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Important events in journalism

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Important events in journalism

  1. 1. Famous Events in Journalism By Anna Shorina Chuvash State University
  2. 2. The beginning As in ever event, there is always a first for each. Whether this first moment is etched in stone or widely believed to have occurred through historical research is the difference in placing actual dates on the occasion or speculate about a period of time. Journalism is no different.
  3. 3. The very first organized form of journalism can be dated back to prehistoric times when transmitting news was performed through the word of mouth system. Ancient monarchical governments were able to develop a more reliable system of written reports.
  4. 4. The Roman Empire from Julius Caesar and beyond recorded and distributed a daily report of political news and acts of the Roman colonies. Ancient Egypt was another empire that practiced this type of journalism.
  5. 5. When we start counting by specific years, 1456 can be the first significant date in journalism history. Johannes Gutenberg invented the first movable type printing press which led way to the wide distribution of the Bible and other books.
  6. 6. The invention of journalism Journalism as we know it today is relatively young. It started in Europe in XVII century and came to Russia one century later.
  7. 7. Jean Chalaby (1996) argues that journalism is an Anglo-American invention.
  8. 8. In ‘Journalism as an Anglo-American invention: A comparison of the development of French and Anglo-American journalism 1830s-1920s’, he develops this argument through a comparison of French and Anglo- American journalism.
  9. 9. People Chalaby’s work is aligned to that of journalism scholars such as Schudson (2001), who interrogated the core journalistic concept of objectivity. Michael Schudson- (born November 3,1946) is an American academic sociologist working in the fields of journalism and its history, and public culture.
  10. 10. The Mercurius Gallobelgicus appeared as the world's first periodical in 1592.
  11. 11. It was issued in Latin semi-annually and generally distributed at book fairs. While the periodical provide information to the reader, the publishing dates gave more an impression of reviewing recent history than reading the latest news.
  12. 12. First regular newspaper But in 1665 this all changed. The Oxford Gazette became known as the first regularly published newspaper.
  13. 13. Incidentally, some contribute the invention of the newspaper to the English court's way of communicating to London what was occurring. London, at the time, was suffering the affects of the plague and the English court transferred to Oxford to avoid falling victim. When the plague went away and the English court returned to Oxford, the Gazette survived the move and set up publishing in London.
  14. 14. An earlier newsbook, The Continuation of Our Weekly News, had previously been published in London on a regular basis since 1623.
  15. 15. The first printer in the U.S. In the U.S., the printing was regulated by the Press Restriction Act. This act made it mandatory for the printer's name and place of publication to be included on each printed document. In 1638, Stephen Day became the first printer in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
  16. 16. “Publick occurrences” The first gossip newspaper, Benjamin Harris's Publick Occurrences both Foreign and Domestick was published in 1690 and was closed down after one issue.
  17. 17. Unwanted story Apart from not being licensed, the newspaper published an unfavourable story of the French King having an affair with his son's wife. Censorship had arrived to the U.S. shores.
  18. 18. In 1721, the birth of James Franklin's New England Courant occurred. Most experts consider this to be the first real colonial newspaper.
  19. 19. Not-so-serious newspaper As was the case of most early newspapers, the New England Courant was more of a hobby than a full-time newspaper and the news was usually biased on the political beliefs of Franklin.
  20. 20. Unfortunately for Franklin, his political beliefs were on the opposite side of the ones in power. While Franklin eventually had to give up publishing his newspaper.
  21. 21. His younger brother Ben learned from the experience he shared with his older brother and, in 1729, Ben Franklin moved to Philadelphia where he took over the Pennsylvania Gazette.
  22. 22. By 1750, weekly newspapers had grown to 14 in the six largest colonies. Some were even turning over a profit for their owners.
  23. 23. In the history of the U.S. journalism, 1835 marked the beginning of New York Herald under James Gordon Bennett.
  24. 24. Getting steady This newspaper introduced the world to the modern concept of the newspaper. The New York Herald was a capitalist institution free of government or political party control. Within fifteen months, the circulation grew to 40,000.
  25. 25. The New York Tribune The New York Tribune began print in 1841 and was known as the first newspaper to carry national influence with it. By the eve of the Civil War, the Tribune was getting demands for thousands of copies from any parts of the U.S. The New York Times was founded in 1851 and represented the principle of balanced reportage with high-level writing.
  26. 26. The New York Tribune
  27. 27. In 1848, the wire service originated with six large New York newspapers working together to provide coverage of Europe. This eventually evolved into what is known today as the Associated Press and ten years later the first-ever cable transmission of European news through the transatlantic cable was received.
  28. 28. First radio broadcast While the nineteenth century witness newspapers growing across the U.S., the next significant events didn't occur until 1901 when Gugliemo Marconi and his colleagues were successful in sending the first wireless signal across the ocean. Broadcast news was on the brink of existence. In 1912, it arrived with the first radio broadcast in Los Angeles.
  29. 29. In 1920, the first radio station, KDKA in Pittsburgh brought in broadcasts of election and sports results. In the 1930s, Franklin Delano Roosevelt took full advantage of the new technology of radio broadcasting to comfort a weary nation through the Great Depression with a series of fireside chats that were broadcasted nationally on the developing radio
  30. 30. Where as the Civil War brought the need to inaugurate high-speed transmission from remote areas through the telegraph; World War II provided the foundation of the need to demonstrate the value of radio. Leaders such as Winston Churchill and Roosevelt used radio broadcasting as a tool to install hope and faith in their fellow countrymen during the trying times. Edward Murrow of CBS became the father of the reporter in the war zone.
  31. 31. Recovering newsprint The growth of the radio, followed by the introduction of mainstream journalism into television saw the decline of the newspaper. It wasn't until Al Neauharth founded the USA Today in the 1980s as a national "hometown" newspaper did journalism in print recover some of its prestige and following.
  32. 32. 1997 saw journalism moving into a new frontier. Internet journalism got a much needed boost when the Dallas Morning News broke the story about Timothy McVeigh confessing to the Oklahoma City bombing on their web site.
  33. 33. Journalism has grown through many different forms and measures. It has fought against censorship as well as it has been used as a tool of manipulation by government leaders. Still, there are many boundaries to explore and the journalists of tomorrow will be the ones leading the path. The history of journalism is ongoing and forever changing. As long as there are journalists willing to keep the desire to inform alive, journalism will continue to adapt to the technologies of tomorrow.
  34. 34. The End

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