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  1. 1. Workshop Practice
  2. 2. Fitting and Fabrication Workshop
  3. 3. Layout The plan or design or arrangement of something laid out is called Layout.
  4. 4. Types Of Layout Process Layout The layout which group resources based on the similar processes or functions is called process layout. This type of layout can be found in companies that use intermittent processing systems. A process layout is used in contexts where many different items are produced in small quantities. Product Layout When all the processing equipment and machinery are positioned according to the product's sequence of operations, this type of layout is known as product layout. The main focus of product layout is the sequence of operations regarding the production or assembly needed for a product or some of its parts manufacturing and assembling.
  5. 5. Combination Layout A combination of process and product layouts combines the advantages of both types of layouts. A combination layout is possible where an item is being made in different types and sizes. Here machinery is arranged in a process layout but the process grouping is then arranged in a sequence to manufacture various types and sizes of products. It is to be noted that the sequence of operations remains same with the variety of products and sizes. Fixed Layout The fixed layout permits a product to maintain at a particular place, and the needed resources like manpower, machinery, material, equipment, etc. are transported to the product's location. In other words, the place of the main element or the product section remains fixed because of the larger size or substantial body.
  6. 6. Safety Precautions
  7. 7. Safety Precautions • In shop area, it is necessary to wear safety glasses, face shields or cover googles either working or not. • Shoes must be worn in the shop area. No one wearing sandals or clippers in the shop area. • You do not use any equipment unless you are familiar with it. You do not use any equipment without the permission of supervisor. • No one can perform their work using power tools unless two people can see them. • Don’t wear jewelry, ties and loose clothes. • Practice orderliness and cleanliness in shop area. • Never tilt the hacksaw blade while sawing. • Drill the holes centralizing on pop marks, give gradual feed. • Do not use a spanner as a hammer. • Do not use a steel rule as a screw driver.
  8. 8. Safety Precautions • Always wear lab coat while working in the lab to avoid loose clothing. • Wear safety gloves while handling the metal sheets and sharp tools and to avoid electro-cautions. • Use appropriate tools as told by lab staff. • After usage, submit the tools back in the lab. • Get full knowledge before operating any machine or using any tool. • Files must have well fitted handles. • See that work piece is perfectly clamped or fixed in the vice. • Never use hammers with loose heads. • Use the coolant at the time of hack-sawing and drilling. • Keep the work place neat and clean after work. • In case of emergency immediately call the attendant.
  9. 9. Machines Used in Fitting and Fabrication Shop
  10. 10. Drill Machine The most widely used process of material-removing or cutting process in which the tool uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. 75% of all metal cutting material removed comes from the drilling operation. Sensitive drilling machine is a small machine designed for drilling small holes at a high speed in light jobs. They a capable of rotating drills of diameter from 1.5 to 15.5 millimeters. A large number of spindle speeds and feeds can accessible for various types of work. They are presented in different sizes and with drilling capacity range able to 75 millimeters diameter drills.
  11. 11. Working The hole is generated by the rotating edge of a cutting tool which exerts large force on work clamp on the table. As the machine exerts vertical pressure on work clamp to drill hole it is called drill press. Holes may be produced by twist drill or flat drill or by boring with one or more single point tools or cutters mounted in a bar or head.
  12. 12. Power Hacksaw Machine It is used to cut across materials like metal and bone. It provides a vise for clamping the work and means for reciprocating a U-shaped frame on which is mounted a straight steel hacksaw blade that cuts when moving in one direction only. Each blade of the power hacksaw is composed of 14 to 24 teeth per inch of the blade. Working It has the same function as the saw machines is used to cut metal in the machine shop, drawing a blade containing cutting teeth through the power hacksaw uses a reciprocating (back and forth) work piece. The saw machine is faster and easier than hand cutting action similar to the one used in a hand hacksaw.
  13. 13. Double end Pedestal Grinder It works on the same principle as the grinder that is mounted on a pedestal, which may be bolted to the floor or may sit on rubber feet. They are commonly used to hand grind various cutting tools and perform other rough grinding. Working They are used to sharpen high-speed steel cutting tools used on the lathes and milling machines, deburr, or used to remove surface imperfections and to work extremely hard materials. The grinding wheels are held between two flanged disks.
  14. 14. Arbor Press It is a small hand-operated press. It is typically used to perform smaller jobs, such as staking, riveting, installing, configuring and removing bearings and other press fit work. It can be the mounted on a work bench. Working It is a compact machine with different parts working together to produce a press. The components of the arbor press include the ram, a recoil spring, a lever arm, an arm stop, the press caul, and the arbor base. When using an arbor press, the item to be pressed is placed on the base and the lever arm is pulled down.
  15. 15. Surface Grinding Machine It is the conventional finish machining Process used for producing a good surface finish on components. It is one of the widely accepted finishing operations because of its material removal capacity in a very small size of chips ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 mm The abrasive particles presses on the surface of a grinding wheel will be acting as a single point cutting tools for removing material from the work piece.
  16. 16. Air Compressor An air compressor is a pneumatic device that converts power (using an electric motor, diesel or gasoline engine, etc.) into potential energy stored in pressurized air. Working Air compressors work by forcing air into a container and pressurizing it. Then, the air is forced through an opening in the tank, where pressure builds up. The compressed air can be used as energy as it's released.
  17. 17. Pneumatic Press It is a machine using a pneumatic cylinder to generate a compressive force. Frame, pneumatic cylinder and press table are the main components of the pneumatic press with various attachments. Presses are one of the most commonly used machine tools in industry for the forming of different materials press brake is typically narrow and long so that large pieces of sheet metal can be bent by it. Normally it contains pressure from 7 bar to 10bar. Working A press brake bends sheet metal by lowering a punch onto sheet metal that has been positioned on top of a die. The metal may be bent several times by a press brake until the desired form has been achieved.
  18. 18. Pneumatic Metal Sheet Shearing Machine The shearing tool is provided at end of the pneumatic cylinder rod. When compressed air is supply by the DCV to double acting cylinder , due to pressure & force created by compressed air causes shearing action of the sheet metals strips & HSS cutting blades. The sheet metal cutting machine works with the help of pneumatic double acting cylinder. The piston is connected to the moving cutting tool. It is used to cut the small size of sheet metal.
  19. 19. Sheet Bending Machine A machine for bending and straightening metal sheets and strips. Its purpose is to assemble a bend on a work piece. It is stable in structure and simple is operation. It is really the device necessary for construction of ventilation duct. Sturdy construction. High operational fluency. Impeccable performance.
  20. 20. Sheet Shearing Machine A shearing machine is a one that is used for cutting sheet metal into desired shapes and sizes. One thing that makes these metalworking machines ideal for industrial shops is that the shearing process does not form chips or any residual material, reducing debris in the air and on the floor.
  21. 21. Tools used In Fitting and Fabrication Lab
  22. 22. Tools used In Fitting and Fabrication Lab File It is tool which is used to remove fine amount of material from work piece during filling. File is made up of high carbon steel. This is the reason; we use it on iron and steel work piece. Typically the files are made of stainless steel or nickel titanium (NiTi). The term 'coarseness' refers to how rough or smooth a file is. Coarse, or rough files, have their teeth spaced far apart, whereas fine, or smooth files have their teeth much closer together. Files are produced in a variety of different coarseness to cater for a range of different uses.
  23. 23. Types of Files There are two types of file: Single Cut File This type of file is known so because one diagonal cut is present on cutting surface. This means that it will cut in one direction. Since it cuts less, the main advantage of using this type is that it will give a good finishing and shiny surface. But it has also a disadvantage that because of slow cutting it takes too much time. Double Cut File This type of file is known so because it has two diagonals cuts on the cutting surface. This means that it will cut in both directions. Since it cuts more, the main advantage of using it is that it will take less time. But it has also a disadvantage that it would not yield a smooth surface and finishing would not be good. But still we can have benefits that whatever we want to remove more an more material, we will use double cut file. File length File length is measured from heel to the point of file.
  24. 24. Try square It is use to check the level of work piece and the angle (90 degree). It is used during filling. It is consisting of thick beam sometimes called stock. It also consists of thin blade which is set at the angle of 90 degree. It also uses as a ruler. It is usually made up of steel.
  25. 25. Bench Vise The bench vise is a holding device that is used to hold the work piece while application of multiple processes i.e. Filling, tapping, dieing, Cutting etc. on the work piece. Bench vice has two jaws one is fixed (Stationary jaw) and another is movable (Sliding jaw). Sliding jaw slide over the slide face, when the handle is rotated in the clockwise direction it is subjected to tight by mean of the thread which is mounted on the rod. The body is not movable to any direction is called a fixed body and the lower part of bench vise is called base. It is made up of cast iron.
  26. 26. Scriber It is used for the marking purposes by the removal of material from work piece. It is a thin high carbon rod with a sharp tip. It is commonly made up of high carbon steel.
  27. 27. Steel Rule The steel rule is an easy and quickest means to measure the linear dimensions of a component with limited accuracy. It is frequently used in the workshop. They may be 'rigid' or 'flexible' depending upon the thickness and the quality of steel used in their manufacturing. It is commonly made of high-carbon spring steel.
  28. 28. Ball Peen Hammer A ball-peen or ball pein hammer, also known as a machinist's hammer, is a type of peening hammer used in metalworking. It has two heads, one flat and the other, called the peen, rounded. the ball-peen hammer is useful for many tasks, such as striking punches and chisels (usually performed with the flat face of the hammer). The peening face is useful for rounding off edges of metal pins and fasteners, such as rivets. Ball-peen hammer heads are typically made of heat treated forged high-carbon steel or alloy steel.
  29. 29. Center punch It is just like a needle which is used to highlight the point that we mark by the scriber. We use ball peen hammer to apply pressure on the needle. It is made up of mild steel.
  30. 30. Tapping tool It is used for the internal threading in the holes which is made by the drilling machine. They are known as a tap. A screw like tool that has threads like a bolt and two, three, or four longitudinal flutes or grooves and that is used to cut screw threads in a nut or a hole. They are three type of taps o Tapper tap o Plug tap o Bottom tap It is made up of high speed steel or carbon steel.
  31. 31. Tapper tap: Tapper Taps typically have 8-10 threads that are tapered. The shape of this tap helps the thread to start. They can be used to start a thread before using a plug or bottom tap. Plug tap: Plug taps have about 3-5 threads. These are extremely popular and are used for through holes or to start blind holes. Bottom tap: A bottoming tap has nearly no taper with a thread count of 1-1.5. These are used to get close to the bottom of a blind hole.
  32. 32. Hacksaw A hacksaw is a hand-powered, small-toothed saw used for cutting metal pipes, rods, brackets, etc. Hacksaws can also cut through plastic. The hacksaw has a U-shaped frame and a handle at one end. Hacksaws have small pins at each end of the frame that receive a blade. Blade is made up of carbon steel or high speed steel.
  33. 33. Drill Bit Drills are cutting tools used to remove material to create holes, almost always of circular cross-section. Drills come in many sizes and shapes and can create different kinds of holes in many different materials. In order to create holes drill bits are usually attached to a drill, which powers them to cut through the work piece, typically by rotation. The drill will grasp the upper end of a bit called the shank in the chuck. It is made up of high speed steel.
  34. 34. Reamer A reamer is a tool that is used to widen the size of a pre-existing hole in a metal by a small amount to leave smooth sides and edges removing any burrs or rough edges. It is generally made up of high speed steel material.
  35. 35. Die and die stock Dies are cutting tools that produce external screw threads, also known as male screw threads. They're commonly used with die stocks, which are tools that hold round and hex dies to ensure proper alignment and uniform threads. Dies are used to create new threads, and to repair worn and damaged threads. It is commonly made up of cast steel or mild steel.
  36. 36. Working Processes
  37. 37. Dimensions of Work Piece
  38. 38. Process Details A work piece is given which is full of rust and unparalleled edges. We have to perform different processes on it. The work piece is made up of Mild Steel. Filling Process Firstly, we have to fixed the work piece on table firmly. With the help of file, we will furnish it or level its surfaces. It has two types • Cross filling • Draw filling Cross filing done when we use the file vertically and slowly. This removes more material but not good finishing and therefore takes less time. When ever we are removing rust, we use this filling. The work piece is tightly clamped in the voice with the surface to be filled is kept horizontal. File is held in the position of work piece. The hand of file is kept in the right hand and left is on the other end pressing it downward and forward through its full length.
  39. 39. Draw filling is done when we use the horizontally to attain perfect level of smoothness. It is a time taking process but gives smooth surface that's why whenever we find our work piece to be unlevelled, we use this type of filling. It is used to remove marks and scratches left over the work piece by cross filling and used smooth and flat surface on the work piece. The process works by moving any type of single-cut file forwards and backwards along the length of the materials edge.
  40. 40. Marking Process It is a process to mark those areas of work piece where we have to do some work. It is not as simple as it seems because we were dealing with metal and we had to mark on it without damaging it. Here we took advantage of Scrubber and paint. While making the work piece, we paint one face of the work piece with yellow color and let dry for 5-10 mins under the drying fan on to the surface plate. For marking first of all we have to paint the work piece and then using scriber, we mark a line of 20mm at left bottom of work piece at 8mm from horizontal lower edge. Similarly, make another line of 20mm at 8mm from the first line. Now, make two points one at the upper left and one at the upper right of 20mm from each edge.
  41. 41. Punching Process Once the marking has done, highlight the points by using center punch and hammer. To accomplish this task, place the center punch on the point one by one and punched by hammer. We do this because the yellow color will be removed after some time.
  42. 42. Drilling Process Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut a hole of circular cross-section in solid materials. The drill bit is usually a rotary cutting tool, often multi-point. The bit is pressed against the work piece and rotated at rates from hundreds to thousands of revolutions per minute. This forces the cutting edge against the work piece, cutting off chips from the hole as it is drilled. Now, drill a hole of 31/64 inches diameter at upper right point and another hole of 5/16 inches diameter at upper left point by using the drill machine.
  43. 43. Sawing Process Sawing is a process wherein a narrow slit is cut into the work piece by a tool consisting of a series of narrowly spaced teeth, called a saw blade. First marks are punched so that cut might not be curved or deviated from original line. Sawing is used to separate work parts into two or more pieces, or to cut off an unwanted section of a part. These processes are often called cut-off operations and since many manufacturing projects require cut-off operations at some point in the production sequence, sawing is an important manufacturing process. It is used to cut the iron.
  44. 44. Tapping Process As we make two holes of different diameter, in left hole (smaller diameter) we make the internal threads by tapping. As, there are three taps 1,2,3 in workshop. First of all, we use tap 1 (taper tap), by using oil. Then we use tap 2 (Plug Tap) and 3(Bottoming Tap) in similar manners. Oil is used for lubrication. It is because when two metals rubbed against each other they causes frictional effects and hence causing wear and tear.
  45. 45. Reaming Process On other hole (left hole on the right) we do the reaming by using a reamer and oil. The purpose of reaming is to make the hole internally smooth and furnished.
  46. 46. Dyeing Process Dyeing and Tapping are the relevant procedures. We can say where we use tapping there is also need of dyeing. Dyeing process is actually used to make the external threads. While making the work piece, we were asked to make a bolt of same diameter and length 30mm as its fits within the smaller hole. With the help of the Dyeing we can easily make a bolt or a nut by using the external threading. It is a process which is used to form or cut a male thread on the outside of rods or bars. Take a meter rod, fixed it in bench wise and give it a cone shape, so that it should be fit in the dyeing tool. By using hand hacksaw mark a line at 30mm and another at 25mm from cone shape of metal rod. Using the die tool start external threading on the rod up to the 25mm length of the rod and also don’t forget oiling in this process. By using hacksaw cut the rod at the mark of 30mm and make a cut of 2mm on it Then tight your nut which is formed by dyeing process into your work piece at where you create internal threading.
  47. 47. Final Work piece
  48. 48. Comments • No light should be passed when we check level or angle by using try square. • Hacksaw must be used with great care. • Don’t use oiling when you are dealing with hacksaw. • Not oil your tool at the beginning of reaming or dyeing process other they didn’t work properly.