•He built a single empire.
•Mauryan empire covered almost the entire
•He defeated Seleucus Nicator a general in
the army of Alexander the great.
•After his death, the large empire built
by him was inherited by his son Bindusara.
9. Ashoka(273-232 BCE
Ashoka was one of the most
powerful rulers in Indian History.
He succeeded his father
Bindusara. Right from his
childhood he showed promise in
all areas of warfare as well as
covered most of
10. The Kalinga War
Ashoka invaded Kalinga (now Odisha)to annex it to his
empire. Kalinga War changed him completely .He gave
up violence completely.
Ashoka gave up violence
completely and became a
follower of Buddhism .After
he became a Buddhist he
swore not to fight any war.
During the war millions of
Kalingans were killed.
11. Other Achievements
•Ashoka undertook Dharmayathras or tours
instructing people about dharma.
•He appointed officials called Dharma Mahamatras
to spread dharma and look after peoples welfare.
13. •He built many stupas and viharas(monasteries)
for followers of Buddhism.
Sanchi Stupa-The Oldest Stone Structure of
India was commissioned by Ashoka the Great.
Located at Sanchi town in Madhya Pradesh
15. •Ashoka died in 232 BCE . As his
successors were weak,
Mauryan Empire broke up
into small kingdoms.
16. The Gupta Empire
In 185 BCE when the Mauryan Empire
collapsed due to the assassination of the
last Mauryan King small kingdoms
emerged throughout India.
In 320 CE ,a new empire arose eventually
known as the Gupta Empire.
18. The Gupta Dynasty
•The Gupta Empire was an ancient empire.
•King Sri Gupta I was the founder of the Gupta
•The most notable rulers of the dynasty were
Chandragupta I , Samudragupta,Chandragupta II
19. Chandragupta II(380-415 CE)
•Chandragupta II the great ruler of the Gupta Dynasty,
was one of the ablest rulers of India.
•The gupta empire reached it highest point during the
rule of Chandragupta II.
•He assumed the tittle "Vikramaditya” which means
equal to the Sun God inValour and Strength.
20. •The Gupta Empire has been considered as
the ‘Golden Age of Guptas’ in Indian History.
•The conquests of Chandragupta II helped
the Gupta Empire extend to a vast extent.
After gaining power Chandragupta II Expanded
his empire through his conquest and
matrimonial alliances until the end of his rule.
He continued to expand his rule and led
campaigns into Bengal(eastern India)and
21. •Pataliputra(present day Patna)was the capital of
Chandragupta II’s huge empire.
•He extended his rule from the Bay of Bengal and Bengal
in the east and Arabian Sea and Gujrat in the east.
•Chandragupta II’s chief credit lies in the consolidation of
the Empire to establish a strong foundation of the Gupta
• He established a second capital at Ujjain.
22. Other Achievements
•Chandragupta II’s court was graced by the
navaratnas or nine jewels who were great scholars
and writers .
•The famous writer Kalidasa lived during his rule and
wrote the famous play Abhijana Shakuntalam.
•Universities such as Nalanda, Taxila and Ujjain were
famous during his rule.
23. •Each university specialized in a
particular field of study.
•Nalanda ,being the biggest center
,handled all branches of
•Taxila specialized in the study of
•Ujjain laid in emphasis on
24. •An Iron Pillar known as Mehrauli Pillar
now seen at the Qutb Complex ,New
Delhi, India ,is seen as the greatest work
built by Chandragupta II.
•This Pillar highlights how advanced
,metallurgy was at that time ,because it
has not rusted till now.
•It is a metallurgical wonder .
•The pillar has stood more than 1,600
years without rusting or decomposing.
25. •During the Gupta period India became a center
for higher studies by attracting scholars from all
parts of India and from several foreign countries.
•In the field of art literature architecture and
Science the Indians of that time show their
genius in an astounding manner.
26. • Chandragupta II belonged
to a time which saw an all
• As a ruler of glorious time
he became the patron of
that cultural movement.
27. •During the reign of Chandragupta II a
ChineseTraveler named Fa hien visited
his Court .Fa hien’s account contains
information about achievements of
•He stayed in Gupta Empire for 6 years.
• According to him people were
prosperous and India traded with
China ,Celyon and many countries in
28. •Fa hien observed that the administration of the
Gupta was efficient.
•There was hardly no crime.
•Government was concerned for the welfare of
•Chandragupta II who brought in a new era of
political and cultural greatness won a place in
the hearts of the people.
29. •Chandragupta II created a large measure of stability
in his time.
•The achievements in various spheres of life,
particularly economic in the field of art contributed to
further progress in the later periods.
•The culture of Gupta age occupies a unique place in
the history of ancient India.
30. •The Gupta Empire ended in 550 CE, when it
disintegrated into regional kingdoms after a
series of weak rulers and invasions.
32. VARDHAN DYNASTY
•The downfall of Gupta Empire
formed into a number of small
independent kingdoms in North
•One important kingdom was at
Haryana)ruled byVardhan Dynasty.
33. •Harshavardhana is considered as
one of the most prominent Indian
Emperors in 17th century AD.
•His reforms and policies were
generous and always aimed at
boosting the peace and prosperity
of his people.
King Harshavardhana(606-647 CE
•Harshavardhana with huge Empire that extended
from north and North Western India till the Narmada
in the south.
•He united the two kingdoms of Thaneswar and
•His capital was Kannauj.
35. •After the fall of Guptas, North India was divided
into many small kingdoms.
•Harsha was able to unite many of them under
•Harsha was a competent military conqueror and
an able administrator
36. •He sent a mission to China and established a
diplomatic relationship between China and India.
•King Harsha was a great patron of arts.
•Harsha generally supported the Nalanda University.
•He was tolerant towards all religions and supported
•Later, in his life he became a patron of Buddhism
and built many Stupas andViharas.
37. •A Famous ChineseTraveler HiuenTsang visited India
during Harshavardhana reign.
•He has given a very favorable account of king Harsha
and his empire.
•He praises his generosity and Justice
•Banabhatta was his court poet and he composed the
Harshacharita with gives an account of Harsha's life
38. •After the death of Emperor Harshavardhana, his
empire disintegrated and north India was split into
•None of the successors of Harshavardhana proved
capable and, Kannauj was captured by rulers of
40. The Mughal Empire
•In India, the Mughal Empire was one of the
greatest empires ever.
•The Mughal Empire ruled for 350 years
•India became united under one ruler, and had
very prosperous, cultural and political years
during the Mughal rule.
41. •There were many Muslim and
Hindu kingdoms split all
through India until the
founders the Mughal Empire
42. •The Mughal Dynasty is found by
•The Mughal empire ruled parts of
Afghanistan and most of the Indian
Subcontinent between 1526 and
1857(16 and 19th centuries).
43. AkbarThe Great (1556-1605 CE)
•The 3rd emperor of the Mughal Dynasty Babur's
grandson and Humayun's son Jalal-ud-din
Mohammed later named Akbar ascended theThrone
at the age of 13
•He was one of the most successful and greatest of
44. • Under Akbar the great, the empire grew considerably.
•The empire was large and wealthy enough to be
considered one of the greatest empires in the world at
•He ruled from 1556 to 1605 and extended Mughal
power over most of the Indian subcontinent.
•AkbarThe Great began his military conquests under
the guidance(guardian)of a regent Bairam Khan.
•Akbar was a strong personality and a successful
general continued his military expansion
throughout his reign.
•His authority was gradually consolidated and
•Akbar also formed powerful matrimonial alliances.
46. During Akbar’s rule the Mughal Empire tripled in
size and wealth.
Akbar had created a powerful army and instituted
effective, political and social reforms.
Akbar’s army led by
Bairam Khan, defeated
Hemu on 5 November
1556 at the Second Battle
of Panipat(present day-
47. •Akbar 1st attacked Malwa and then continued the
expansion of other parts in 1561.
•In 1573 Akbar conquered Gujrat, an area with many
ports that dominated India’s trade with western Asia,
and then turned east towards Bengal.
•One of the notable features of Akbar’s government
was the extent of Hindu and particularly , Rajput
48. •By the time he died, his empire extended to
Afghanistan in the north, Sindh in the west, Bengal in
the east, and Godavari River in the south.
•Akbar was a ruler known for his humane
qualities. He was a tolerant king and respected
•Din-i-llahi or “Divine Faith”. Din-i-llahi was a
concept that merged the common truths of all
50. •His idea was to combine Islam and Hinduism into one
faith, but aspects of Christianity and Jainism. Din-i-
llahi emphasized morality ,piety and kindness.
51. Other Achievements
•Akbar was an enlightened and successful
•It goes to the credit of Akbar that the subsequent
Mughal rulers followed in principal the administrative
policy developed by him.
•Though Akbar did not have any formal education, he
loved learning and encouraged art and architecture.
His court had scholars called the navaratnas/nine
53. •He established a centralized administration.
•Akbar was the Centre of all powers.
•Akbar was a council of ministers to assist him in the
discharge of his administrative responsibilities and state of
•Akbar has a very efficient revenue system.
54. What is Jizya?
•The tax that early Islamic rulers demanded from
•Jizya was abolished by Emper0r Akbar in 1564.
•This tax was abolished because he wanted the
people of his empire to be treated equally.
55. •Akbar was illiterate and uneducated.
•He had great respect for the learned.
•Under his patronage, a good number of books on
history, philosophy, religion and other sciences were
written, compiled and translated.(Ex : Akbarnama
written by Abul Fazl – Chief Minister.)
56. Mughal Architecture
•Mughal Architecture is the distinctive Indo – Islamic
architectural style that developed in northern and
central India under the patronage of the emperors of
16th to 18th century.
•He also encouraged architecture.
57. •Early Mughal architecture developed during the reign of
•He commissioned palaces, mosques, gardens and
•Some of the buildings of his empire are :
59. •Akbar died in the year 1605 CE .
•His foresight and wisdom that
earned him the name ‘AkbarThe
61. In 1628 after Shah Jahan took
power he succeeded to the
throne after revolting against
his father Jahangir(he died in
His official name was Shahab-
ud-din Mohammed Shah
Jahan.The reign of Shah Jahan
was a peaceful period during
when the empire was stable
Shah Jahan the 5th ruler of the
Mughal empire coming after
Babur, Humayun, Akbar,
Jahangir and Shajahan.
62. •He is considered one of the greatest Mughal Emperors.
•Under his reign the Mughal Empire the peak of its glory.
•Shah Jahan successfully ruled the empire for 30 years.
•During his reign the Mughal Empire thrived, making his
reign the golden era of the empire.
•He was an able administrator and commander.
•Shah Jahan was a brave and competent commander.
Throughout his rule, he strove towards expanding his
•This gave rise to many battles. His early military conquests
resulted in extending his kingdom to southern India.
•He joined with some Rajput Kings of Bundelkhand, Baglana
64. In 1632,
He captured places
like Golconda and
Bijapur of South
went on to
Shah Jahan invested most
of his time in building a
Shah Jahan constructed
some of the most beautiful
buildings in Present day
India and Pakistan.
Many European travelers
would visit his empire just
to learn the different
techniques used in the
construction of buildings.
build by Shah Jahan
Red Fort (Delhi)
Jama Masjid (Delhi)
Moti Masjid (Lahore)
Contribution to Mughal Architecture
66. •After many years of planning, hard work and immense
sacrifices, the monument, which came to be known as the
Taj Mahal was built.
Construction of theTaj Mahal
1. One of the most significant incidents in the life of
Mughal Empire Shajahan was the construction ofTaj
2. Shah Jahan decided to build the world’s most beautiful
monument in the memory of his wife Mumtaz Mahal.
68. •The period of Shah Jahan’s rule is regarded as the
‘Golden age of Indian Architecture’.
•The Mughal Empire achieved it’s greatest prosperity
under Shah Jahan.
•Poetry and music flourished during his time.
69. •But In 1658 Shah Jahan’s son Aurangazeb declared
himself as the King.
•Shah Jahan was kept in Captivity at the Agra Fort till
•In the 1st week of January 1666, Shah Jahan became
seriously ill and never recovered.
71. The Chola Dynasty
Nadu and parts of
Tanjavur as its
originated in the rich
its oldest capital
72. •The Cholas ruled for more than 1,500 years, making them
one of the longest-ruling families in human history.
•The Cholas were most powerful of three different dynasties
at the time.
•The Chola Dynasty is mentioned multiple times in writing
fromTamil Literature and also from the Pillars.(232-273BCE)
73. Raja Raja Chola(985-
•Raja Raja Chola I was one of the greatest monarchs ofTamil
•He rose to prominence by bringing glory to the Empire and
building it as a powerful and strong kingdom.
•Raja Raja Chola was a occupies the foremost place in the
history of Cholas and was known as ‘Rajaraja the great.
After his accession he began his conquests of conquering the
kingdoms of Cheras and Pandyas.
He conquered the Gangas of Mysore, the kingdom ofVengi, and
By proceeding further south, he invaded Ceylon, (Sri Lanka) ,with
which began a century-long control of the Chola empire over the
75. With his capitalThanjavur , he utilized the 1st few years in
building a strong army and preparing for military expeditions.
He conquered the port ofVirinam by overthrowing the
Pandyas and capturing its king.
As a mark of celebration he took the title ‘Mummudi- Chola’
meaning the 3 crowns-
Chera,Chola,and Pandyas worn byThe Chola King.
76. He also sent his army
to invade Maldives,
Sumatra and other
Kalinga in the
northeast to Sri
Lanka in the
he played a major
establishing a just
77. OTHER ACHIEVEMENTS
He was successful in most of his conquests within 14 years of his reign,
bring the Pandyas, Bellary, Eastern Mysore,Vengi and Coorg under his
He is also remembered for building one of the finest and most magnificent
architectural monuments in South Indian History.
He built the spectacular ShivaTemple inThanjavur also Known as
Rajarajeswaram, BrihadeswararTemple and ‘BigTemple’ which is today a
UNESCO world heritage site and part of the ‘Great Living CholaTemples’.
78. The BrihadeswararTempleTemple is famous for the for its
delicate sculptures and supreme craftmanship.
The temple was the cultural and social centre where art and
Raja Raja center Chola was succeeded his son Rajendra I, who
further glorified the Chola Empire invaded by Maldives , Malabar
Coast and the remaining regions of Sri Lanka.