It is an natural disaster.
When the fault ruptures with a
sudden movement energy is
released that has built up over
the years. This energy is
released in the form of
vibrations called 'seismic
It is actually when these
seismic waves reach the
surface of the earth that most
of the destruction occurs,
which we associate with
3. TYPES OF SEISMIC WAVES
6. EARTHQUAKE CLASSIFICATION
Based on distance
1. Tele seismic earthquake > 1000 km
2. Regional earthquake > 500 km
3. Local earthquake < 500 km
Based on magnitude
1. Great earthquake M > 8.0
2. Major / Large earthquake 7.0 > M < 8.0
3. Moderate earthquake 5.0 > M < 7.0
4. Small earthquake 3.0 > M < 5.0
5. Micro earthquake 1.0 > M < 3.0
6. Ultra micro earthquake M < 1.0
8. WHAT HAPPENS DURING AN EARTHQUAKE?
As tectonic plates grind together at a fault line, the rocks on
either side stretch to absorb a certain amount of pressure. If the
pressure becomes too great, the rocks shatter, releasing shock
waves that shake the surface. Buildings then sway and topple, and
fires may start as gas and electricity lines are ripped apart.
WHERE DO MOST EARTHQUAKES STRIKE?
Most earthquakes, and also volcanic eruptions, occur on or
near the edges of Earth’s tectonic plates. They are most common in
the “Ring of Fire,” the name given to the edge of the vast Pacific
Plate that lies beneath the Pacific Ocean. Japan, the Philippines,
New Zealand, and the western coastline of North and South
America all lie in this major fault zone.
HOW ARE EARTHQUAKES MEASURED?
The study of earthquakes is called seismology. Scientists
measure and record earthquakes using devices called
seismometers. The size of an earthquake is measured according to
its magnitude (the size of the shock waves and the energy
produced) or its effects.
9. If you are in house;
• Don’t use lift for getting down from building.
• Be prepared to move with your family.
If you are in shop, school or office;
• Don’t run for an exit.
•Take cover under a disk/table.
•Move away from window glass.
•Do not go near electric point and cable. Keep away from weak
portion of the building and false ceiling.
16. LANDSLIDE PREPAREDNESS
AND SAFETY MEASURES
A) Before a landslide:
Find out if landslides have happened in your area in the past.
Look out for landslide warning signs like doors or windows
jammed for the first time, new cracks appear in walls, bricks,
foundations, retaining walls, tilt of utility poles or trees.
Consider relocation in case your house is located in an area
particularly vulnerable to landslides. While doing so,
1. Do not build on or at the base of unstable slopes, on or at the
base of minor drainage hollows, at the base or on top of an old
fill slope, at the base or top of a steep cut slope.
17. ii) Do not cut down trees or remove vegetation or avoid
iii) If the house cannot be relocated, then ensure proper
drainage and proper retaining walls.
Always stay alert and awake!!! Listen to
radio/television for warnings of intense rainfall, storm and
damp weather. These usually trigger landslides/debris or
Make an evacuation plan in case of a landslide with all
the emergency items.
18. B) During a landslide:
Listen to any unusual sounds that
might indicate moving debris, such
as trees cracking or boulders knocking
together. A trickle of flowing or falling
mud or debris may precede larger flows.
While you are outdoors during a landslide
Try to get out of the path of the
landslide or mudflow by running
to the nearest high ground or away
from the path.
If you are near a river, be alert for any sudden increase
or decrease in water flow or for a change from clear to
muddy water. Such changes may indicate landslide
upstream. So move quickly to safer areas.
19. If the rocks and other debris are approaching, run to the
nearest shelter such as group of trees or a building.
While you are indoors during a landslide
Stay inside and remain alert. Listen to radio/ television for
any update. i.e. if landslide occurs outside.
If your house falls apart due to landslide and if there is no
escape, hold on to something strong and protect your
C) After a landslide:
Stay away from the landslide area as there may be danger
of additional slides. Do not drive through.
Watch for flooding which may occur after a landslide.
Check for injured or trapped persons near the slide,
without entering the slide area. Direct rescuers to their
20. Help neighbours who may require
special assistance– infants,
elderly people and disabled people.
Listen to local radio/television
stations for the latest emergency
Look for and report broken utility
lines to appropriate authorities.
Check the building foundation, walls
and surrounding land for damage.
The safety of the areas needs to be
assured before reoccupation.
21. PREVENTION & MITIGATION
Increase in vegetation
Removal of top
Steel nets debris flow
23. WHAT IS TSUNAMI?
A tsunami is a wave train, or series of waves,
generated in a body of water by an impulsive
disturbance that vertically displaces the water
Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions,
explosions, and even the impact of cosmic
bodies, such as meteorites, can generate
Tsunamis can savagely attack coastlines,
causing devastating property damage and
loss of life.
25. PLAN FOR A TSUNAMI
Develop a Family Disaster Plan
Learn about tsunami risk in your community
If you are visiting an area at risk from tsunamis, check
with the hotel, motel, or campground operators for tsunami
Plan an evacuation route from your home, school,
workplace, or any other place you'll be where tsunamis
present a risk.
Practice your evacuation route
Use a NOAA Weather Radio with a tone-alert feature to
keep you informed of local watches and warnings.
Discuss tsunami with your family
Assemble a Disaster Supplies Kit
26. HOW TO PROTECT YOUR PROPERTY
• Avoid building or living in buildings within several hundred feet of
the coastline. These areas are more likely to experience damage
from tsunamis, strong winds, or coastal storms.
• Make a list of items to bring inside in the event of a tsunami. A list
will help you remember anything that can be swept away by
• Elevate coastal homes. Most tsunami waves are less than 10
feet. Elevating your house will help reduce damage to your
property from most tsunamis.
• Follow flood preparedness precautions. Tsunamis are large
amounts of water that crash onto the coastline, creating floods.
• Have an engineer check your home and advise about ways to
make it more resistant to tsunami water. There may be ways to
divert waves away from your property. Improperly built walls
could make your situation worse. Consult with a professional for
27. WHAT TO DO AFTER A TSUNAMI
• Continue listening to a NOAA Weather Radio, Coast Guard
emergency frequency station, or other reliable source for
• Help injured or trapped persons
• Use the telephone only for emergency calls
• Stay out of the building if waters remain around it
• Examine walls, floors, doors, staircases, and windows to make
sure that the building is not in danger of collapsing.
• Inspect foundations for cracks or other damage
Look for fire hazards.
Check for gas leaks
Look for electrical system damage.
Check food supplies. Any food that has come in contact with
flood waters may be contaminated and should be thrown out.