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Más de Hamzah Meraj, Faculty of Architecture, Jamia Millia Islamia, New delhi(20)


3DPrinting Technologies

  1. 3DPrinting Technologies
  2. What is 3D printing? 3D + PRINTING = 3D PRINTING Slide No - 2 The technology used for printing physical 3d objects from digital out is called 3d printing. “ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING” Technologies that build 3D objects by adding layer-upon- layer of material, whether the material is plastic, metal, concrete or any composite materials. A person creates a 3D image of an item using a computer-aided design (CAD) software program. The CAD information is sent to the printer. The printer forms the item by depositing the material in layers—starting from the bottom layer—onto a platform + a visualization tool in design + a means to create highly customized products for consumers and professionals + as industrial tooling + to produce small lots of production parts Diverse Needs -
  3. History - Timeline Slide No - 3 1984 – 1987 Charles Hull invents 3D printing and coins the term “Stereo Lithography” 1992 3D systems produce the first SLA 3D Printer machine 1999 Scientists manage to grow organs from patient’s cells 2000 The first 3D inkjet printer produced by Object Geometries. 2002 A 3D printed miniature kidney is manufactured. Scientists aim to produce full-sized, working organs. 2008 The first 3D prosthetic leg is produced. 2011 The first 3D printed car (Urbee by Kor Ecologic). Projected Growth 2012 The first 3D printed jaw is produced in Holland by LayerWise.
  4. Working Slide No - 4 No Yes Manufacturing a model with the 3D printer Layer by layer Whole manufacturing process
  5. Types of 3D printing Slide No - 5 There are three types of Printer. 1. Stereo lithography (SLA) 2. Selective laser sintering (SLS) 3. Fused deposition modeling (FDM) Selective laser sintering (SLS) Stereo lithography (SL) Fused deposition modeling (FDM)
  6. 1. Stereo lithography Slide No - 6 • Stereo lithography was the first type of 3D Printing created. • This type of 3D Printing consists of a vertically movable vat and a horizontally movable UV light. • Instead of ink, the vat is filled with a type of resin (photopolymer) that becomes hard when exposed to UV light. • Because photopolymers are photosensitive under UV light, the resin is solidified and forms a single layer of the desired 3D object. • This process is repeated for each layer of the design until the 3D object is complete. Advantages - is its speed; functional parts can be manufactured within a day. Disadvantages - it is often costly; common photopolymers can cost about $800 per gallon and SLA machines can cost $250,000.
  7. 2. Selective laser sintering (SLS) Slide No - 7 • In powder-bed SLS, a layer of powdered material is carefully laid down by a leveler or roller on the build tray. • Layer thickness varies based on laser strength, material, or tolerance desired. • Is an additive manufacturing technique that uses a high power laser (for example, a carbon dioxide laser) to fuse small particles of plastic, metal (direct metal laser sintering), ceramic or glass powders into a mass that has a desired 3-dimensional shape). SLA liquid photopolymers cost $80 to $100 or more per liter. SLS powders costs between $300 and $600 per kilogram, and can be difficult to even purchase.
  8. 3. Fused deposition modelling (FDM) Slide No - 8 Fused Deposition Modeling is process that uses a continuous filament of a thermoplastic material. In this type of 3D Printing, instead of a vat, there is a flat surface to build the 3D Model on, Instead of a UV light, there is an extruder, a nozzle that melts a string of plastic that comes in one end and forces a small stream of plastic out the other end.
  9. 3D Printing Medical Food Games & Entertain ment Product design Defense & Space Fashion & Retail Applications Slide No - 9 1. Design Prototypes: o 3-Dimensional Printing concept model, functional prototypes and presentation models for evaluating and refining design, and packaging. 2. Education: o Engage students by bringing digital concepts into the real world, turning their ideas into real-life 3D color models that they can actually hold in their hands. 3. Healthcare: o Rapidly produce 3D models to reduce operating time, enhance patient and, and improve patient outcomes. 4. Architecture: o Rapidly produce 3D models, concept models, produces smooth, detailed architectural models in an array of materials, including rigid photopolymers.
  10. Case Study 1 Canal house Amsterdam – by DUS architects Slide No - 10 DUS ARCHITECTS, a Dutch company is making a 3d printed, 13-room canal house made from separate but interlocking components. The rooms will be structural entities on their own and will be placed on top of each other to make a house. The Canal House is printed with the Kamer Maker, a large portable 3D printer that can print entire interiors and measures 2 x 2 x 3,5 meter. The primary material being used is bio plastic. The bio plastic is created from rapeseeds, and can be ground down and reused as necessary. WinSun- have built a 3D printed villa, measuring 1,100sq.m.
  11. Applications in Architecture Slide No - 11 Architects Michael Hansmeyer and Benjamin Dillenburger printed these columns. Architectural models Benches, furniture Sculptures Lamps for lighting
  12. Other Applications Slide No - 12 In food preparation, to apply items in liquid or paste form such as cheese, icing, and chocolate. Medical industry - Physicians can use 3D printing to make hearing aids, artificial teeth, and bone grafts. 3D printed Jaw This 3D-printed cast to help repair broken bones may be the future of medical orthopedic casts. 3D- printed casts also bring out the positive potential of this emerging technology.
  13. Other Applications Slide No - 13 Richard Van As, a South African carpenter, assembles a Robohand and fits it to Liam Dippenaar. Liam was born without fingers on his right hand. Makerbot provided them with the 3D printing technology that they used to print the parts for the Robot hand. Microsoft will provide support for 3D printers in the next update of its Windows 8 operating system. The firm has struck deals with a number of major 3D printer makers including Makerbot, 3D Systems, Formlabs, Dassault and Stratasys. WikiHouse is an open source construction set by a small, but growing, community of people all around the world. There is no fixed design “team” or “studio,” but a steadily growing community of designers. Automotive and aviation industries Urbee the first prototype car 2011 was presented. This is the first car ever to have its body printed out on a 3D printer. .
  14. Cost of 3D printers Slide No - 14 Rep Rap Model: RepRap Pro Huxley Price: $599 Eventorb ot Model: Delta Micro Up Afinia H- Series Price: $1,500 Printrbot Model: Printrbot GO Price: $1,500 Makerbo t Model: Replicat or 2x Price: $2,800 The Future is 3D Model: Glacier Steel Price: 3000 3D Systems Model: CubeX Price: $3000 Formlab s Model: Form 1 Price: $3,300 Stratasy s Model: U print SE Plus Price: $15,000 Low End - Price : Rs 6,00,000 High End - Price : 5 croresMid range - Price : 1 crores TYPE RANGE SLA $ 500- $ 3000 SLS $ 1000- $ 4000 FDM $ 300- $ 5000
  15. 21.20% 15% 13.80% 10.80% 5.20% 3% 0.00% 5.00% 10.00% 15.00% 20.00% 25.00% Automotive Medical Industrial Aerospace Architecture Education Contribution of 3D printing Slide No - 15 The contribution of 3D printing in the various industries in the year 2013 are as follows: The major INDIAN companies in India that are aspirants in this new field of 3D printing are: • ALTEM Technologies • Imaginarium • Brahma 3 • think3D • JGroup Robotics Usage of 3D printing in India
  16. 3Doodler pen Slide No - 16 • The 3Doodler is a 3D pen developed by Peter Dilworth, Maxwell Bogue and Daniel Cowen of WobbleWorks. • The 3Doodler works by extruding heated plastic that cools almost instantly into a solid, stable structure, allowing for the free-hand creation of three-dimensional objects. • It utilizes plastic thread made of either acrylonitrile butadiene styrene ("ABS"), polylactic acid("PLA"), or “FLEXY”, thermal polyurethane (“TPU”) that is melted and then cooled through a patented process while moving through the pen, which can then be used to make 3D objects by hand. • The 3Doodler has been described as a glue gun for 3D printing because of how the plastic is extruded from the tip, with one foot of the plastic thread equaling "about 11 feet of extruded material". In January 2015, an improved version of the 3Doodler was introduced
  17. Disadvantages Slide No - 17 • RAPID PROTOTYPING: 3D printing gives designers the ability to quickly turn concepts into 3D models or prototypes (a.k.a., rapid prototyping). • Clean process. Wastage of material is negligible. • Complex shape can be produced . • EASY TO USE No skilled person needed. • REDUCE DESIGN COMPLEXITY • CHEAP Cheaper process than any other process. • People in remote locations can fabricate objects that would otherwise be inaccessible to them. • Process is slow • Components do not have enough strength. • COST OF RAW MATERIALS • 3-D printers are still expensive. • Misuse of technology • Although 3-D printers have the potential of creating many jobs and opportunities, they might also put certain jobs at risk . • Material limitation. Advantages
  18. Conclusion Slide No - 18 • With today's 3D printers, if you print anything you want and use. With tomorrow's, if you lose your remote, you'll be able to print a new remote. • 3D printers are always getting cheaper and better. • There is currently research going on to create 3D printers that could print out organs for people in need of a transplant. • Within a decade, 3D printers will become commonplace in houses. The benefits of such technology are endless. • 3D printing is an expanding technology which may soon start an industry in which everyone has the possibility of being a manufacturer. • 3D printing has a lot of possible benefits to society, although the products created must be regulated. • 3D printing has only been used on small scale projects in the construction industry and there are a lot of challenges that need to be dealt with prior to considering adopting it as one of the main construction technologies. Nothing communicates ideas faster than a three- dimensional part or model. With a 3D printer you can bring CAD files and design ideas to life – right from your desktop. Test form, fit and function – and as many design variations as you like – with functional parts. Future
  19. Slide No - 19 References • • • • • • • • • • •
  20. Slide No - 20 THANK YOU !