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A little about Japan•Japan is situated in northeastern Asia between theNorth Pacific and the Sea of Japan•The area of Japan is 377,873 square kilometers•Japan consists of four major islands, surrounded bymore than 4,000 smaller islands.Hokkaido (northern island)Honshu (main island)Shikoku (smallest island)Kyushu (southern island)
More about Japan Japans geographical features include coastlines with varied scenery, towering mountains, which are very often volcanic and twisted valleys There is only one official language spoken in Japan, which is of course Japanese. Japans capital city is Tokyo Japans current population is approx 127 million.
History of Child Care in Japan Fujimaro Tanaka reinforced the idea of kindergartens to be placed in Japan November 14th, 1876, Japan’s first government owned kindergarten was established in, Tokyo In 1877, there was only one national kindergarten, 52 public kindergartens, and 14 private kindergartens.
History Continued... The first daycare centre was established in 1890, by Akazawas (Atsutomi and Naka) within their Niigata Seish, private school. Public daycares in Japan were first established in major cities, including Osaka, Kyoto and Tokyo The training school, “Tokyo Women’s Teacher’s College” was founded in 1874. Tokyo Women’s Teacher’s College established its training course in kindergarten for students
Training and Qualifications There are two different government agencies that certify teachers The teachers must attend two years of college or four years of university One requirement for kindergarten and nursery school teachers is to play and instrument preferably the piano and electric organ There is no age range in which you must become to be an early childhood educator
Type of Childcare system( Formal or Informal) Japan has both Formal day categorized as " Authorized day care centers" and informal care catergorized as "Non- registered" care. Non registered day care centers are private run centers, and can vary from "baby hotels" to individuals who offer care in their home called " Day care Mothers." to babysitters who are not licensed and are often paid cash
Authorized day care is divided into 3 categories:1. Publicly funded publicly Run: This type of childcare is funded by the government on subsidy and prioritizes families need to respond to those who are low income and need childcare first The centre are required by law to meet minimum standards in terms of building size, number of nursery nurses, hours of operation, etc as determined in the "Minimum Standards for Child Welfare Facilities” Government Act. Families fees would vary depending on their income and if its a 2 parent working family or single parent household, and weather or not the parent has a disability.
2. Publicly funded privately managed : These are government certified centers who have their own criteria as to childcare fees, hours of operation, and facility standards which are usually higher then city run centers. They are funded for running the nurseries through the government and also have subsidy available if required, but you must apply for this subsidy through the childcare itself, and they maintain their own waiting lists.
3. Privately funded privately managed: The childcare centers are run by private sectors or maintain and manage themselves The also operate for longer hours, starting earlier around 6 am and going as late as 10:15 pm, they also offer care on Saturdays, operating 6 days a week. They are not regulated by the government, but their standards are usually higher, with newer buildings and more materials in their centers Parents who prefer these centers have substantial higher income then parents who take their children to the other two centers.
The Underling Philosophy of Japan Japan practiced both Reggio Emilia and Maria Montessori and Kodomeon Philosophy. Canada different philosophies are Reggio Emilia , Maria Montessori, Bank street, Highscope, thematic, and behaviorist philosophy. They use both philosophy equally. The Montessori and Reggio Emilia , are practiced in different childcare centers and preschool
Philosophy continued Japan values and practices are every child receive proper education and child care services. The practices is that each child receives the same quality care. Japan is different from Canada because the have kodomeon philosophy it focuses on the Japanese culture. Japan is similar to Canada the both use the Maria Montessori and Reggio Emilia. Japan does supports children with disabilities and Japanese law states that every children who are born with a disabilities has the right for proper education.
More Philosophy... Japan believes children learn through play and support children interest in learn about their culture. Some of their day care centers use the Reggio Emilia. Japan uses education based because japan believes that children learn by doing things on their own. Japan do value early childhood experiences because they plan lesson around their culture and they led the children interest lead the curriculum like around their culture or other foreign cultures.
Availability, Accessibility In Japan there is such a high demand for childcare and not all the resources to fuel that demand There are long waiting lists in both the public and private sectors, with parents enrolling for care even before birth sometimes. The Japanese government use is to solely run childcare systems but by the year 2000, they realized the demand was too much for them to handle so they opened up the market to private sectors as well. Now has 2 sectors, and many options available for those parents looking for childcare.