’s Comprehensive Insurance Scheme
• Chief Minister’s Comprehensive Insurance Scheme is a Tamil Nadu state
government scheme. It was launched in association with the United India
Insurance Company Ltd. It is a family floater policy that was designed to
provide quality health care services to people. This scheme covers more than
a thousand medical procedures.
• In this policy, you can claim for hospitalization expenses up to Rs 5 lakh. The
beneficiary can select from both private and government hospitals under this
scheme. Tamil Nadu residents with an annual income of lesser than Rs 75000
per year are eligible to enroll under this scheme.
34. Universal Health Insurance Scheme (UHIS)
This type of scheme was implemented to help the families who live below the
poverty line. It covers the medical expenses of each and every member of the
family. In case of death due to an accident, there is a cover that is provided.
The main drivers of the Universal Health Insurance Scheme are basically the four
public sector general insurance companies who have been doing this with an aim
of improving healthcare to the underprivileged and especially the economically
disabled citizen in India.
West Bengal Health Scheme
The Government of West Bengal launched this scheme for its employees in the
year 2008. It is also available for the pensioners. This coverage is provided on
both individual and family floater basis up to a sum insured of Rs 1 lakh. The
policy covers OPD treatment and medical surgeries as per the policy terms and
35. Yeshasvini Health Insurance Scheme
The Karnataka State Government promotes the Yeshasvini Health Insurance
Scheme. This scheme is useful for peasants and farmers and who are associated
with a co-operative society. This health insurance scheme covers more than 800
medical procedures such as Neurology, Orthopaedic, Angioplasty, etc.
Co-operative societies help the farmers to get enrolled in the Yeshasvini Health
Insurance Scheme. The beneficiaries can avail of health care services through
network hospitals, and coverage benefits are extendible to the beneficiary’s
Mahatma Jyotiba Phule Jan Arogya Yojana
The Government of Maharashtra introduced this health insurance policy for the
benefit of people in the state around. The scheme is going to be helpful for below
the poverty line and was targeted at the farmers in Maharashtra.
The policy offers a family health cover of up to Rs 1.5 lakh for specified illnesses.
The best part about this policy is that there is no waiting period, and it is
claimable after the first day itself, unless it is specifically mentioned in the policy
36. • Mukhyamantri Amrutam Yojana
• Mukhyamantri Amrutam Yojana was initiated by the Gujarat government in
the year 2012 for the benefit of the poor people living in Gujarat. People who
are in the lower middle-income group and below the poverty line are eligible
to enroll under the scheme.
• It is family floater health insurance policy that provides coverage up to Rs 3
lakh per family. The policyholder can avail of medical treatment from private
and government hospitals, as well as trust-run hospitals.
Karunya Health Scheme
In 2012, the Kerala Government had launched this scheme to provide health
cover for listed chronic illnesses. It is a Critical Illness plan for the poor and
covers major diseases such as Kidney, Cancer, cardiovascular illnesses, etc.
People who are below the poverty line can enroll themselves in this scheme.
The beneficiary needs to provide a copy of the Income Certificate and Aadhaar
Card for the same.
37. • Telangana State Government Employees and Journalists Health Scheme
• Telangana Government launched this scheme for its journalists and employees. It is
beneficial for the employed, retired, and pensioners. In this scheme, the beneficiary
can avail of cashless treatment in the hospitals that are registered. The beneficiaries
do not have to rush to arrange funds for emergency medical expenses.
Dr YSR Aarogyasri Health Care Trust
• Four health welfare schemes were launched by the Andhra Pradesh Government
along with the Dr YSR Aarogyasri Trust. These schemes offer medical cover to
different people and help them at the time of a medical emergency. The schemes
are given below:
• Dr YSR Aarogyasri scheme for the welfare of the poor
• Arogya Raksha scheme is for Above the Poverty Line (APL)
• Working Journalist Health Scheme that provides cashless treatment cover for
• Employee Health Scheme provides health cover to the state government employees