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Information Technology

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Information Technology

  1. 1. Foundation Of Information Systems In Business MODULE-1 Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 1
  2. 2. Learning Objectives:  Understand the concept of a system and how it relates to information systems.  To Learn to differentiate between data & Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 2 information  To understand the trends in IS  To Know the components of an IS & its resources  To Know the Application of IS in organizational functions
  3. 3. What Is An Information System?  An Information System can be any organized combination Of: - People, - Hardware, - Software, - Communications networks, - Policies. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 3
  4. 4. What Is An Information System? (continued)  People rely on modern information systems to communicate using a variable: - Physical devices (hardware). - Information processing instruction and procedures (software). - Communications channels (network). - Stored data (data resources). Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 4
  5. 5. Examples Of Information Systems:  Smoke signals for communication  Card catalog in a library  The cash register Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 5
  6. 6. Definitions Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 6  Data  Raw facts such as an employee’s name and number of hours worked in a week, inventory part numbers or sales orders.  Information  A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves.
  7. 7. Definitions Data Raw facts such as an employee’s name and number of hours worked in a week, inventory part numbers or sales orders. Information A collection of facts organized in such a way that they have additional value beyond the value of the facts themselves. Data Information $35,000 12 Units $12,000 J. Jones Western Region $100,000 100 Units 35 Units Data Processing Salesperson: J. Jones Sales Territory: Western Region Current Sales: 147 Units = $147,000
  8. 8. Information Systems An information system(IS) is typically considered to be a set of interrelated elements or components that collect(input), manipulate(processes), and disseminate (output) data and information and provide a feedback mechanism to meet an objective. Open System Close System Definitions
  9. 9. Computer-based Information System An Information System is an organized combination of people, hardware, software, communication networks and the data resources that collects, transforms and disseminates information in a organization.
  10. 10. Software  Computer software falls into two classes: systems software and applications software. 1) Systems Software: Manage the resources of the computer system and simplifies programming. An operating system is the principal system software. It manages all the resources of a computer system and provides an interface through which the system's user can deploy these resources. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 10
  11. 11. Contd.. 2) Application Software: Are programs that directly assist end users in doing their work. They are purchased as ready-to-use packages. Applications software directly assists end users in doing their work. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 11
  12. 12. Databases  Databases are organized collections of interrelated data used by applications software. Databases are managed by systems software known as database management systems (DBMS) and shared by multiple applications. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 12
  13. 13. Telecommunications  Telecommunications are the means of electronic transmission of information over distances. Today, computer systems are usually interconnected into telecommunications networks. Various network configurations are possible, depending upon an organization's need. These include:  1. Local area networks (LAN) 2. Metropolitan area networks (MAN) 3. Wide area networks (WAN) Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 13
  14. 14. INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY Hardware Software Databases Networks Other related components are used to build INFORMATION SYSTEMS Payroll System Inventory System Marketing System Customer Service System IS Vs IT
  15. 15. Computer Based Information System & Information Technologies: 1. Computer hardware technologies-Micro Computers, Midsize servers, input,output and storage devices. 2. Computer software technologies-Operating systems, web browsers, software productivity suites. 3. Telecommunications network technologies-intranets, extranets, Wi-fi, LAN, WAN. 4. Data resource management technologies- DBMS Software for development, access. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 15
  16. 16. DISCUSS  Information is resource or not??? Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 16
  17. 17. The Major Areas Of Information Systems Knowledge Needed By Business Professionals 1. Foundation concepts. concept about the components and roles of information systems. 2. Information technologies. hardware, software, networks, data management, many internet based technologies. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 17
  18. 18. The Major Areas Of Information Systems Knowledge Needed By Business Professionals (continued) 3. Business applications. operations, management, competitive advantage of a business. 4. Development processes. plan, develop, and implement information systems to meet business opportunities. 5. Management challenges. the challenges of effectively and ethically managing information technology at end user, enterprise, and global levels of a business. Ex:- Cyber Crime, Hacking, Cyber Theft, Piracy, Viruses Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 18 & Worms
  19. 19. The Fundamental Roles Of Information System In Business There are three fundamental reasons: 1. Support of its business processes and Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 19 operations. 2. Support of decision making by its employees and managers. 3. Support of its strategies for competitive advantage.
  20. 20. Trends In Information Systems: 1. Data processing: 1950s – 1960s - electronic data processing systems -- transaction processing, record keeping, and traditional accounting applications. 2. Management reporting: 1960s – 1970s - management information systems -- management reports of pre-specified information to support decision making. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 20
  21. 21. Trends In Information Systems (continued): 3. Decision support: 1970s – 1980s - decision support systems 4. Strategic and User Support: 1980s – 1990s - end user computing systems - executive information systems - expert systems - strategic information systems Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 21
  22. 22. Trends In Information Systems (continued): 4. Electronic Business and Commerce: 1990s – 2000s - internet based e business and e-commerce systems Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 22
  23. 23. The Role Of “E Business” In Business  Many business today are using internet technologies to Web enable business process and to create innovative e business application. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 23
  24. 24. The Role Of E Business In Business (continued) Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 24  E business: the use of internet technologies to work and empower business process, electronic commerce, and enterprise collaboration within a company and with its customers, suppliers, and other business stakeholders.
  25. 25. Business Today Manufacturing and production Accounting and finance Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 25 Engineering and research Supply chain management: procurement, distribution, and logistics Customer relationship management: Marketing, Sales, Customer Service Company Boundary Internet Internet
  26. 26. Business Today (continued) Suppliers and other business partners Extranets Company Boundary Consumers and business customers Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 26 Extranets
  27. 27. Business Today (continued) Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 27  Intranet: the internet and internet like networks inside the enterprise.  Extranet: the internet and internet like networks between an enterprise and its trading partners.
  28. 28. Business Today (continued)  Electronic commerce: the buying, selling, marketing, and servicing of products, services, and information over a variety of computer networks. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 28
  29. 29. The IS (Information System) Functions:  A major functional area of business equally as important to business success, as the function of: - accounting, - finance, - operations management, - marketing, - human resource management. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 29
  30. 30. The IS (Information System) Functions (continued):  An important contributor to: - operational efficiency, - employee productivity, - customer service and satisfaction.  A major source of information and support needed to promote effective decision making by managers and business professionals. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 30
  31. 31. The IS (Information System) Functions (continued):  A vital ingredient in developing competitive products and services that give an organization a strategic advantage in the global market place. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 31
  32. 32. Mr.Harish.R 32 Foundation Concepts: The Components Of Information Systems:  Technology: the computer network are systems of information processing component that use a variety of: hardware, software, data management, and telecommunication network technologies.  Applications: the electronic business and commerce applications involve interconnected business information systems.
  33. 33. Foundation Concepts: The Components Of Information Systems (continued):  Development: that developing ways to use information technology in business includes designing the basic components of information system.  Management: the managing information technology emphasizes the quality, strategic business value, security. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 33
  34. 34. What Is A System? Systems have three basic functions: 1. Input: Involves capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be processed. Example: - raw materials, - energy, - data. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 34
  35. 35. What Is A System? (continued) Systems have three basic functions (continued): 2. Processing: involves transformation processes that convert input into output. Example: - manufacturing process, Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 35 3. Output: involves transferring elements that have been produced by a transformation process to their ultimate destination. Example: - finished products, - human services
  36. 36. Stakeholders In The Business Environment Management Information System Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 36 Economic Resources: people, money, material, machines, land, facilities, energy, information Business Process: market, develop, produce, and deliver, products and services, support customers, other processes Goods and Services: products, services, payments, contributions, information, other effects INPUT PROCESSING OUTPUT CONTROL FEEDBACK Financial Institutions, Labor Unions, Stockholders, Customers, Competitors, The Community, Government Agencies, Suppliers
  37. 37. Components Of An Information System PEOPLE RESOURCES (end users and IS specialists); SOFTWARE RESOURCES (programs and procedures); HARDWARE RESOURCES (machines and media); NETWORK RESOURCES (communications media and network support); DATA RESOURCES (data and knowledge bases); SYSTEM ACTIVITIES Control System Performance Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 37 Input Of Data Resources Processing Data Into Information Output Of Information Products Storage Of Data Resources
  38. 38. Examples Of Information System Resources And Products Information Systems Resources And Products Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 38 People Resources Hardware Resources Software Resources Data Resources Network Resources
  39. 39. Information Systems Resources And Products  People resources: - specialist (system analysts, software developers, system operators). - end users (anyone else who uses information systems).  Hardware resources: - machines (computers, video monitor, magnetic disk drives, printers, optical scanners). - media (floppy disks, magnetic tape, optical disks, plastic cards, paper forms). Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 39
  40. 40. Information Systems Resources And Products (continued)  Software resources: - programs (operating system program, spreadsheet programs, word processing programs). - procedures (data entry procedures, error correction procedures). Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 40  Data resources: - product description, customer records, employee files, inventory databases.
  41. 41. Information Systems Resources And Products (continued)  Network resources: - communications media, communication processors, network access and control software.  Information products: - management reports and business documents using text and graphics displays, audio responses, and paper forms. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 41
  42. 42. Business Examples INFORMATION SYSTEM ACTIVITIES  Input. (optical scanning of bar coded tags on merchandise)  Processing. (calculating employee pay, taxes, and other payroll deductions)  Output. (producing reports and displays about sales performance)  Storage. (maintaining records on customers, employees, and products)  Control. (generating audible signals to indicate proper Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 42
  43. 43. LEARNING OUTCOMES As a business professional, You should be able to recognize the fundamental components of information systems You encounter. You should be able to identify: ** The people, hardware, software, data, and network resources they use. ** The types of information products they produce. ** The way they perform input, processing, output, storage, and control activities. Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 43
  44. 44. THANK YOU Mr.Harish.R, Don Bosco Institute of Technology 44

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