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What is Art?

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An Introduction to Visual Art

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What is Art?

  1. 1. What is Art?<br />An Introduction to Visual Art<br />
  2. 2. Objectives of the Activity<br />Determine a definition of visual art<br />Examine how we see and perceive art<br />Define terms related to the viewing of art<br />Examine images critically<br />
  3. 3. What is Art?<br />
  4. 4. What is Art?<br />Britannica Online defines art as:<br /> "the use of skill and imagination in the creation of aesthetic objects, environments, or experiences that can be shared with others.“<br />Visual Art has been defined as a language of visual signs which conveys ideas, feelings, or moods.<br />
  5. 5. The Meaning of the Word Art…<br />The word art encompasses many meanings, including ability, process, and product.<br />Ability - The human capacity to make things of beauty and things that stir us; skill, mastery, and creativity.<br />Process - The different classifications of art such as drawing, painting, sculpting, architecture, music, and photography; methods and processes.<br />Product - The completed work; painting, sculpture, . . <br />Whatever the definition, it is important to know the vocabulary of art in order to understand it. <br />
  6. 6. How is Visual Art Classified?<br />
  7. 7. How is Visual Art Classified?<br /> Traditional and contemporary art encompasses activities as diverse as:<br /> painting, sculpture, drawing, printmaking, illustration, cartoons, ceramics, stained glass, photography, installation, video, film, and architecture, to name a few.<br />
  8. 8. Style<br />Over time, an artist’s body of work can reveal an expressive character unique to the individual artist, like a signature. This expressive quality is known as an artistic style. <br />Individual Style is the characteristic manner of expression used by a particular artist.<br />For each piece, the artist makes choices about the structure, media (materials and tools), techniques (methods of using the media), and treatment of subject matter that will best express his or her idea. <br />Young artists are often tempted to prematurely impose a style on their work, instead of allowing it to mature naturally. However, they must remember— just like a signature—one’s expressive style truly only develops through time and repeated practice. <br />Some styles, once unique to individual artists, have been adopted by generations of artists and have broader historical application. <br />Period style is the general characteristics common to much of the work from given period of time or cultural phase.<br />Regional style is the manner of expression common in the work of artists working in the same country or area. <br />During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, artists often confounded the public by the increasingly abstract treatment of subject matter. Contemporary artists, too, make expressive choices that the public often doesn’t understand or find personally relevant. <br />In many cases, a single artist’s style changes as his or her body of work develops and grows. One prime example is the work of Piet Mondrian whose final style has influenced artists in other fields.<br />
  9. 9. Piet Mondrian. The Grey Tree<br /> The Trees<br />
  10. 10. Composition - The act of organizing the visual elements of art. The organization of the visual elements in a work of art.<br />Piet Mondrian. Composition in Red, Blue, and Yellow<br />
  11. 11. Seeing – Visual Perception awareness: intuitive, rational, informative<br />
  12. 12. Art and Perception<br />
  13. 13. Art and Perception<br />
  14. 14. Art and Perceptionfigure ground reversal<br />
  15. 15. Art and Perceptioncamouflage<br />
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Why do artists make art?<br />
  19. 19. The Three Searches<br />The three basic searches in which <br />artists are involved:<br />Search for understanding of:<br />Nature,<br />the Supernatural,<br />and Self.<br />
  20. 20. What are the purposes of art?<br />
  21. 21. Art Creates Beauty<br />Aesthetics – the search for beauty<br />Idealism – the representation of forms according to a concept of perfection<br /> Leonardo da Vinci, Mona Lisa<br />
  22. 22. Art can be used to<br />Replicate nature (naturalistic)<br />Depict reality (realistic, objective, perceptive)<br />Record an artist’s own experiences (representational)<br />Gustave Courbet Burial at Ornans<br />
  23. 23. Art Enhances Our Environment<br />5th century Byzantine Mosaics<br />Mausoleum of Galla Placidia Ravenna, Italy<br />
  24. 24. Art Enhances Our Environment<br /> Dale Chihuly. Fiori di Como (detail)Bellagio, Las Vegas, NV<br />
  25. 25. DALE CHIHULY. Fioridi Como (1998). 70’ x 30’ x 12’<br />
  26. 26. Dale Chihuly<br />
  27. 27. How does art influence society?<br />
  28. 28. Art Reveals Truth<br />In her self-portraits, the Mexican painter Frida Kahlo used her tragic life as an emblem for human suffering.<br />Frida Kahlo. Diego in My Thoughts<br />
  29. 29. ArtImmortalizes<br />Pop Art – an art style originating in the 1960s that uses commercial and popular images and themes as its subject matter<br />Andy Warhol. Marilyn screen print<br />
  30. 30. ANDY WARHOL. Four Marilyns (1962). Synthetic polymer paint and silkscreen ink on canvas. 30" × 23⅞".<br />
  31. 31. Looking at Art<br />Is this art? Why or why not? <br />Warhol. Campbell’s Tomato Soup<br />
  32. 32. Why is art important?<br />
  33. 33. Art Expresses Religious Beliefs<br /> Hagia Sophia Istanbul, Turkey Christ Pantocrator Byzantine Art<br />
  34. 34. Art Expresses Fantasy<br />Marc Chagal, I and the Village, (1911) oil on canvas<br />
  35. 35. Art and the Psychoanalytic<br />Many 20th Century artists looked to the psychoanalytic writings of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung, who suggested that primeval forces are at work in the unconscious reaches of the mind. <br />Artist’s sought to use their art as an outlet for these unconscious forces. <br />
  36. 36. Max Beckman. The Dream<br />
  37. 37. 0<br />ART, INTELLECT, AND EMOTION<br />Art can make you think.<br />Art can make you feel.<br />Art can trigger associations.<br />
  38. 38. Art Simulates the Intellect<br /> Buckminster Fuller stands <br />in front of his geodesic dome<br />Leonardo. Polyhedron<br />
  39. 39. Art Creates Order and Harmony<br />Ictinos and Callicrates, The Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens<br />Application of the Golden Section <br />Design - The combination of the visual elements according to principles of design such as proportion and harmony.<br />
  40. 40. 0<br />Art is harmony.–Georges Seurat<br />Artists and scientists try to find the underlying order of nature.<br />Zen - A Buddhist sect that seeks inner harmony through introspection and meditation. <br />
  41. 41. Ryoanji Zen Temple, Japanese sand garden, Kyoto, Japan.<br />
  42. 42. Art Protests Injustice<br />Eugene Deacroix. Liberty Leading the People oil on canvas<br />Allegory - A narrative in which people and events have consistent symbolic meanings; extended metaphor.<br />
  43. 43. Conceptual Art<br />Conceptual art does not represent an external object. It also challenges the traditional view of the artist as creative visionary, skilled craftsperson, and master of ones media. The “art” lies in the artist’s concept or idea.<br />
  44. 44. Art Elevates the Commonplace<br />Readymade – found objects that are exhibited as works of art<br />Assemblage – a work of art that consists of assembled three-dimensional objects<br />Duchamp. Fountain<br />
  45. 45. Art Elevates the Commonplace<br />Gustave Courbet. The Stonebreakers, oil on canvas<br />
  46. 46. Art Reflects the Social and Cultural Context<br />Edward Hopper. Night Hawks (1942) oil on canvas<br />
  47. 47. Art Meets the Needs of the Artist<br /> Christo and Jeanne-Claude. The Gates, <br /> Central Park, New York, NY 2005 <br /> Christo. The Gates drawing<br />
  48. 48. A Structure for Understanding Art<br /><ul><li>Components of Art
  49. 49. Elements of Art
  50. 50. Principles of Design
  51. 51. Underlying Concepts</li></ul> Picasso’s Garçon à la pipe<br />
  52. 52. The Components of Art<br /><ul><li>Subject
  53. 53. Content
  54. 54. Form
  55. 55. Style
  56. 56. Media
  57. 57. Technique</li></ul> Van Gogh’s Portrait of Dr. Gachet<br />
  58. 58. * The Visual Elements – Used by artists to create imagery<br /><ul><li>Value
  59. 59. Color
  60. 60. Line
  61. 61. Shape
  62. 62. Mass
  63. 63. Texture</li></ul> Hokusai. The Great Wave color wood-cut<br />
  64. 64. The Principles of Design<br /><ul><li>Harmony
  65. 65. Variety
  66. 66. Balance
  67. 67. Emphasis
  68. 68. Rhythm
  69. 69. Proportion
  70. 70. Economy</li></ul>Rembrandt Anatomy Lesson oil on canvas<br />
  71. 71. Underlying Core Concepts<br />Light – that form of radiant energy which simulates visual perception, illumination (value, color, hue, neutral, tone, key, tint, shade, shadow, highlight, modeling, chiaroscuro)<br />Space – the environment in which all things exist (line, shape, mass, length, width, size, area, measurement, depth, volume, dimension, proportion, scale)<br />Time – period of duration, fourth dimension (duration, motion, moment, date)<br />
  72. 72. Other Key Terms<br />Composition - The act or organizing or composing the visual elements of art. <br />Design - The combination of the visual elements of art according to principles of design such as balance and unity.<br />Form - The organization of the visual elements in a work of art. <br />
  73. 73. Looking at Art<br />Is this art? Why or why not? <br />What elements does it have or not have?<br /> Monet. Water Lilies oil paint<br />
  74. 74. 0<br />COMPARE & CONTRAST<br />The Piano Lesson(s) by Matisse and Bearden<br />
  75. 75. HENRI MATISSE. Piano Lesson (1916). Oil on canvas. 8’ x 6’11 “<br />ROMARE BEARDEN. Piano Lesson (1983). Oil with Collage. 29” x 22”<br />
  76. 76. Looking at Art<br /><ul><li>Value
  77. 77. Color
  78. 78. Texture
  79. 79. Space
  80. 80. Movement
  81. 81. Balance
  82. 82. Scale
  83. 83. Subject matter</li></ul>Pierre-Auguste Renoir. <br />The Piano Lesson c. 1889 <br />
  84. 84. Looking at Art<br /><ul><li>Value
  85. 85. Color
  86. 86. Texture
  87. 87. Space
  88. 88. Movement
  89. 89. Balance
  90. 90. Scale
  91. 91. Subject matter</li></ul>Henri Matisse. Piano Lesson<br /> oil on canvas c. 1916 <br />
  92. 92. Looking at Art<br /><ul><li>Value
  93. 93. Color
  94. 94. Texture
  95. 95. Space
  96. 96. Movement
  97. 97. Balance
  98. 98. Scale
  99. 99. Subject matter</li></ul>Romare Bearden. The Piano Lesson<br /> oil on canvas c. 1983 <br />
  100. 100. Looking at Art<br /><ul><li>Color
  101. 101. Texture
  102. 102. Space
  103. 103. Balance
  104. 104. Symbolism
  105. 105. the touching of hands represents an agreement to wed.
  106. 106. the dog represents fidelity.</li></ul>Jan Van Eyck, Giovanni Arnolfini <br />and His Bride, 1434 oil paint<br />
  107. 107.
  108. 108.
  109. 109. Unity<br />Order/Oneness<br />Subject<br />Content<br />Form<br />Harmony<br />Variety<br />Principles of Design<br />Rhythm<br />Emphasis<br />Balance<br />Economy<br />Proportion<br />Elements of Art<br />Mass<br />Value<br />Color<br />Texture<br />Line<br />Shape<br />Components of Art<br />