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Learner centered principles

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Learner centered principles

  1. 1. Learner Centered Principles Presented by: Bui Le Ha Ninh Prof: Epifania V. Tabbada Advanced Course Principle of Teaching Centro Escolar University
  2. 2. CONTENT Definition of Learning1 2 3 4 Construction of Knowledge Nature of Learning Process Goals of Learning Process
  3. 3. Learning is the process by which an individual acquires knowledge, attitudes and skills that are necessary to meet the demands of life
  4. 4. The behaviour of an individual is thus changed through experiences This change in behaviour brought about by experiences is commonly known as learning.
  5. 5. Dependent learning which is teacher directed, highly structured with very e xplicit assignments, and with lectures, surgeries etc. Learning based on discussion – the learner flourishes in a group, likes the exchange of ideas. Autonomous – the learner likes to ha ve the teacher as a resource, but to have influence over the content and structure of what is learnt. Such learners will flourish wit h distance learning or resource-based learning. Learning Style Which is a more conscious plan of action as to how to acquire new knowledge, skills or attitudes, and from learning preferences, which is how people prefer to be taught
  6. 6. Learning Style Learning can result from both vicarious a nd direct experiences Learning from direct Experiences Learning from Instruction Vicarious means o bserving someone and learning from that observation and n ot being directly involved in the experience
  7. 7. The Nature of Learning Output of Learning Behaviorism The measurable outputs of learning, such as the ability to reproduce facts, than in the mental processes involved Constructivism What goes on in the mind of the learner. Constructivism gave rise to more ‘student cent ered’ forms of teaching Cognitive theory Memory and recall In order to understand mental processes, we need to know how the brain functions
  8. 8. Cognitive Theory Short-term Memory Long-term Memory Capturing students’ attention The goal is for something to enter long-term memory, the storage system, and be ready for retrieval. Providing visual stimuli along with the verbal Making the information more ‘meaningful’ Making the learning active Repetition Getting student s to recite material Mnemonic devices especially ones tha t employ visual imagery Successful retrieval depends on the ability of the information to fit into these s tructures Working Memory
  9. 9. Learners are more concerned with ‘simply memorizing’ the text and don’t ‘argue with it’ or make any attempt to relate it to the broader canvas of their knowledge. Surface Learning Learners relate material to what they already know, consider it thoughtfully, examine the argument, and look for patterns Deep Learning Cognitive theory considers learning according to mental processes
  10. 10. Learning as a Cycle Learning is thus a process of observation, reflection, abstraction and experimentation 80% 60% 40% 50% Stage 1 Concrete experience Stage 2 Observations and reflections on the experience Stage 3 Formation of abstract concepts and generalizations based upon the experience and subsequent reflections Stage 4 Testing the implications of the concepts and generalizations in new settings.
  11. 11. Types of Knowledge Divergent knowledge Concrete experience transformed through reflective observation Assimilative knowledge Abstract conceptualization, whereby experience is reflected on and related to general and abstract ideas, and transformed through reflective observation Convergent knowledge: Abstract conceptualization transformed through active experimentation, whereby the learner tests ideas by applying them to other areas Accommodative knowledge Concrete experience transformed by active experimentation
  12. 12. Learning Style Natural problem solvers, with an objective viewpoint, who adapt observations into theories, and learn from systems, models and concepts. Theorists Practical learners who adopt the right strategy for the task in hand, enjoy problem solving and learn by practical application of theory. Pragmatists Learn by doing, and tend to be extrovert people who get on with things, thriving on challenge and new experiences. Activists Like to do a lot of preparation and think about what they do before rushing into a decision as to how to do it. Reflectors
  13. 13. Cognitive Learning styles The analytic thinker processes information into its components, looks at detail, is concerned with procedures, and is a logical thinker. Analytic The wholistic thinker is more likely to see the whole picture, be more intuitive, and notice similarities rather than differences. Wholistic The verbalizer recalls words. Verbalizer The imager recalls pictures. Imager
  14. 14. Dunn’s Learning Styles Model 01 By which sensory mode is learning better achiev ed: auditory, visual or ki netic. Perceptual 03 Global versus analytic, left vs. right-brained etc Psychological 05 Time of study, food needs etc. Physiological 02 Temperature, lighting etc. of room. Environmental 04 Motivation, persistence, conformity, ability to multi-task etc. Emotional 06 Learning better achieved alone, with peers in a group, with authoritative a dult etc. Sociological The way in which he proposes that there should be a match between how students learn and how teachers teach
  15. 15. Goals of The Learning Process The successful learner, over time and with support and instructional gui dance, can create meaningful, coherent representations of knowledge.
  16. 16. Goals of Learning Process To construct useful representations of kn owledge and to acquire the thinking and l earning strategies necessary for continued learning success across the life span, students must generate and pursue personally relevant goals. Filling gaps, resolving inconsistencies, and deepening their understanding of the subject matter to reach long term goals
  17. 17. The Strategic nature of learning requires of students to be goal directed
  18. 18. Goal setting Begin with the end of Mind Continuous Process: Continuous Improvement
  19. 19. Why it is important? Improving students’ learning and achievement and building students’ capacity to learn. Students become active participants in the learning process, empowering them to become independent learners, and motivating them to achieve their full potential.
  20. 20. knowledge construction is a process by which students generate ideas and understandings. Knowledge construction cannot be achieved when students merely reproduce what they have already learned. What is Knowledge Construction ?
  21. 21. Why Students should Construct Knowledge The possession of knowledge is far less important than the creative uses of knowledge The development of new knowledge is the greatest driver of innovation The ability to construct further knowledge through critical and applied thinking, and will better position our students as productive contributors to a knowledge. Knowledge to new situations and new problems
  22. 22. How to plan instruction that includes opportunities for students to construct knowledge Generating new ideas and understandings Interpretation Analysis Synthesis Evaluation drawing inferences beyond the literal meaning identifying relationships among the parts of a whole identifying the relationships among two or more ideas judging the quality, credibility, or importance of data, ideas, or events
  23. 23. What is knowledge construction? You can simply impress your audience and add a unique zing and appeal to your Presentations. An activity requires some knowledge construction when students go beyond reproducing knowledge to generate ideas or understandings that are new to them
  24. 24. The activity’s primary purpose is that students construct knowledge Students spend a class period conducting a close read of a scientific article on bear habitats. For homework students write a paragraph drawing an inference about local bear behavior during the present drought. Although the homework asks students to interpret the article by drawing inferences, the time spent constructing knowledge is minimal compared to the time taken understanding concepts in the article through the close read After previously conducting a close read of a scientific article on bear habitats, students spend three class periods preparing for a debate on the topic of local efforts to reduce bear depredations. Students complete a unit test focused on the acquisition of content knowledge. A content-focused test does not demonstrates only that students can reconstruct existing understandings. Students are graded on a portfolio of work in which 50%+ of their grade is earned through demonstration of their activities interpreting, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information. Students are demonstrating that most of their time and effort was spent constructing knowledge rather than learning or processing knowledge and processes that were presented to them. Most time is spent analyzing bear behavior in the context of local conditions, and synthesizing and evaluating information to construct an argument
  25. 25. The Learning Activity is Interdisciplinary Interdisciplinary learning activities have clear learning goals that incorporate content, ideas, and methods from multiple academic subjects. Students research the countries of a world region and evaluate the importance of different types of quantitative and qualitative information useful to potential visitors to these countries. Students then synthesize their information to publish a visitor’s guide for each country on a Weebly website. Students are provided with success criteria aligned to social studies, mathematics, and ELA standards. Again, students have success criteria from more than one disc ipline, and must demonstrate knowledge construction in each discipline. (Extension question: Is the creation of a website su fficient for students to demonstrate they are applying their kno wledge of countries in a new context?). Students research the countries of a world region and collect information about each country’s climate, economy, and culture. Students then create and publish a visitor’s guide for each country on a Weebly website. Students do not have success criteria from multiple disciplines and are reproducing, rather than constructing knowledge.
  26. 26. Students apply their knowledge when they use knowledge they have constructed to support another knowledge construction task in a new context Applying the Knowledge in a New Context Students analyze demographic statistics from their hometown and then analyze demographic statistics from a second location. Students do not apply their knowledge from analyzing demographic statistics to any new activity; they simply repeat the same activity with a different set of data. Students examine photos enlarged at different sizes to develop an understanding of similarity and then describe their understanding. Students do not apply their knowledge from evaluating shapes to any new domain; they simply articulate that knowledge.
  27. 27. Students examine photos enlarged at different sizes to develop an understanding of similarity and then apply that knowledge to abstract geometric shapes, thinking about size ratios and angles to determine which shapes are mathematically similar. Students apply their knowledge from evaluating shapes to deepen their own understanding of mathematical similarity. Applying the Knowledge in a New Context Students analyze demographic statistics from their hometown and then use their understanding of population trends to develop a plan for an upcoming housing development project Students apply their knowledge from analyzing demographic statistics in order to develop a housing plan; this step requires further analysis.
  28. 28. Strategic Thinking Strategic thinking is a process that defines the manner in which people think about, assess, view, and create the future for themselves and others
  29. 29. One can apply strategic thinking to arrive at decisions that can be related to your work or personal life Strategic thinking involves developing an entire set of critical skills Strategic Thinking
  30. 30. They are committed to and seek advice from others. They have the ability to balance their tremendous amount of creativity with a sense of realism and honesty about what is achievable in the longer term They are committed lifelong learners and learn from each of their experiences The best and greatest strategic thinkers take time out for themselv es They have the ability to be non- judgmental and they don’t allow themselves to be held back by judging their own thinking or the thinking of others when ideas are initially being developed and shared They have the ability to be patient and to not rush to conclusions and judgments Strategic Thinking
  31. 31. Strategic thinkers have the ability to use the left (logical) and right (creative) sides of their brain. This skill takes practice as well as confidence and can be tremendously valuable They have the ability to develop a clearly defined and focused business vision and personal vision They have the ability to clearly define their objectives and develop a strategic action plan with each objective broken down into tasks and each task having a list of needed resources and a specific timeline. They have the ability to design flexibility into their plans by creating some benchmarks in their thinking to review progress. They are amazingly aware and perceptive. Strategic Thinking
  32. 32. Thinking about Thinking
  33. 33. What is Metacognition? Metacognition is the knowledge you have of your own cognitive processes (your thinking) It involves self-regulation and self- reflection of strengths, weaknesse s, and the types of strategies you create.
  34. 34. Metacognitive Knowledge Metacognitive Experience Metacognitive Strategies Metacognition
  35. 35. Metacognitive Knowledge Learning Process Task of Learning The Strategies Your beliefs about how you learn and how you think others learn How you process information When you will use them
  36. 36. Metacognitive Experience In metacognition, there are feelings and emotions present that are related to the goals and tasks of learning
  37. 37. It is a mechanism for controlling your thinking activities and to ensure you are meeti ng your goals Metacognitive Strategies
  38. 38. An instructional context represents all the factors external to the learners within an instructional environment that provide meaning for the messages they receive What, when, where, how, why, and with whom individual learners learn from instruction What are Learning Contexts?
  39. 39. Opportunities for learners to interact with instructor as well as other learners throughout the learning experience Social Degree to which instructional messages gain learner attention, are personally relevant to the learner, provide the learner with a feeling of confidence in learning and a feeling of satisfaction once learning is accomplished Motivational Instructional media present in the learners’ environment Physical Learning Contexts
  40. 40. “Complete” learning experiences often employ more than one discrete type of sub-context.
  41. 41. Orienting Context Instructional Context Transfer Context An orienting context is used to introduce an instructional program, provide experiences with which new information will be based, moti vate learners, establish a need for learning new skills-knowledge-a ttitudes (SKA), provide a bridge between what learners already kno w how to do and new SKA to be learned, etc. An instructional context is used to engage learners in activities associated with those effective conditions most appropriate for the types of SKA to be learned New and different environment in which learners must apply (pe rform) what they learned within previous instructional contexts t o succeed. Appropriate scaffolding and incentives are usually a n important part of this context type Learning Contexts
  42. 42. 01 02 03 Computer and Context Represent instructional contexts in which l earner’s become “immersed” in self-contai ned computer-based environments to learn MicroWorld Computer-Based Learning Environments The computer is used to support a classro om-based learning experience Classroom-Based Computer-Supported Learning Environments Learner activity centering around, and dep endent upon, computer-based interactions with other members of a learning communi ty connected via the computer Virtual Community Computer-Supporte d Learning Environments Simple Portfolio Presentation Learning environments as places “…where lea rners may work together and support each othe r as they use a variety of tools and information r esources in the guided pursuit of learning goals and problem-solving activities.” Brent Wilson (1996, p.5)
  43. 43. THANK YOU

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Tìm ảnh của learning style
  • Most teachers know intuitively that learners remember better if they pay attention: their task is to provide stimuli and employ strategies that combat the natural forgetting process. Variations in tone of delivery, use of gesture, movement etc. all help here, as do attractively presented visuals using colour and images. A wooden presentation is not conducive to learning.
  • It is your ability to control your thinking processes through various strategies, such as organizing, monitoring, and adapting. Additionally, it is your ability to reflect upon the tasks or processes you undertake and to select and utilize the appropriate strategies necessary in your intercultural interactions.
    It is a necessary foundation in culturally intelligent leadership because it underlines how you think through a problem or situation and the strategies you create to address the situation or problem.
  • Your feelings and emotions serve as a feedback system to help you understand your progress and expectations, and your comprehension and connection of new information to the old, among other things.
  • WITH versus FROM Contexts