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Guru P N_Innovative storage techniques_CIPHET.pdf

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Storage Entomology
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Most important aspect of the grain storage that is post-harvest management of grain including protection and handling of the grains. The management of the different pests including insects, rodents, birds and microbes and others.

Most important aspect of the grain storage that is post-harvest management of grain including protection and handling of the grains. The management of the different pests including insects, rodents, birds and microbes and others.

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Guru P N_Innovative storage techniques_CIPHET.pdf

  1. 1. Insect & pest management during grain storage using alternative fumigants Dr. Guru P. N. Scientist (Agricultural Entomology) ICAR-CIPHET, Ludhiana Email: guru.pn@icar.gov.in In: Winter School on ‘Innovative Storage Solutions: The Best Way Forward for Reducing Post-Harvest Losses, and Doubling Farmers’ Income’ Organised By ICAR-CIPHET, Ludhiana (01 December 2022) 1
  2. 2. STORAGE Small scale- household level, farm level Community level, village level, temporary storages Large scale storages, warehouses, buffer stocks Few days to few weeks Few weeks to few months Few months to years For consumption, seed for sowing in next seasons, seed saving ▪ On the farm, ▪ At collection points serving a number of farms and ▪ At terminal points where grain is processed or moved forward in larger bulks 2
  3. 3. Losses Preventive Curative Qualitative Quantitative TYPES FACTORS MANAGE ICAR-CIPHET, PH losses study, 2015 3
  4. 4. Quantitative loss • Direct feeding insects cause loss in weight of the stored grains Qualitative loss • Direct feeding on the grain • Chemical changes in grain content • Contamination of grains with moult skin and body parts • Vectors of grain diseases • Loss of seed viability Insect damage in storage 4
  5. 5. Temperature – indirect relation, the higher the temperature the shorter the storage life because of increased metabolism rates of grains and pests Grain moisture: speed up the spoilage, favourable for microbes Humidity – storage atmosphere should be of 70±5%RH Storage time - Sound and scientific management needed for the long term storage 5
  6. 6. Storage Required moisture content for safe storage Potential problems if requirement not met 2 to 3 weeks 14–18 % Molds, discoloration, respiration loss 8 to 12 months 12–13 % Insect damage more than 1 year 9% or less Loss of viability Rice Safe storage conditions for grain Proper drying of grains before harvest 6
  7. 7. Moisture content requirement for safe storage of grains (27 °C, 70% RH) Crop EMC Maize shelled 13.5 Maize flour 11.5 Wheat 13.5 Wheat flour 12.0 Sorghum 13.5 Millet 16.0 Paddy 15.0 Rice 13.0 Pulses 15.0 Lentil, pea 14.0 Groundnut (shelled) 7.0 ➢ The longer the grain needs to be stored, the lower the moisture content required. ➢ Safe storage moisture level of 10-12 % for cereals and 7-9% for oil seeds (on wet basis) effective for a safe storage of 6-12 months. GRAIN MOISTURE CONTENT (IGMRI, Hapur) 7
  8. 8. Micro-organisms: generally recognized with stored grain diseases and the mycotoxins produced. Significant qualitative loss Insects: generally feeds on grain internally and externally. Cause both quantitative and qualitative loss. Birds: problems in open storage Rodents: hard to manage pests, causing both qualitative and quantitative losses. Presence of uric acid in grains is the major indication of their damage. 8
  9. 9. BIRDS Aves 1. Old world and new world sparrows - Passer spp. (Passeridae: Passeriformes) 2. Laughing dove - Spilopelia senegalensis (Columbidae: Columbiformes) 3. Common myna or Indian myna - Acridotheres tristis (Sturnidae: Passeriformes) 4. Pigeon - Columba livia (Columbidae: Columbiformes) 5. Rose Ringed/ ring-necked Parakeet- Psittacula krameri (Psittaculidae: Psittaciformes) 6. House crow/ Indian, grey necked, Ceylon or Colombo crow - Corvus splendens (Corvidae: Passeriformes) 2 5 6 1 3 4 9
  10. 10. • Use of bird scarer like metallic sheets and ribbons • Acoustic device (Bird scarer/ acetylene exploider)/ Firecrackers • Barrier meshes • Slow drying plastic jellies / Grease • Ultra-sonic disturbances and recorded bird call (warning cries and distress call) • Cats -natural predators • Repellents like methiocarb, methyl anthranilate and others. Management Preventive Curative Scientific handling Avoid the spillage 10
  11. 11. RODENTS To gnaw Black rat - Rattus rattus Brown rat - Rattus norvegicus House mouse - Mus musculus Indian mole-rat/ Lesser bandicoot rat- Bandicota bengalensis Indian gerbil - Tatera indica Basis of their shelter, rats can broadly be divided in to two groups. A. House rats B. Field rats Squirrels Chipmunks Woodchucks/ Groundhog 11
  12. 12. Rodent Pest Management CONTROL METHODS NON-CHEMICAL CHEMICAL NON-LETHAL CHEMICAL LETHAL CHEMICAL Ultrasound and electromagnetic devices ACUTE TOXICANTS DEATH QUICK Eg. Zinc Phosphide Associated problems: bait shyness and poison aversion CHRONIC TOXICANTS DEATH GRADUAL Eg. All Anticoagulant Rodenticides MULTIPLE DOSES Eg. Warfarin, Fumarin, Coumatetralyl, Chlorophacinone etc. Associated problem is development of resistance SINGLE DOSE Eg. Bromadiolone, Brodifacoum, Flocoumafen, Difethialone Trapping Biological control Habitat modification Ultrasound and electromagnetic devices Rodent Proofing Sanitation Electric fencing Sterilant, attractants, repellents etc 12
  13. 13. ▪ Aflatoxins (aflatoxicosis) – Aspergillus spp. ▪ Fumonisins – Fusarium spp. ▪ Ochratoxin – Penicillium verrucosum MYCOTOXINS Microbial contamination Aflatoxin in maize Aflatoxin in groundnut 13
  14. 14. Management ▪ Right time harvesting/ optimum moisture content in grains ▪ Cleanliness is the prime important step ▪ Undisturbed conditions for a long time encourage ▪ Avoid formation of Heat/ hot spots ▪ Isolation of old stocks from new stocks ▪ Insects and mites are the vectors of microbes ▪ Temperature management -temperature below 20oC and above 40oC with dry weather will discourage the colonisation ▪ Dry heat at 65˚C for 6 days or dipping in hot water treatment at 52–55˚C. ▪ Seeds can also be treated with fungicides such as Dithane M-45 and Benlate at the rate of 3g per kg 14
  15. 15. Moth (पतंग) Weevil (घुन) Beetle (भंग कीट) 15
  16. 16. Major insect pests https://www.frontiersin.org/files/Articles/99 3341/fsufs-06-993341-HTML- r1/image_m/fsufs-06-993341-t001.jpg 16
  17. 17. Monitoring/ surveillance Management/ Control Identification/ diagnosis Pre-requisites management 17
  18. 18. DETECTION/ DIAGNOSIS I. Conventional methods Visual inspection Probe sampling and trap method Visual lures and pheromones Berlese funnel method Uric acid method Hidden infestation detector II. Modern methods a. Conductance based methods b. Olfactory based methods c. Electromagnetic-spectrum based methods Imaging methods Machine vision within visible domain, X- ray imaging, Thermal imaging Non-imaging methods Electronic grain probe insect counter (EGPIC), Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) d. Acoustic detection (Signal processing) Window function and filtering, Acoustic spectrum features, Acoustic temporal pattern features TNAU traps Probes 18
  19. 19. Low-cost insect trap Used for safe storage of food grains during daily consumption by the household Suitable for bin holding 25 - 50 kg grains 1,50,000 units sold Stack probe trap UV light trap https://www.mohantrap.com/ Acoustic Detection System Probe & signal processing unit Bin filled with Chickpea 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in
  20. 20. GRAIN PROTECTION 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in
  21. 21. Improved storage structures 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in
  22. 22. Silos are better option for bulk storage of grains due to their various benefits like assured shelf life of grain for 2-3 years, easier grain management, 1/3rd land requirement compared to traditional warehouses and no risk of pilferage. SILO STORAGE 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in
  23. 23. Grain Dams/ Grain rings Grain dams are the most economical way of storing grain. With its simple design and rugged material it is ideally suited for all sizes of farmers ​General structure: Mesh - 6mm Galvanized Steel; PVC - 550gsm UV Stabilized PVC 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in
  24. 24. Different hermetic bags available in Indian markets ▪ Concept of deoxygenation inside storage structure ▪ For instance: Depletion of O2 (< 3%) and elevation of CO2 (> 50%) exposure for >24 h, 100% mortality of most common insects ▪ Also termed as airtight storage or sealed storage or sacrificial sealed storage Cocoons Reduction in O2 concentration, elevate the CO2 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in
  25. 25. ICAR-CIPHET_Hermetically sealed storage structure for pulses (1 tonne capacity) Test insect Stage of insect Concentration Exposure/ residence time Mortality Callosobruchus maculatus Adult 15 % 24 h 100 % Eggs 40 % 72 h 100 % Larva 50 % 48 h 100 % Adult 60 % 96 h 100 % 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in
  26. 26. Silobag is made of a three layer HDPE (high density polyethylene) film (white-black) with UV protection Silo Bag • 3 layers of coextruded polyethylene, 250 microns thick. • 2 white layers to make the bag weather proof and act as a UV Filter • 3rd layer is black and protects the grain from the sunlight Each bag is about 200 feet long, 9 feet in diameter (60 meters x 3 meters) and can store around 200 tonnes. One acre can store 2,000 tonnes of grain in silo bags. 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in
  27. 27. Thermal Technologies • Heat or thermal treatment inhibits the activity of lipoxygenase and lipase enzymes, thereby decreasing the rancidity and moisture content of the grains, expanding the shelf-life. • Heat treatment of grains has been used to denature proteins, modify aroma, taste and structure of starch granules, and also to reduce the microbial load. Different thermal techniques ✓ Microwave, ✓ Radio frequency, ✓ Infrared, ✓ Ohmic heating, ✓ Oscillating magnetic field 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in 27
  28. 28. Dielectric heating ▪ Short wavelength electromagnetic radiations, which exhibit a protective effect on the grains from insects, field fungi and storage fungi. ▪ Since microwave works on the dielectric effect, it only warms up the areas containing dielectric fluids (e.g., water) causing regions of hot spots. MICROWAVES RADIO-FREQUENCY Mechanism of heating by microwaves and radiofrequency ▪ A non-ionizing electromagnetic wave of upto 11 m wavelength with a frequency range of 1 to 300 MHz. ▪ commonly used food processing technology for drying, baking, sterilization and pasteurization as well as thawing of frozen foods ▪ Dissociative ions in foods also produce heat through ionic conduction whereby the ions oscillate forward and backward in the food creating friction and heat. Vadivambal et al., 2007 – commercial treatments 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in 28
  29. 29. Optimal energy usage. Significant reductions in thermal processing times Nutrient retention is also high Microwave advantages 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in 29
  30. 30. Moisture plays a role Insect mortality depends on • Passing load • Microwave power • Grain layer • Grain moisture • Types of insects • Pre-conditioning • Post treatments • Packaging 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in 30
  31. 31. Chemical Treatments Insecticide fumigants Carbon dioxide Protectants Natural products Inert Dusts Botanical Derivatives Plant powders Plant Essential Oils Physical treatments: Modified/ Hermetic/ Controlled atmosphere Low Pressure storage Heating/ cooling: Mechanical, Dielctric heating, Ionizing Radiation, Ozone Treatment Mechanical methods Mechanical devices and traps Biotechnological Interventions Biological Control Parasitoids and Predators Semiochemicals Entomopathogens Management options → 31
  32. 32. Prophylactic treatment These insecticide treatments are to prevent the insect infestation and cross infestation. However, insecticide should not be sprayed on food grain directly Curative treatment Mixing of chemicals is only recommended for the grains meant for seed purpose only. Normally pyrethrum dust is used as seed protectant Aluminium phosphide @ 3 tablets of 3g each i.e., 9g/tonne of grains Name of the chemical Dilution Dosages with diluted solution Periodicity Malathion 50% EC 1:100 3 L per 100 m2 15 days (21 days in winter) Deltamethrin 2.5% WP 40 gms / L 3 L per 100 m2 90 days (3 months) 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in 32
  33. 33. Pest management in stored products Prevention, monitoring and hygiene Sprays – space and surface Fumigation 33
  34. 34. Manual of fumigation for insect control by E.J. Bond Research Centre Agriculture Canada London, Ontario Canada Food and agriculture organization of the united nations (FAO) 34
  35. 35. FUMIGANT Pesticides available as gases, liquids and in solid preparations but act on insects and other pests in gaseous/ vapour phase FUMIGATION The action of releasing a toxic chemical in the gaseous state to control targeted pests FUMIGANT CONCENTRATION The actual amount of fumigant present in the air space in any given part of the structure/ enclosure being fumigated at any given time Expressed as ppm or g/m FUMIGANTS ARE NON-SELECTIVE PPA/DPPQS accredited persons alone can undertake any fumigation FOR APPROVED FUMIGATOR SERVICES Certificates of training from NIPHM/ CFTRI/ IGMRI https://plantquarantineindia.nic.in/pqispub/html/Accreditated.htm 35
  36. 36. Changes in gas concentration during the three phases of a typical fumigation A - Fumigant generation and distribution B - Exposure period C - Aeration period Gastight structure Leaky structure 36
  37. 37. Fumigants : Regd. In India Fumigant Formulations Phosphine (Aluminium phosphide) 56% & 6% Tablets, 56% & 77.5% Granules Phosphine (Magnesium phosphide) 56% Methyl bromide 99% L, 98% (+2% CPN) EDCT 3:1 mixture Formulation Gross weight (g) PH3 released (g) AlP tablets, 56% 3 1 AlP powder, 56% 10 34 3 11 AlP powder, 77.5% 125-4400 56-2000 MgP plates, 56% 117 33 AlP : Regd. In India 37
  38. 38. Properties of Phosphine Gas Chemical formula PH3 IUPAC name Phosphine, Phosphane Boiling point -87.4°C Freezing point - 133.5°C Molecular weight 34.04 Specific gravity: Gas (air 1) Liquid (water 1) 1.214 0.746 Latent heat of vaporization 102.6 Cal/g Solubility in water 26 ml/100 ml at 17°C Lowest explosion point 1.79 percent by volume in air Method of evolution as fumigant From the preparations of aluminium phosphide Odour Pure phosphine is odourless. However, garlic or carbide odour is detectable due to impurities such as diphosphines and arsine. 38
  39. 39. NSPM-11 Methyl Bromide Fumigation NSPM-12 Guidelines for Accreditation of Fumigation Agency for undertaking Mbr Fumigation NSPM-22 Aluminium Phosphide Fumigation ISPM-15 Regulation of wood packaging material in international trade Standard no. Title Scope of IS 4810 : 1968 Specification for fumigation sheets and covers, rubberized PCD 13 (Petroleum, Coal and Related Products Department) IS 13217 : 1991 Thermoplastics fumigation covers PCD 12 IS 7247 : 1974 Code of practice for fumigati on of agricultu ral produce Part 1 methyl bromide FAD 16 (Food and Agriculture) Part 2 Ethylene dibromide FAD 16 Part 3 aluminium phosphide FAD 16 Part 4 ethylene dichloride and carbon tetrachloride mixture FAD 16 Part 5 general requirements FAD 16 IS 7716 : 1975 Method for testing efficacy of fumigation for disinfestation of grains in domestic bins FAD 16 Refer to, • Labels and standards • Applicator manual • SDS 39
  40. 40. 40
  41. 41. Leak checkers / personal monitors 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in 41
  42. 42. Fumigants: Safety limits Fumigant TLV-TWA* TLV-STEL Phosphine 0.3 ppm (0.0004 g/m3) 1 ppm (1 mg/m3) Methyl bromide 5 15 Ammonia 25 35 CO2 5000 30000 *Also known as OEL (occupational exposure level) or WEL (workplace exposure level). In EU OEL: 0.1 ppm and 0.2ppm STEL (EU, 2006) TLV-TWA: Time-Weighted Average 8h workday and 40 h workweek TLV-STEL: Short-term exposure limits Max. of 15 min 42
  43. 43. Residue limits (ppm) Fumigant Codex alimentarius FSSA, 2006 Whole Milled Whole Milled Phosphine 0.1 0.01 0 0 MBr 50 50 25 25 AlP brands in India Brand Company Celphos Sumitomo chemical india ltd Quickphos UPL ltd Sanphos Sandhya organic chemicals Fieldphos Sarthi chem tech pvt ltd Pestphos Intech organics lts Synfume Agrosynth chemicals ltd 43
  44. 44. Fumigant Molecular weight Gas/ vapour density Vapour pressure Water solubility Phosphine 34 1.2 29260 mm of Hg 0.35 g/L Ethyl formate 74 2.56 200 14.5% Methyl bromide 95 3.4 1824 13.4 g/L Sulfuryl fluoride 102 3.5 13442 0.75 g/L Phosphine merits 44
  45. 45. Live insects are found after fumigation: Probable reasons ▪ Inadequate dose ▪ Inadequate exposure period ▪ Fumigant concentration not retained adequately ▪ Insects are resistant to the fumigant ▪ Insects entered after fumigation Post-application procedures ▪ Monitoring of gas concentrations ▪ Aeration of the fumigated object ▪ Disposal of wastes 45
  46. 46. Fumigation sequence of work ❑ INSPECTION of premises to be fumigated and other preparations ❑ PLAN before execution ❑ SEALING of the object to be fumigated ❑ APPLICATION of the gas and closing of the premises ❑ MONITORING of the fumigated ❑ AERATION ❑ WASTE DISPOSAL 46
  47. 47. Fumigation sheets ▪ High gas tightness (including seams) ▪ Gas loss must be <1mg PH3/day/m2 ▪ Resistance to tearing ▪ Light enough to handle (≤150gsm) ▪ Resistance to UV light, temperature (for outdoor use) 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in 47
  48. 48. Phosphine is flammable at 24.9 g/m3 or 17900 ppm or 1.8% v/v Flash point 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in 48
  49. 49. Use phosphine judiciously ▪ Follow good fumigation practices ▪ Ensure effective sealing and gas retention ▪ Use gas monitor giving reliable readings ▪ Adequate exposure period is must ▪ Achieve target terminal/ end concentration 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in 49
  50. 50. Fumigants – Scenario in present day Fumigants Global status Phosphine Worldwide use Methyl bromide QPS and CUE Sulfuryl fluoride Many countries Ethyl formate Several countries HCN Europe Ethane dintrile Australia, New Zealand Propylene oxide USA, Japan 50
  51. 51.  Methyl bromide (CH3Br)  Phosphine (PH3)  Sulfuryl fluoride (SO2F2)  Propylene oxide (C3H6O)  Carbonyl sulfide (COS)  Ethyl formate (CH3CH2OCHO)  Hydrogen cyanide (HCN)  Carbon disulfide (CS2)  Ethane dinitril=Cyanogen (C2N2)  Ozone (O3)  Carbon dioxide at normal and high pressure (CO2)  Nitrogen (N2) 51
  52. 52. Chemical alternatives Contact pesticides Gaseous treatments IGRs (Chitin-synthesis inhibitors) Semiochemicals (Pheromones, attractants, repellents) Botanicals 52
  53. 53. Alternative fumigants to MB, and their principal strengths and weaknesses Strengths Weaknesses Fumigants Registration; Acceptance Ozone depletor; Residues Methyl Bromide Naturally occurring Registration Carbon bisulphide Rapid action Sorption; Registration Ethyl formate Sterilant Carcinogenic; Residues; Flammable; Infrastructure Ethylene oxide Very rapid Sorption; Unstable; Registration Hydrogen cyanide Low sorption; penetration Registration; ineffective for eggs Sulfuryl fluoride Sterilant Flammable; Infrastructure; Registration; Sorption Propylene oxide Registration; Cheep; Penetration Flammable; Corrosive; Slow action; Resistance Phosphine Prof. Shlomo Navarro 53
  54. 54. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Aarti- Nimesh/publication/338792006_Post- Harvest_Stored_Product_Insects_and_Their_Management/links/ 5e2aaff7299bf152167887d5/Post-Harvest-Stored-Product- Insects-and-Their-Management.pdf 01-12-2022 guru.pn@icar.gov.in 54
  55. 55. THANK YOU Dr. Guru P. N. Scientist (Agricultural Entomology) ICAR-CIPHET, Ludhiana Email: guru.pn@icar.gov.in Mob: 8073129511 55

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