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Art 1100
Joan Jonas
“They Come to Us without a Word”
U.S. Pavilion,Venice Biennale, 2015
Modernism
Escape the influence of history.
Belief in cultural progress (linear history).
Belief in science as a virtue (objectivity).
Belief in universal truths that can be discovered.
Fascination with the “Primitive” or elemental.
Motto:“Make it New”
Postmodernism
Believes that we are embedded in history.
Anti-essentialist, we determine our character.
Skeptical of the idea of progress.
Believes that objectivity isn’t possible.Your viewpoint
shapes your thought processes.
Consequences
Draws influences from all time periods
No-essential form to any media
Embraces Non-western Culture
Emphasizes individual experience
“Movements”
70’s
Earthworks
Conceptual Art
Feminism
80’s
Appropriation
Video Art
Neo-Expressionism
90’s
Identity Politics
Globalism
Post-Colonialism
00‘s
Installation
Relational Aesthetics
The Postmodern World
Pluralism: multiple acceptable artistic movements/media
existing at the same time. Multiple ideas of what makes
“good” art exist simultaneously.
FEMINISM
In 1971, art historian Linda Nochlin asked a now
famous question,
“Why have there been no great women artists?”
The answer was not immediately clear, but was
instead a mix of factors from lack of available training,
restricted gender roles and even the way “the artist”
was conceptualized in culture that provided barriers
to women.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Feminist Art
1).Asserted that the “domestic crafts” and things
that were traditionally “women’s work” were fine art.
2).Made political artwork criticizing social structures
that excluded women.
3). Searched for a feminine view of history and art.
i.e. Rewrite the list of famous artists.
i.e. Look for examples of matriarchal societies.
4). Proudly represented the female body in its
complexity.
Craft vs. the “Fine Arts”
Craft
Functional
“Commercial”
Dependent
Skill-based
Female?
Fine Arts
Only Visual
Non-commercial
Autonomous
Idea-based
Male?
“While there are many objects that are excluded from the
category of fine art whose makers are male, those objects of
domestic use whose creation was predominantly the
occupation of women were all marginalized by this category
and its attendant values (Parker and Pollock 1981)”
Miriam Shapiro,
Heartfelt, 1979.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Feminism was a social and
political movement in the 70’s
that paved the way for more
diversity in art and recognition
of women artists.This image
combines painting and ”female
craft” to state that
postmodern art offers
diversity in media and style,
but also in gender.
"Gates of Paradise,"
by Miriam Schapiro,
1980
Feminism and Feminist Art
Sheila Hicks
Bamian (Banyan)
(1968-2002) wool
and acrylic
Feminism and Feminist Art
Incorporates
“craft”
materials.
Eva Hesse. Right After, 1969.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Womanhouse, (1972) was
the first project of the
newly-established Feminist
Art Program at CalArts.
Judy Chicago and Miriam
Schapiro, working with their
students took over an old
mansion in Hollywood for
installations and
performances exploring
women’s domestic space.
Feminism and Feminist Art
***For video see Feminism subfolder.***
Once the house was prepared, the women turning the rooms and
spaces of the house into artworks that addressed personal issues
gleaned from their own experiences as women, including
housework, mothering, the gendered division of labor, aging, and
menstruation.
A major influence for the artists was Betty Friedan’s The Feminine
Mystique (1963), which challenged societal expectations that
relegated women to the domestic arena.
Womanhouse was the first feminist work of art to receive
national attention when it was written about in Time magazine.
The project was groundbreaking in American art in ways that can
be seen to dovetail with emerging Post-modernism. Except for a
few pieces, the work was destroyed after completion.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Womanhouse: Bridal Staircase
At completion, Womanhouse had 18 installations, including three
bathrooms, two closets, a nursery, the kitchen, the stairway, and the
garden. Some of the best known of these are Menstruation
Bathroom and Nurturant Kitchen.The latter focused on the
drudgery of housework as well as societal expectations regarding the
role of women as nurturers within the family dynamic.
While installations such as Leah’s Room included performances, the
living room was reserved for the presentation of a series of
performances including The Cock and Cunt Play and Waiting.The
former was a ribald but honest look at how housework was
traditionally assigned to men and women based on essentialist
notions about the body.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Womanhouse: Dining Room
Womanhouse: Lea's Room: woman
applying and reapplying makeup
Lea's Room, 1972
Clothing and costume also
played a crucial role in Leah's
Room, created by Karen LeCocq
and NancyYoudelman. Inspired
by the novel Chéri, Colette's
story about an aging courtesan,
this heavily perfumed bedroom
was filled with antiques .A
woman (LeCocq) slowly and
silently applied cosmetics and
then removed them, causing
many women to weep openly as
they observed the performance.
Womanhouse: Painted Room
Feminism and Feminist Art
Womanhouse: Nursery
Womanhouse: Lipstick Bathroom
Feminism and Feminist Art
Womanhouse: Fright Bathroom
Feminism and Feminist Art
Womanhouse: Linen Closet
Womanhouse:Web Room
(Crocheted Environment)
Essentialism:
The practice of regarding something (as a presumed
human trait) as having innate existence or universal truth
rather than being a social or ideological construct.
This early feminist art was essentialist; it focused on
women’s bodies and defined gender in biological terms.
i.e. A feminine “essence”, the way to be female.
The second wave of feminist art defined gender in more
relativist terms.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Judy Chicago,The Dinner Party, 1974-1979.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Judy Chicago,The
Dinner Party,
1974-1979.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Judy Chicago’s The Dinner Party is a large, complex, mixed-media
installation dedicated to hundreds of women and women artists
rescued from anonymity by early feminist artists and historians. It took
five years of collaborative effort to make, and it drew on the assistance
of hundreds of female and several male volunteers working as
ceramists, needleworkers, and china painters.The Dinner Party is
composed of a large, triangular table, each side stretching 48 feet;
Chicago conceived of the equilateral triangle as a symbol of both the
feminine and the equalized world sought by feminism.Along each side
of the table are 13 place settings representing famous women— 13
being the number of men at the Last Supper as well as the number of
witches in a coven.
Feminist Art
1). Presented the “domestic crafts” and things that
were traditionally “women’s work” as fine art.
2).Made political artwork criticizing social
structures that excluded women.
3). Searched for a feminine view of history and art.
i.e. Rewrite the list of famous artists.
4). Proudly represented the female body in its
complexity.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Judy Chicago,The Dinner Party, 1974-1979.
Judy Chicago,The Dinner Party, 1974-1979.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Judy Chicago, Rejection Quintet: Female Rejection Drawing, 1974.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Judy Chicago, Queen Elizabeth, 1972
Feminism and Feminist Art
Carolee Schneemann,
Interior Scroll (1975
Feminism and Feminist Art
Performance
Feminist art also sought
to reclaim the female
body as a creative force,
not as something to be
covered up. Whose use
could be defined by
women themselves.
For Schneemann’s performance Interior Scroll (1974), the
artist ritually prepared herself for the action, first by
undressing, wrapping herself in a sheet and reading from her
book, Cézanne, SheWas a Great Painter, while taking action
poses similar to those of a life drawing model. She then
outlined her face and body in strokes of paint, before slowly
extracting a long, thin scroll of paper from her vagina.
As she unfurled the scroll she read its contents to the
audience; it was a narrative, taken from a conversation with a
filmmaker (a woman), who associated the artist’s works with
irrational, unstructured content and process—the feminine.
The action of pulling the scroll from her vagina represented a
reclamation of personal control over creative production.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Performance
Feminism and Feminist Art
Performance
Carolee Schneemann,
Interior Scroll (1975
Mierle Laderman Ukeles. tfordWash:Washing/Tracks/Maintenance, 1973.
Feminism and Feminist Art
Performance
Part of reclaiming the feminine
body, was affirming the
traditionally feminine kinds of
work.
Mierle Laderman Ukeles wrote
the Manifesto for Maintenance
Art, 1969! to promote
‘maintenance' ("sustain the
change; protect progress") as an
important value in contrast to
the excitement of avant-garde
and industrial ‘development'.
Martha Rosler
Semiotics of the Kitchen, 1975
***For video see Feminism subfolder.***
Feminism and Feminist Art
Performance
Martha Rosler, Untitled (Cargo Cult);
from the series Body Beautiful, or
Beauty Knows No Pain 1965-1974
Martha Rosler also used
collage to combine
women magazines with
news images. The scenes
of affluent American life
collide with scenes of
global industry and the
Vietnam war.
Rosler, Martha
Collage (Photomontage)
1970-71
Martha Rosler, Red Stripe Kitchen
Photographic collage.1967 - 1972
Feminism marks a sharp break from Modernism. It showed
that abstract art was largely an aloof creation of the male
dominated art world ill equipped to practically help women.
Abstract art couldn’t help more women get shows, or work
to free women from restrictive gender expectations.
What was needed was a more socially engaged art form. For
women to be acknowledged they needed to try and find
their own contribution. Feminism was Postmodern in that it
looked into the past to find examples of women in art.
In this way Feminism was an important example for future
art movements.
Feminism and Feminist Art
POSTMOD
ERN
ARCHICTE
CTURE
https://vimeo.com/94449276
A brief reminder about Modernism
Postmodern Architecture
PROBLEM:
Thought Modernist architects had ignored human
needs in their quest for uniformity and function.
SOLUTION:
•New architecture should address the complex mix
of “high” and “low” architecture.
•Should embrace past architectural styles
•Began to re-apply decoration to buildings.
“Less is more,” but “Less is a bore.”
Robert VenturiVANNAVENTURI HOUSE
Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania. 1961 –1964.
Postmodern Architecture
Shaped facade.
Not symmetrical.
Irregular floor plan.
Combines various historical styles
together into one building
Uses decoration without function.
Postmodern Architecture
VannaVenturi House ...
RobertVenturi
Model date: c. 1959-62
Postmodern Architecture
While writing his treatise on Postmodernism, Complexity and
Contradiction in Architecture (1966),Venturi designed a house for his
mother that illustrated many of his new ideas.The shape of the façade
returns to the traditional Western “house” volumes and shapes that
Modernists rejected because of their historical associations. Its
vocabulary of triangles, squares, and circles is arranged in a complex
asymmetry that gives up the symmetrical rigidity of Modernist design.
While the curved molding over the door is simply decorative. The
most disruptive element of the façade is the deep recess over the
door, which opens to reveal a mysterious upper wall (which turns out
to be a penthouse) and chimney top.
Robert VenturiVANNAVENTURI HOUSE
Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania. 1961 –1964.
Postmodern Architecture
Robert VenturiVANNA
VENTURI HOUSE
Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania.
1961 –1964.
The interior is also complex
and contradictory.The
irregular floor plan, including
an odd stairway leading up to
the second floor, is further
complicated by irregular
ceiling levels that are partially
covered by a barrel vault.
Robert VenturiVANNAVENTURI HOUSE
Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania. 1961 –1964.
Postmodern Architecture
Designed by RobertVenturi
"Sheraton" Chair Designed 1978-84; made 1985
Designed by RobertVenturi,
"Gothic Revival" Chair1979-1984;
Postmodern Design
Postmodern Design
Carlton room
divider
1981
Ettore SOTTSASS
(designer)
MEMPHIS, Milan
Michael Graves, Portland Building, 1982
Postmodern Architecture
Postmodernism brings
a return to historical
styles and decoration.
Combines
Old and New!
Michael Graves The Plocek House (1977),Warren, NJ
Postmodern Architecture
Philip Johnson's
Sony Tower
(formerly AT&T
Building), 1984
NYC
Philip Johnson designed the
AT&T Building (now the Sony
Building; 1979–84).Various
period references, mostly
Renaissance and Baroque,
were overshadowed by the
celebrated Chippendale (like
the chair back) pediment that
provides the building with a
unique profile on the
Manhattan skyline.
Bank of America Center in
Houston by John Burgee and
Philip Johnson.
Postmodern Architecture
Charles Moore, Piazza d’Italis, New Orleans, 1978
Postmodern Architecture
James Stirling, Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984
Postmodern Architecture
James Stirling, Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984
Postmodern Architecture
The Neue Staatsgalerie museum is a series of integrations, both with
the site and with periods of art and design. Stirling combines
materials of the past, travertine and sandstone, with colored
industrial steel throughout the museum as a way to pay respect to
the art and design of the 19th Century by developing a relationship
with modern materials resulting in a uniquely Post Modern museum.
James Stirling, Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984
James Stirling, Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984
James Stirling, Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984
Harold Washington Library, Hammond, Beeby and Babka Architects,1991
Postmodern Architecture in Chicago
Postmodern Architecture in Chicago
In 1987, Beeby and his firm (then Hammond, Beeby & Babka)
designed and built the new Chicago Public Library, the Harold
Washington Library Center (1987–91).
The building is contextual architecture, in this case the Neo-classical
traditions of 19th-century Chicago. With its grand arched windows,
overhanging cornice, and ornate Neo-classical details such as swags
and towering finials, the Library Center formed a controversial
contribution to Chicago’s architectural landscape.
The top portion and most of the west side, facing Plymouth Court,
is glass, steel and aluminum.The roof is a pediment that harkens to
the Mannerist style. In 1993, seven ornamentations on the roof were
added.The decorations on the Congress andVan Buren sides are
seed pods, which represent the natural bounty of the Midwest.
Others show owls, representing the Greek symbol of knowledge,
perched in foliage.
Harold Washington Library, Hammond, Beeby and Babka Architects,1991
Postmodern Architecture in Chicago
Most recent shopping
malls are in the
Postmodern style , with
things like nonfunctional
“clocktowers” or
decorative gabled
windows.
Postmodern Architecture
Postmodern Architecture
Santiago Calatrava - Milwaukee Art Museum, 2001
The Milwaukee Art Museum, which overlooks Lake Michigan, was
partially housed in a building designed in 1957 by Eero Saarinen as a
war memorial. Santiago Calatrava proposed a pavilion-like construction
conceived as an independent entity.The white steel-and-concrete form
is reminiscent of a ship and contrasts the existing ensemble in both
geometry and materials. Being linked directly to Wisconsin Avenue via a
cable-stay footbridge, pedestrians may cross busy Lincoln Memorial
Drive on the bridge and continue into the pavilion.
The pavilion features a spectacular kinetic structure, a brise-soleil with
louvers that open and close like the wings of a great bird.When open
the shape also becomes a sign, set against the backdrop of the lake, to
herald the inauguration of new exhibitions.The pivot line for the slats is
based on the axis of a linear mast, inclined at 47 degrees, as a parallel to
the adjacent bridge mast.
Postmodern Architecture
Postmodern Architecture
Santiago Calatrava - Milwaukee Art Museum, 2001
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGQJPkQL0fU
Santiago Calatrava - Milwaukee Art Museum, 2001
Santiago Calatrava - Milwaukee Art Museum, 2001
APPROPRIATION
Sherrie Levine,
Fountain (Madonna),
1991.
Appropriation: or use of “readymade” images or art
objects allows for the examination of the meaning of
those objects or forms. Used largely by the “Pictures
Generation” artists.
Marcel Duchamp,
Fountain, 1963 replica
of 1917 original.
“Readymade”: an
everyday object
used as art.
Marcel Duchamp
Dada: anti-modernism
Appropriation art challenges traditional ideas about authenticity,
individuality, copyright laws, and the location of meaning within a
work of art. Levine’s urinal is taken directly from Duchamp’s ready-
mades, though he did not cast his urinal in bronze, but used an
existing, ordinary porcelain urinal. Levine’s fountain is a precious
presentation of the work from the previous master.
Appropriation has been likened to the similar trend in music—
samples or remixes.
Levine found a source in the examples of 20th-century art,
appropriating verbatim from such modernist luminaries as Walker
Evans,Willem de Kooning, Piet Mondrian, and Edward Weston.
Feminist critics have interpreted the performative nature of Levine’s
work, in which she assumes the identity of an artistic predecessor, as
a subversive intervention in the rigid (and overwhelmingly male)
construction of art history.
Appropriation
Black Newborn, Sherrie Levine, 1994
Appropriation
Black Newborn, Sherrie Levine, 1994
Appropriation
Sherrie Levine
White Knot: 1
1986, Casein on
wood
: 31 1/8 x 25 3/16 x
1 1/4 inches (79.1 x
64 x 3.2 cm)
Appropriation
Man Ray, La Fortune, 1938
Levine takes Man Ray’s billiard table out of it’s
surrealist landscape and makes it a “real” object.
Sherrie Levine,“La Fortune” (After Man Ray: 4), 1990
Appropriation
Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007)
Postmodern French theorist
and author
Simulacrum:
A copy that modifies the
experience of the original.
Parts of Disneyland are
based on America, but
compared to Disneyland,
Los Angeles looks more real.
Postmodernism
“I think of the postmodern attitude as that of a man who
loves a very cultivated woman and knows that he cannot say
to her "I love you madly", because he knows that she knows
(and that she knows he knows) that these words have already
been written by Barbara Cartland [a novelist].
Still there is a solution. He can say "As Barbara Cartland would
put it, I love you madly". At this point, having avoided false
innocence, having said clearly it is no longer possible to talk
innocently, he will nevertheless say what he wanted to say to
the woman: that he loves her in an age of lost innocence.”
-author Umberto Eco
Appropriation
Untitled (Cowboy) (1989) Richard Prince
Appropriation
Richard Prince
Untitled (cowboy), 1980-84
Appropriation
Richard Prince, Cowboy, color photograph, 1991-92
Appropriation
Art critic of the time Douglas Crimp wrote in 1977 of
the appropriation artists of the “Pictures Generation”
that,
“They are not in search of sources of origins, but of
structures of signification: underneath each picture there is
always another picture.”
Artworks in this case were “signs” pointing to other
meanings, mostly stereotypes.Whether of gender, race
or class.
Appropriation
. Photographic silkscreen, vinyl lettering on plexiglass, 109" x 210". © Barbara Kruger.
Barbara Kruger, Untitled (We don't need another hero), 1987
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Third-wave feminist art emerged in the 1990s.This latest
generation of artists has addressed a plethora of other issues
that discriminate against or denigrate women, including such
hybrid ones as gender and class, gender and race, violence
against women, postcolonialism, transgenderism,
transnationalism, and eco-feminism.
Third-wave feminist art explores the many strategies that
women employ to navigate life.
In photograph-based images Barbara Kruger examines the
representation of power via mass-media images, appropriating
their iconography and slogans and deconstructing them visually
and verbally.
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Untitled (You Invest in the Divinity of the
Masterpiece) Barbara Kruger , 1982.
• Makes political artwork
criticizing social
structures that exclude
women.
• Works for change “on
the ground” by using
graphic design, products,
media and public spaces.
• Attacks feminine
stereotypes.
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Untitled (Your Body is a
Battleground)
Barbara Kruger
1989
Photographic silkscreen
on vinyl
112 x 112 in.
Barbara Kruger, Untitled (We Will No Longer Be Seen and Not Heard), 1985
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Guerrilla Girls, "Do women have to be naked to get into the Met.
Museum? Less than 5% of the artists in the Modern Art sections are
women, but 85% of the nudes are female", 1989
The Guerrilla Girls came into being in 1985, shortly after the
opening of a huge exhibition at NewYork’s Museum of Modern
Art.The show, titled “International Survey of Contemporary
Painting and Sculpture,” included works by 169 artists, fewer
than 10 percent of whom were women.
The Guerrilla Girls lecturing.
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Jenny Holzer
Abuse of Power Comes as No Surprise
Photograph
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Jenny Holzer, Survival,Times Square, NewYork (197-?)
Jenny Holzer, Survival,Times Square, NewYork (1986)
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Jenny Holzer
Living: More than once I've wakened with tears...
1980-82, Bronze, 7 5/8 x 10 1/8" (19.4 x 25.7 cm)
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Jenny Holzer
Living: Some days you wake and immediately...
1980-82
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Installation view of Jenny Holzer: PROTECT PROTECT (Whitney Museum of American Art,
NewYork, March 12–May 31, 2009). Photograph by Bill Orcutt
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Untitled Film Still #7,
Cindy Sherman (American,
born 1954), 1978
Feminist Art in the 80’s
The “Untitled Film Stills”
series by Cindy Sherman (b.
1954) exemplifies Postmodern
strategies of looking.These
photographs eerily resemble
authentic still photographs
from early 1960s films; but all
are in fact contemporary
photographs of Sherman
herself.
Untitled Film Still
#13 Cindy Sherman
(American, born
1954)1978.
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Cindy Sherman Untitled Film Still #21 1978, Gelatin silver print
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Feminist Art in the 80’s
In UNTITLED FILM STILL #21 for instance, Cindy Sherman appears as
a small-town girl who has moved to the big city to find work. Other
photographs from the series show her variously as a Southern belle, a
hardworking housewife, and a teenager waiting by the phone for a call.
Critics have discussed these images in terms of second-wave feminism,
as questioning the culturally constructed roles played by women in
society, and as a critique of the male gaze. In these photographs,
Sherman is both the photographer and the photographed. By assuming
both roles, she complicates the relationship between the person
looking and the person being looked at, and she subverts the way in
which photographs of women communicate stereotypes.
Cindy Sherman Untitled
Film Still #21 1978,
Gelatin silver print
Untitled Film Still #58, Cindy Sherman (American, born 1954), 1980
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Cindy Sherman, Untitled #123. 1983.
Untitled #153, Cindy Sherman (American,
born 1954), 1985.
Feminist Art in the 80’s
Pierre Huyghe
"No Ghost Just a Shell" (collaboration with Philippe Parreno), 1999-2003
"Annlee," original image, 1999
© Pierre Huyghe, courtesy Marian Goodman Gallery, Paris/NewYork.
"’For ‘No Ghost Just a Shell’,
Philippe Parreno and I bought the
copyright of a manga character.
We can call it a sign. Normally
this kind of sign is bought to
make little advertising cartoons.
It’s a platform for a narrative,
advertising things."
- Pierre Huyghe
Appropriation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=J3E8ioPg8xQ
http://ubu.com/film/parreno_anywhere.html
Appropriation
Pierre Huyghe
"No Ghost Just a Shell" (collaboration with Philippe Parreno), 1999-2003
"One Million Kingdoms," video still, 2001. DigiBeta video, 6 minutes, color, sound. Co-production of
Anna Sanders Films and Antéfilms. Photo by Laurent Lecat.
© Pierre Huyghe, courtesy Marian Goodman Gallery, Paris/NewYork.
Appropriation
VIDEO
Early experiments in video centered on figuring out the
characteristics of the medium, both of video itself and
also of television.
Genre’s of video art
1. Video about the medium of video.
2. Video about performance.
3. Video as physical material.
4. Video as a comment on television / film.
Video Art
By 1960 90% of American homes
had a television. It had become
the dominant and definitive
medium of mass culture.
Carlota Fay Schoolman
Richard Serra
1973, "Television Delivers People"
Video Art
***For video see Video Art subfolder.***
Produced in 1973, "Television Delivers People" is a seminal work in
the now well-established critique of popular media as an instrument
of social control that asserts itself subtly on the populace through
"entertainments," for the benefit of those in power-the corporations
that maintain and profit from the status quo.Television emerges as
little more than a insidious sponsor for the corporate engines of the
world.
Boomerang
(1974), Richard
Serra and
Nancy Holt
Video Art
***For video see Video Art subfolder.***
Boomerang (1974), Serra taped Nancy Holt as she talks and
hears her words played back to her after they have been delayed
electronically. Originally broadcast over Amarillo,TX public
television.
Left Side Right Side
Joan Jonas
1972
videotape :single-channel
video, black-and-white,
with sound, 2:50 min.
Video Art
Creating a series of inversions, Joan Jonas
splits her image, splits the video screen, and
splits her identification within the video
space, playing with the spatial ambiguity of
non-reversed images (video) and reversed
images (mirrors).
Joan Jonas:Vertical Roll, video still, 19:38 minutes, 1972 (Whitney Museum of American Art,
NewYork); image courtesy of Electronic Arts Intermix (EIA), NewYork
Video Art
***For video see Video Art subfolder.***
Marshall McLuhan (1911-1981):
Canadian Communications Theorist
''the medium is the message”
''Most people are alive in an earlier time, but you must be
alive in our own time,'' Mr. McLuhan strove to understand
and explain the electronic media, which he believed were
shaping people in ways they hardly suspected.
Two major books:
''The Gutenberg Galaxy''
''Understanding Media:The Extensions of Man''
Video Art
For McLuhan the way we
acquire information
affects us more than the
information itself.
Media: Are seen as
extensions of human
needs / senses.
Examples:
The foot > the wheel.
The eye > the book.
The skin > clothing.
The nervous system >
the “electronic media”.
Video Art
The Global Village...
A non-spatial communal existence.
Video Art
Video about Performance
Vito Acconci /
Following Piece,
1969
Performance artists were
among the first to use
video.They immediately
saw that it could record
and preserve their
artworks as they unfolded
…. in time.
Performance Art:
Descriptive term applied to ‘live’ presentations by artists.
From the early 1960s in the USA to refer to the live events
taking place at that time, such as Happenings, or body art.
Vito Acconci
http://www.ubu.com/film/acconci_pryings.html
Pryings
21 minutes, 1971
Performance Art
***For video see Video Art subfolder.***
Vito Acconci
Theme Song
33 minutes, 1973
Performance Art
Guy Ben-Ner
Berkeley’s Island
1999
http://ubu.com/film/ben-ner_berkeley.html
Performance Art
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-md_AeTjVk0
GUY BEN NER Stealing Beauty 2007 single channel video running time: 17:40 minutes
Performance Art
https://vimeo.com/99546893
Walk this Way (Clip)--2008
Kate Gilmore
Performance Art
https://vimeo.com/99539393
Performance Art
Kate Gilmore, Sudden as a Massacre (Clip)--2011
Video as physical material
Zen for TV
Nam June Paik (American, born Korea. 1932–2006)
1963 (executed 1975/1981).Altered television set, overall (original television):
Video Art
Still other artists chose
to work with the medium
of video through it’s
physical presentation as
electronics and electronic
signals.
Nam Jun Paik in
particular was interested
in the distortion of the
televised image.
Moon is the Oldest TV
Nam June Paik
1965
Video Art
Video Art
Nam June Paik, MagnetTV,
1965. 17-inch black-and-white
television set with magnet, 28
3/8 × 19 1/4 × 24 1/2 in. (72.1
× 48.9 × 62.2 cm) overall.
Video Art
Nam June Paik , TV Buddha (1974)
Closed Circuit video installation with
bronze sculpture
Video Art
Installation view of Projects: Nam Jun Paik
MOMA, 1977
Video Art
Electronic Fables
Nam June Paik (American, born Korea. 1932–2006) and JudYalkut
(American, born 1938)
1965-1971/1992.Video (color, sound)
Video Art
Video Art
Peter Campus
Three transitions 1973
Exhibited at Paula Cooper Gallery, Summer 1997
color, sound, 4:53 minutes
***For video see Video Art subfolder.***
Cory Arcangel
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nuXz-uVnIkw
Glitch art:
The aestheticization of
digital or analog errors,
such as artifacts and
other "bugs", by either
corrupting digital code/
data or by physically
manipulating electronic
devices (for example by
circuit bending).
Video Art
Video Art
Cory Arcangel
Clouds, 2002
***For video see Video Art subfolder.***
http://www.ubu.com/film/arcangel_f2.html
Video Art
Cory Arcangel
Duration: 2:46
f2 (2005)
Takeshi Murata, Silver
http://www.ubu.com/film/murata_silver.html
Video Art
Video as a comment on
television / film.
Technology/Transformation:WonderWoman - by Dara Birnbaum (1978)
Other artists used video to reflect on the messaging and
stereotypes being put out in the kinds of television and movies
that were in the mass media. Similar to Appropriation artists
they wanted to get to the meaning of the stories and look
“behind the scenes”.
***For video see Video Art subfolder.***
Video Art
24 Hour Psycho by Douglas Gordan 1993, 35mm film projection/installation.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UtLg5TqqVeA
Paul Pfeiffer, Fragment of a Crucifixion (After Francis Bacon), 1999
Video Art
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JHE77hD6GBM
IDENTITY
Identity Politics:
Following the example of Feminism and the pluralism
of Postmodernism, artists began to reflect on the
ways in which they “performed” identity.
1). Culturally specific ways of making art were
explored and celebrated.
2). Old pictures of oppression were criticized.
Prominent Groups: African and Latino Americans,
LGBTQ movement.
The “representation of politics” and
the “politics of representation”.
Kerry James Marshall, (American, born 1955) Many Mansions, 1994
Identity Art
MANY MANSIONS by African- American painter Kerry James Marshall
(b. 1955) refers to Stateway Gardens, Chicago, one of the largest
housing projects in America. The inadequate conditions were the
subject of much debate prior to its demolition in 2007. Marshall shows
an idyllic setting of three African-American men, who are too well
dressed for gardening, to create an tidy garden that includes manicured
topiary in the background and flowerbeds in the foreground.The
painting includes a number of details, including the statement “In my
mother’s house there are many mansions,” which both changes the gender
of the biblical quotation (John 14:2).
Two cute cartoon bluebirds with a baby-blue ribbon fly into the scene
like the birds that bring the fairy godmother’s gifts to Cinderella in rags
in the Disney film, while two Easter baskets neatly wrapped in plastic sit
in the garden.The artist takes a swipe at the fact that the condition of
the projects was studied and then ignored by the authorities by labeling
his own picture “IL2-22” (“Illustration 2-22”) in the upper right
Identity Art
KERRY JAMES
MARSHALL, Scout
Master, 1996, acrylic
on paper on wood, 41
x 40 inches image size,
43 3/8 x 42 1/4 x 2
3/8 inches framed,
Kerry James Marshall, "Better Homes Better Gardens", 1994
Identity Art
Kerry James Marshall makes formally rigorous paintings, whose
central protagonists are always, in his words,“unequivocally,
emphatically black.”
As he describes, his work is rooted in his life experience:“You
can’t be born in Birmingham,Alabama, in 1955 and grow up in
South Central [Los Angeles] near the Black Panthers headquarters,
and not feel like you’ve got some kind of social responsibility.You can’t
move toWatts in 1963 and not speak about it.”
Marshall’s erudite knowledge of art history and black folk art
structures his compositions; he mines black culture and
stereotypes for his unflinching subject matter.
Identity Art
Kerry James Marshall, Souvenir IV, 1998
Identity Art
Kerry James Marshall, Souvenir I, 1998
Identity Art
Kerry James Marshall,
Untitled (Painter),
2010
Identity Art
KERRY JAMES
MARSHALL,
Untitled, 2009,
acrylic on pvc, 61
1/8 x 72 7/8 x 3
7/8 inches,
KERRY JAMES MARSHALL,
Untitled (Lovers), 2015,
acrylic on PVC panel, 60 x 48
x 3 inches (152.4 x 121.9 x
7.6 cm),
Carrie Mae Weems, Untitled (Woman playing solitaire) (from KitchenTable Series), 1990.
Gelatin silver print, 27 1/4 x 27 1/4 in.
Carrie Mae Weems has documented the African American
experience weaving together jokes, music and storytelling with
photographic imagery. Much of her work involves adapting her
own photographs and historical images of African Americans by
adding text evoking themes of family relationships, gender roles
and the histories of racism, sexism, and class.
Carrie Mae Weems’s acclaimed Kitchen Table Series (1990)
speaks. In a 2011 interview with Art21,Weems described the
series as a response to her own “sense of what needed to
happen, what needed to be, and what would not be simply a voice
for African American women, but would be a voice more generally
for women.”
Identity Art
Carrie Mae Weems, Untitled (Woman and daughter with makeup) (from KitchenTable Series),
1990. Gelatin silver print, 27 1/4 x 27 1/4 inches (69.2 x 69.2 cm).
Carrie Mae Weems, Untitled (Man and Mirror), 1990
Gelatin silver print, from the "Kitchen Table Series”, 36.5 x 36.5 cm
Carrie Mae Weems,,Josephine Baker
from Slow Fade to Black II, 2010–11
Identity Art
Identity Art
Carrie Mae Weems,,Josephine Baker
from Slow Fade to Black II, 2010–11
Carrie Mae Weems,
Katherine Dunham
from Slow Fade to Black II, 2010–11
Identity Art
David Hammons
African-American Flag
1990
Identity Art
David Hammon, American
installation artist, performance
artist and sculptor. African–
American Flag is typical work in
dealing with a contemporary
racial issue. These served as a
prelude to the found-object
sculptures he began to make in
the late 1970s from cheap and
discarded items such as
elephant dung, hair, chicken
bones, bottles and bags.
David Hammons, Bliz-aard Ball Sale, 1983
David Hammons, Untitled (NightTrain), 1989
Identity Art
Hammons, David
In the Hood, 1993
Identity Art
Hammons, David
Higher Goals, outdoor
sculpture; found objects. 1988
Identity Art
Higher Goals (1986), erected
in Cadman Plaza, Brooklyn,
NY, was one of his many
public commissions; the
project involved turning
enormous telegraph poles
into basketball hoops and
decorating them with
abstract patterns made from
bottle caps.
Hammons, David
Higher Goals, outdoor
sculpture; found objects. 1988
AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) is an international
direct action advocacy group working to impact the lives of
people with AIDS (PWAs) and the AIDS pandemic to bring
about legislation, medical research and treatment and policies to
ultimately bring an end to the disease by mitigating loss of
health and lives.
Identity Art
Identity Art
Gran Fury, Art is not enough,
poster, 1988, ©The NewYork
Public Library
Through the late 80’s and 90’s ACT-UP held demonstrations
around the USA, from Wall Street, the FDA, the NYSE, and major
television outlets.
Members of ACT UP Chicago with the sign Kissing does not kill , Gay
Pride in Chicago , June 24, 1990 , © The NewYork Public Library
Untitled" (Monument), 1989
Print on paper, endless copies
20 in. at ideal height x 29 x 23 in. (original paper size)
Identity Art
Untitled" (Monument), 1989
Print on paper, endless copies
20 in. at ideal height x 29 x 23 in. (original paper size)
Identity Art
Felix Gonzales-Torres was an American sculptor and photographer of
Cuban birth. In 1987 he joined Group Material, a NewYork-based group
of artists adhering to principles of cultural activism and community
education. His own engagement as a gay man with socio-political issues
centered around the interaction of public and private spheres.
His stacked-paper work consists of two stacks of sheets printed with the
bracketed words of the titles, neatly piled to resemble Minimalist floor
sculptures. By inviting gallery visitors to take the sheets, Gonzalez-Torres
undermines Minimalist principles of social and aesthetic autonomy,
suggesting that the artwork is completed by the viewers’ physical
interaction with (and consumption of) the work.
This strategy also criticizes the ways in which ideas are propagated
through an art practice; by offering a work that depends on the projection
and contemplation by its audience.
Identity Art
Felix Gonzalez-Torres, ”Untitled"
1991, Billboard
Identity Art
“Untitled”, 1989
Billboard
Overall dimensions vary
with installation
Location: Sheridan Square,
NewYork. Mar. – Sept. 1989.
Sponsored by the Public Art
Fund.
Felix Gonzalez-Torres
"Untitled" (Perfect Lovers), 1991
Clocks, paint on wall
Identity Art
Although made shortly after the death of his partner, Ross Laycock,
“Untitled” (Perfect Lovers) was characteristically open to
interpretation. His ability to create sensual metaphor for private life in
public, in which two synchronized clocks, of the type to be found in
offices and public spaces, are displayed side by side; the implicit
romanticism is tempered by the inevitable fact of one stopping before
the other.
In 1993 a died from AIDS-related causes.
Felix Gonzalez-Torres
"Untitled" (Perfect Lovers), 1991
Clocks, paint on wall
Identity Art
Felix Gonzalez-Torres
"Untitled" (USA Today), 1990, Candies, individually wrapped in red, silver, and
blue cellophane (endless supply), Ideal weight: 300 lbs (136 kg)
Identity Art
Identity Art
Felix Gonzalez-Torres
"Untitled" (Toronto), 1992
Light bulbs, extension cord, and porcelain light sockets
GLOBA
LISM
Takashi Murakami, Ian Tan Bo Puking, 2002
Global art
Postmodernism, pluralism and globalization have allowed artists
to bind nations and cultures of the world together, giving rise to
an international network in which art from many points of origin
circulates and becomes known.
Contemporary artists are incorporating their traditional folk arts,
without fully assimilating into Western Art (history). Creates a
“hybrid” approach.
Begun in the 1600‘s in Japan, Ukiyo-e was initially considered
"low" art for distribution due to it’s reproducible nature as
woodblock prints.
Global art
Cosmos 1998
acrylic on canvas mounted on
board H300 × W450cm, 3
panels
©1998 Takashi Murakami/Kaikai
Kiki Co., Ltd.All Rights
Reserved.
Global art
Trained in traditional nihon-ga painting,Takashi Murakami’s work has
been described as a successful combination of Western with Japanese
techniques, and the traditional with the contemporary. He also
popularized the term ‘Superflat’, a word used to describe the two-
dimensional and flat quality of culture in contemporary Japan
TAKASHI MURAKAMI "Splash Nude" 2001
Acrylic on canvas / Acrylique sur toile
35 1/2 x 47 1/4 inches / 90 x 120 cm
Global art
Takashi Murakami, The Castle ofTinTin, 1998,
Global art
Global art
TAKASHI MURAKAMI
"Tan Tan Bo" 2001 Acrylic on canvas mounted on board
11.9 feet x 17.8 feet x 2 1/2 inches (3 panels, / 360 x 540 x 6,7 cm
Global art
Murakami’s view of art as
entertainment and commerce
coupled with his
entrepreneurial spirit led to
the establishment of Hiropon
Factory in 1996, which
eventually became Kaikai Kiki
Co. in 2001. Partly inspired by
Andy Warhol’s Factory and
Damien Hirst’s masterful self-
branding, Murakami’s company
assists in the production of his
artworks and handles all the
merchandising. Kaikai Kiki Co.
Murakami and merchandise.
Murakami collaboration with
French fashion house Louis
Vuitton
Murakami inVersailles
The sculpture Flower Matango by Japanese artist Takashi Murakami is displayed atVersailles Palace.
Murakami, who was born in Tokyo in 1962, will display his sculptures and paintings in 15 rooms in the
palace's Hall of Mirrors and the apartments of the King and the Queen
Visitors gather around a sculpture by Japanese artist Takashi Murakami entitled
Tongari-Kun (Mr Pointy), at theVersailles Palace
The sculpture by Japanese artist Takashi Murakami is displayed at the
Château deVersailles
The Oval Buddha
Silver (2008) in the
Hercules Salon of
Versailles Palace
Global art
Oval Buddha by Takashi Murakami is displayed in theVersailles Palace gardens
Global art
Kiki,Takashi Murakami is displayed at the Palace ofVersailles
Global art
Ai Weiwei
Study of Perspective - Tiananmen Square
1995-2003
Ai Wei Wei is a cultural figure of international renown, he is an
activist, architect, curator, filmmaker, and China’s most famous artist.
Open in his criticism of the Chinese government,Ai was famously
detained for months in 2011, then released to house arrest.“I don’t
see myself as a dissident artist,” he says.“I see them as a dissident
government!” Some of Ai’s best known works are installations, often
tending towards the conceptual and sparking dialogue between the
contemporary world and traditional Chinese modes of thought and
production.
His infamous Coca ColaVase (1994) is a Han Dynasty urn
emblazoned with the ubiquitous soft-drink logo.Ai also served as
artistic consultant on the design of the “Bird’s Nest” stadium for
Beijing’s 2008 Olympics, and has curated pavilions and museum
exhibitions around the globe.
Global art
Ai Wei Wei
Coca ColaVase,
1997
*Vase from the
Tang dynasty
(618-907)
Global art
Urns of this vintage are
usually cherished for their
anthropological
importance. By employing
them as readymades,Ai
strips them of their aura
of preciousness only to
reapply it according to a
different system of
valuation.
Ai Wei Wei, PaintedVases, 2009
Global art
Ai Wei Wei, Map of China, 2004
* Tieli wood from dismantled temples of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911)
Global art
Ai Wei Wei, Forever, 2003
Global art
Ai Wei Wei, Snake Ceiling, 2009 backpacks
Global art
Ai Wei Wei, Fountain of Light, 2007
Global art
Ai Weiwei
Sunflower
Seeds 2010
For Sunflower Seeds (2010) at the Tate Modern, he scattered 100
million porcelain “seeds” handpainted by 1,600 Chinese artisans—a
commentary on mass consumption and the loss of individuality.
On October 23,Ai posted on Instagram: “In September LEGO
refused AiWeiwei Studio's request for a bulk order of LEGOs to
create artwork to be shown at the National Gallery ofVictoria as
they 'cannot approve the use of LEGOs for political works’.” Ai’s
post triggered a flood of responses on social media criticizing
LEGO for "censorship and discrimination.”
Thousands of anonymous supporters offered to donate their
used LEGOs to Ai. #legosforweiwei
Ai Weiwei (@aiww) | Twitter
DanhVo, We the People, Copper 2012,
Kunsthalle Fridericianum
Global art
DanhVō’s conceptual works explore
themes of appropriation and
fragmentation, incorporating his
experience as aVietnamese-born Danish
citizen and consistently using his own life
as material.
Vō’s We the People (2011) is a
scrupulous replica of fragments of the
Statue of Liberty for which the artist
took pains to ensure the same copper
hammering technique.The resulting
hollow pieces were exhibited spread out
on the floor of a gallery space,
highlighting the unexpected fragility of
the original statue, visible in the thinness
of its material.
Global art
DanhVo, We the People, Copper 2012,
Kunsthalle Fridericianum
DanhVo, We the People, Copper 2012,
Kunsthalle Fridericianum
El Anatsui, City Plot, 2010, aluminum liquor bottle caps and copper wire, 184 x 140 inches,
Global art
El Anatsui began his tenure as a professor of art at the University of
Nsukka, Nigeria. Meticulously assembled from discarded aluminum
often sourced from liquor bottles, the recycled materials coalesce in
exquisite constellations that track postcolonial exchange and global
abstract traditions.
StressedWorld, 2011 is a quintessential example: delicate yet
monumental. Hovering between sculpture and painting, the metal
constructions defy categorization and have solidified Anatsui’s status
as a groundbreaking visual artist of international critical acclaim.
Global art
El Anatsui, Ink Splash, 2010, aluminum and copper, 124 x 149 5/8 inches
Global art
InstallationView Gravity and Grace: Monumental Works by El Anatsui
Brooklyn Museum, NewYork, February 8–August 4, 2013
Black Block, 2010, aluminum and copper wire, 207 1/2 x 135 7/8 inches,
Global art
Global art
Post Colonialism:
Popularized in the 1980s, the term refers to investigations
into the cultural situation of nations who have formerly
been subject to colonial control, predominantly at the
hands of European nations. A culture's aesthetics must be
seen both as a tool used in furthering its specific agenda
and as a product of its own political past.
the “Other”: the imaginary oppositional subjects whose
invention supports the definition of the self.
Key Figures: Frantz Fanon, Edward W. Said, Homi K. Bhabha.
Global art
YINKA SHONIBARE, MBE How to Blow up Two Heads at Once (Ladies), 2006 Two mannequins, two
guns, Dutch, wax printed cotton textile, shoes, leather riding boots, plinth 93 1/2 X 63 X 48 inches
Global art
YINKA SHONIBARE, MBE The Age
of Enlightenment - Adam Smith,
2008 Life-size fiberglass mannequin,
Dutch wax printed cotton, mixed
media Figure: 70 X 43 1/2 X 33 1/2
inches Plinth: 4' 11" X 5' 7" X 5"
Global art
YINKA SHONIBARE, MBE The
Sleep of Reason Produces
Monsters (Africa), 2008 C-print
mounted on aluminum Image size:
72 X 49.5 inches Framed: 81.5 x
58 x 2.5 inches Edition of 5
Global art
YINKA SHONIBARE,
MBE Wanderer, 2006
Wood, Plexiglas,
fabric, brass 67 3/4 X
48 X 17 1/4 inches
Edition of 8
Global art
RELATIONAL
AESTHETICS
Rirkrit Tiravanija, PadThai, 1991-'96
Relational Aesthetics:
French critic and philosopher Nicolas Bourriaud adopted the
term in the mid-1990s to refer to the approach of socially
conscious art of participation: an art that takes as its content
the human relations elicited by the artwork.
The relational art of the
1990s and 2000s is a
continuation of traditions
of participatory art (such
as the arts of the 1950s
and 1960s, Happenings,
and Conceptual Art).
Carsten Holler,Test Site 2006.
Relational Aesthetics
Carsten Holler,
Singing Canaries
Mobile), 2009
Relational Aesthetics
Rirkrit Tiravanija Untitled, 2002
Relational Aesthetics
All art is potentially participatory, if viewers are willing to engage with
the work. However, in Bourriaud’s formulation, not all participatory
art is relational.A relational work, for Bourriaud, does not aim at a
critique of the art institution or an expansion of the definition of art,
but rather focuses on the social interactions sparked by the art
exhibition.
For example, in Untitled 1992 (Free) of 1992–2007, first presented at
303 Gallery in NewYork, Rirkrit Tiravanija moved what he found in
the office and storage room into the exhibition space, reversing the
relationship between public and private; he invited the director and
his assistants to work there, and then cooked Thai curry in the office
for everybody in attendance.
Relational Aesthetics
Relational Aesthetics
Rirkrit Tiravanija: Untitled 1992 (Free), installation view, David Zwirner Gallery, NewYork,
2007; image courtesy of David Zwirner Gallery, NewYork
Rirkrit Tiravanija Untitled (Studio rehearsal, silent version),
InstallationView Spiral Gallery,Tokyo, 1996
Relational Aesthetics
“Art is important when artists exercise their freedom to
ask the biggest questions about us, our society, our past,
present and future.”
- author Rebecca Solnit

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Joan Jonas and Feminist Art Movements

  • 1. Art 1100 Joan Jonas “They Come to Us without a Word” U.S. Pavilion,Venice Biennale, 2015
  • 2. Modernism Escape the influence of history. Belief in cultural progress (linear history). Belief in science as a virtue (objectivity). Belief in universal truths that can be discovered. Fascination with the “Primitive” or elemental. Motto:“Make it New”
  • 3. Postmodernism Believes that we are embedded in history. Anti-essentialist, we determine our character. Skeptical of the idea of progress. Believes that objectivity isn’t possible.Your viewpoint shapes your thought processes. Consequences Draws influences from all time periods No-essential form to any media Embraces Non-western Culture Emphasizes individual experience
  • 4. “Movements” 70’s Earthworks Conceptual Art Feminism 80’s Appropriation Video Art Neo-Expressionism 90’s Identity Politics Globalism Post-Colonialism 00‘s Installation Relational Aesthetics The Postmodern World Pluralism: multiple acceptable artistic movements/media existing at the same time. Multiple ideas of what makes “good” art exist simultaneously.
  • 6. In 1971, art historian Linda Nochlin asked a now famous question, “Why have there been no great women artists?” The answer was not immediately clear, but was instead a mix of factors from lack of available training, restricted gender roles and even the way “the artist” was conceptualized in culture that provided barriers to women. Feminism and Feminist Art
  • 7. Feminist Art 1).Asserted that the “domestic crafts” and things that were traditionally “women’s work” were fine art. 2).Made political artwork criticizing social structures that excluded women. 3). Searched for a feminine view of history and art. i.e. Rewrite the list of famous artists. i.e. Look for examples of matriarchal societies. 4). Proudly represented the female body in its complexity.
  • 8. Craft vs. the “Fine Arts” Craft Functional “Commercial” Dependent Skill-based Female? Fine Arts Only Visual Non-commercial Autonomous Idea-based Male? “While there are many objects that are excluded from the category of fine art whose makers are male, those objects of domestic use whose creation was predominantly the occupation of women were all marginalized by this category and its attendant values (Parker and Pollock 1981)”
  • 9. Miriam Shapiro, Heartfelt, 1979. Feminism and Feminist Art Feminism was a social and political movement in the 70’s that paved the way for more diversity in art and recognition of women artists.This image combines painting and ”female craft” to state that postmodern art offers diversity in media and style, but also in gender.
  • 10. "Gates of Paradise," by Miriam Schapiro, 1980 Feminism and Feminist Art
  • 11. Sheila Hicks Bamian (Banyan) (1968-2002) wool and acrylic Feminism and Feminist Art Incorporates “craft” materials.
  • 12. Eva Hesse. Right After, 1969. Feminism and Feminist Art
  • 13. Womanhouse, (1972) was the first project of the newly-established Feminist Art Program at CalArts. Judy Chicago and Miriam Schapiro, working with their students took over an old mansion in Hollywood for installations and performances exploring women’s domestic space. Feminism and Feminist Art ***For video see Feminism subfolder.***
  • 14. Once the house was prepared, the women turning the rooms and spaces of the house into artworks that addressed personal issues gleaned from their own experiences as women, including housework, mothering, the gendered division of labor, aging, and menstruation. A major influence for the artists was Betty Friedan’s The Feminine Mystique (1963), which challenged societal expectations that relegated women to the domestic arena. Womanhouse was the first feminist work of art to receive national attention when it was written about in Time magazine. The project was groundbreaking in American art in ways that can be seen to dovetail with emerging Post-modernism. Except for a few pieces, the work was destroyed after completion. Feminism and Feminist Art
  • 16. At completion, Womanhouse had 18 installations, including three bathrooms, two closets, a nursery, the kitchen, the stairway, and the garden. Some of the best known of these are Menstruation Bathroom and Nurturant Kitchen.The latter focused on the drudgery of housework as well as societal expectations regarding the role of women as nurturers within the family dynamic. While installations such as Leah’s Room included performances, the living room was reserved for the presentation of a series of performances including The Cock and Cunt Play and Waiting.The former was a ribald but honest look at how housework was traditionally assigned to men and women based on essentialist notions about the body. Feminism and Feminist Art
  • 18. Womanhouse: Lea's Room: woman applying and reapplying makeup Lea's Room, 1972 Clothing and costume also played a crucial role in Leah's Room, created by Karen LeCocq and NancyYoudelman. Inspired by the novel Chéri, Colette's story about an aging courtesan, this heavily perfumed bedroom was filled with antiques .A woman (LeCocq) slowly and silently applied cosmetics and then removed them, causing many women to weep openly as they observed the performance.
  • 23. Womanhouse: Linen Closet Womanhouse:Web Room (Crocheted Environment)
  • 24. Essentialism: The practice of regarding something (as a presumed human trait) as having innate existence or universal truth rather than being a social or ideological construct. This early feminist art was essentialist; it focused on women’s bodies and defined gender in biological terms. i.e. A feminine “essence”, the way to be female. The second wave of feminist art defined gender in more relativist terms. Feminism and Feminist Art
  • 25. Judy Chicago,The Dinner Party, 1974-1979. Feminism and Feminist Art
  • 26. Judy Chicago,The Dinner Party, 1974-1979. Feminism and Feminist Art Judy Chicago’s The Dinner Party is a large, complex, mixed-media installation dedicated to hundreds of women and women artists rescued from anonymity by early feminist artists and historians. It took five years of collaborative effort to make, and it drew on the assistance of hundreds of female and several male volunteers working as ceramists, needleworkers, and china painters.The Dinner Party is composed of a large, triangular table, each side stretching 48 feet; Chicago conceived of the equilateral triangle as a symbol of both the feminine and the equalized world sought by feminism.Along each side of the table are 13 place settings representing famous women— 13 being the number of men at the Last Supper as well as the number of witches in a coven.
  • 27. Feminist Art 1). Presented the “domestic crafts” and things that were traditionally “women’s work” as fine art. 2).Made political artwork criticizing social structures that excluded women. 3). Searched for a feminine view of history and art. i.e. Rewrite the list of famous artists. 4). Proudly represented the female body in its complexity.
  • 28. Feminism and Feminist Art Judy Chicago,The Dinner Party, 1974-1979.
  • 29. Judy Chicago,The Dinner Party, 1974-1979. Feminism and Feminist Art
  • 30. Judy Chicago, Rejection Quintet: Female Rejection Drawing, 1974. Feminism and Feminist Art
  • 31. Judy Chicago, Queen Elizabeth, 1972 Feminism and Feminist Art
  • 32. Carolee Schneemann, Interior Scroll (1975 Feminism and Feminist Art Performance Feminist art also sought to reclaim the female body as a creative force, not as something to be covered up. Whose use could be defined by women themselves.
  • 33. For Schneemann’s performance Interior Scroll (1974), the artist ritually prepared herself for the action, first by undressing, wrapping herself in a sheet and reading from her book, Cézanne, SheWas a Great Painter, while taking action poses similar to those of a life drawing model. She then outlined her face and body in strokes of paint, before slowly extracting a long, thin scroll of paper from her vagina. As she unfurled the scroll she read its contents to the audience; it was a narrative, taken from a conversation with a filmmaker (a woman), who associated the artist’s works with irrational, unstructured content and process—the feminine. The action of pulling the scroll from her vagina represented a reclamation of personal control over creative production. Feminism and Feminist Art Performance
  • 34. Feminism and Feminist Art Performance Carolee Schneemann, Interior Scroll (1975
  • 35. Mierle Laderman Ukeles. tfordWash:Washing/Tracks/Maintenance, 1973. Feminism and Feminist Art Performance Part of reclaiming the feminine body, was affirming the traditionally feminine kinds of work. Mierle Laderman Ukeles wrote the Manifesto for Maintenance Art, 1969! to promote ‘maintenance' ("sustain the change; protect progress") as an important value in contrast to the excitement of avant-garde and industrial ‘development'.
  • 36. Martha Rosler Semiotics of the Kitchen, 1975 ***For video see Feminism subfolder.*** Feminism and Feminist Art Performance
  • 37. Martha Rosler, Untitled (Cargo Cult); from the series Body Beautiful, or Beauty Knows No Pain 1965-1974 Martha Rosler also used collage to combine women magazines with news images. The scenes of affluent American life collide with scenes of global industry and the Vietnam war.
  • 39. Martha Rosler, Red Stripe Kitchen Photographic collage.1967 - 1972
  • 40. Feminism marks a sharp break from Modernism. It showed that abstract art was largely an aloof creation of the male dominated art world ill equipped to practically help women. Abstract art couldn’t help more women get shows, or work to free women from restrictive gender expectations. What was needed was a more socially engaged art form. For women to be acknowledged they needed to try and find their own contribution. Feminism was Postmodern in that it looked into the past to find examples of women in art. In this way Feminism was an important example for future art movements. Feminism and Feminist Art
  • 43. Postmodern Architecture PROBLEM: Thought Modernist architects had ignored human needs in their quest for uniformity and function. SOLUTION: •New architecture should address the complex mix of “high” and “low” architecture. •Should embrace past architectural styles •Began to re-apply decoration to buildings. “Less is more,” but “Less is a bore.”
  • 44. Robert VenturiVANNAVENTURI HOUSE Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania. 1961 –1964. Postmodern Architecture
  • 45. Shaped facade. Not symmetrical. Irregular floor plan. Combines various historical styles together into one building Uses decoration without function. Postmodern Architecture
  • 46. VannaVenturi House ... RobertVenturi Model date: c. 1959-62 Postmodern Architecture While writing his treatise on Postmodernism, Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966),Venturi designed a house for his mother that illustrated many of his new ideas.The shape of the façade returns to the traditional Western “house” volumes and shapes that Modernists rejected because of their historical associations. Its vocabulary of triangles, squares, and circles is arranged in a complex asymmetry that gives up the symmetrical rigidity of Modernist design. While the curved molding over the door is simply decorative. The most disruptive element of the façade is the deep recess over the door, which opens to reveal a mysterious upper wall (which turns out to be a penthouse) and chimney top.
  • 47. Robert VenturiVANNAVENTURI HOUSE Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania. 1961 –1964. Postmodern Architecture
  • 48. Robert VenturiVANNA VENTURI HOUSE Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania. 1961 –1964. The interior is also complex and contradictory.The irregular floor plan, including an odd stairway leading up to the second floor, is further complicated by irregular ceiling levels that are partially covered by a barrel vault.
  • 49. Robert VenturiVANNAVENTURI HOUSE Chestnut Hill, Pennsylvania. 1961 –1964. Postmodern Architecture
  • 50. Designed by RobertVenturi "Sheraton" Chair Designed 1978-84; made 1985 Designed by RobertVenturi, "Gothic Revival" Chair1979-1984; Postmodern Design
  • 51. Postmodern Design Carlton room divider 1981 Ettore SOTTSASS (designer) MEMPHIS, Milan
  • 52. Michael Graves, Portland Building, 1982 Postmodern Architecture Postmodernism brings a return to historical styles and decoration. Combines Old and New!
  • 53. Michael Graves The Plocek House (1977),Warren, NJ Postmodern Architecture
  • 54. Philip Johnson's Sony Tower (formerly AT&T Building), 1984 NYC Philip Johnson designed the AT&T Building (now the Sony Building; 1979–84).Various period references, mostly Renaissance and Baroque, were overshadowed by the celebrated Chippendale (like the chair back) pediment that provides the building with a unique profile on the Manhattan skyline.
  • 55. Bank of America Center in Houston by John Burgee and Philip Johnson. Postmodern Architecture
  • 56. Charles Moore, Piazza d’Italis, New Orleans, 1978 Postmodern Architecture
  • 57. James Stirling, Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984 Postmodern Architecture
  • 58. James Stirling, Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984 Postmodern Architecture The Neue Staatsgalerie museum is a series of integrations, both with the site and with periods of art and design. Stirling combines materials of the past, travertine and sandstone, with colored industrial steel throughout the museum as a way to pay respect to the art and design of the 19th Century by developing a relationship with modern materials resulting in a uniquely Post Modern museum.
  • 59. James Stirling, Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984
  • 60. James Stirling, Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984
  • 61. James Stirling, Neue Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart, Germany, 1984
  • 62. Harold Washington Library, Hammond, Beeby and Babka Architects,1991 Postmodern Architecture in Chicago
  • 63. Postmodern Architecture in Chicago In 1987, Beeby and his firm (then Hammond, Beeby & Babka) designed and built the new Chicago Public Library, the Harold Washington Library Center (1987–91). The building is contextual architecture, in this case the Neo-classical traditions of 19th-century Chicago. With its grand arched windows, overhanging cornice, and ornate Neo-classical details such as swags and towering finials, the Library Center formed a controversial contribution to Chicago’s architectural landscape. The top portion and most of the west side, facing Plymouth Court, is glass, steel and aluminum.The roof is a pediment that harkens to the Mannerist style. In 1993, seven ornamentations on the roof were added.The decorations on the Congress andVan Buren sides are seed pods, which represent the natural bounty of the Midwest. Others show owls, representing the Greek symbol of knowledge, perched in foliage.
  • 64. Harold Washington Library, Hammond, Beeby and Babka Architects,1991 Postmodern Architecture in Chicago
  • 65. Most recent shopping malls are in the Postmodern style , with things like nonfunctional “clocktowers” or decorative gabled windows. Postmodern Architecture
  • 66. Postmodern Architecture Santiago Calatrava - Milwaukee Art Museum, 2001
  • 67. The Milwaukee Art Museum, which overlooks Lake Michigan, was partially housed in a building designed in 1957 by Eero Saarinen as a war memorial. Santiago Calatrava proposed a pavilion-like construction conceived as an independent entity.The white steel-and-concrete form is reminiscent of a ship and contrasts the existing ensemble in both geometry and materials. Being linked directly to Wisconsin Avenue via a cable-stay footbridge, pedestrians may cross busy Lincoln Memorial Drive on the bridge and continue into the pavilion. The pavilion features a spectacular kinetic structure, a brise-soleil with louvers that open and close like the wings of a great bird.When open the shape also becomes a sign, set against the backdrop of the lake, to herald the inauguration of new exhibitions.The pivot line for the slats is based on the axis of a linear mast, inclined at 47 degrees, as a parallel to the adjacent bridge mast. Postmodern Architecture
  • 68. Postmodern Architecture Santiago Calatrava - Milwaukee Art Museum, 2001 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGQJPkQL0fU
  • 69. Santiago Calatrava - Milwaukee Art Museum, 2001
  • 70. Santiago Calatrava - Milwaukee Art Museum, 2001
  • 72. Sherrie Levine, Fountain (Madonna), 1991. Appropriation: or use of “readymade” images or art objects allows for the examination of the meaning of those objects or forms. Used largely by the “Pictures Generation” artists.
  • 73. Marcel Duchamp, Fountain, 1963 replica of 1917 original. “Readymade”: an everyday object used as art. Marcel Duchamp Dada: anti-modernism
  • 74. Appropriation art challenges traditional ideas about authenticity, individuality, copyright laws, and the location of meaning within a work of art. Levine’s urinal is taken directly from Duchamp’s ready- mades, though he did not cast his urinal in bronze, but used an existing, ordinary porcelain urinal. Levine’s fountain is a precious presentation of the work from the previous master. Appropriation has been likened to the similar trend in music— samples or remixes. Levine found a source in the examples of 20th-century art, appropriating verbatim from such modernist luminaries as Walker Evans,Willem de Kooning, Piet Mondrian, and Edward Weston. Feminist critics have interpreted the performative nature of Levine’s work, in which she assumes the identity of an artistic predecessor, as a subversive intervention in the rigid (and overwhelmingly male) construction of art history. Appropriation
  • 75. Black Newborn, Sherrie Levine, 1994 Appropriation
  • 76. Black Newborn, Sherrie Levine, 1994 Appropriation
  • 77. Sherrie Levine White Knot: 1 1986, Casein on wood : 31 1/8 x 25 3/16 x 1 1/4 inches (79.1 x 64 x 3.2 cm) Appropriation
  • 78. Man Ray, La Fortune, 1938 Levine takes Man Ray’s billiard table out of it’s surrealist landscape and makes it a “real” object.
  • 79. Sherrie Levine,“La Fortune” (After Man Ray: 4), 1990 Appropriation
  • 80. Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007) Postmodern French theorist and author Simulacrum: A copy that modifies the experience of the original. Parts of Disneyland are based on America, but compared to Disneyland, Los Angeles looks more real. Postmodernism
  • 81. “I think of the postmodern attitude as that of a man who loves a very cultivated woman and knows that he cannot say to her "I love you madly", because he knows that she knows (and that she knows he knows) that these words have already been written by Barbara Cartland [a novelist]. Still there is a solution. He can say "As Barbara Cartland would put it, I love you madly". At this point, having avoided false innocence, having said clearly it is no longer possible to talk innocently, he will nevertheless say what he wanted to say to the woman: that he loves her in an age of lost innocence.” -author Umberto Eco Appropriation
  • 82. Untitled (Cowboy) (1989) Richard Prince Appropriation
  • 83. Richard Prince Untitled (cowboy), 1980-84 Appropriation
  • 84. Richard Prince, Cowboy, color photograph, 1991-92 Appropriation
  • 85. Art critic of the time Douglas Crimp wrote in 1977 of the appropriation artists of the “Pictures Generation” that, “They are not in search of sources of origins, but of structures of signification: underneath each picture there is always another picture.” Artworks in this case were “signs” pointing to other meanings, mostly stereotypes.Whether of gender, race or class. Appropriation
  • 86. . Photographic silkscreen, vinyl lettering on plexiglass, 109" x 210". © Barbara Kruger. Barbara Kruger, Untitled (We don't need another hero), 1987 Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 87. Third-wave feminist art emerged in the 1990s.This latest generation of artists has addressed a plethora of other issues that discriminate against or denigrate women, including such hybrid ones as gender and class, gender and race, violence against women, postcolonialism, transgenderism, transnationalism, and eco-feminism. Third-wave feminist art explores the many strategies that women employ to navigate life. In photograph-based images Barbara Kruger examines the representation of power via mass-media images, appropriating their iconography and slogans and deconstructing them visually and verbally. Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 88. Untitled (You Invest in the Divinity of the Masterpiece) Barbara Kruger , 1982. • Makes political artwork criticizing social structures that exclude women. • Works for change “on the ground” by using graphic design, products, media and public spaces. • Attacks feminine stereotypes. Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 89. Feminist Art in the 80’s Untitled (Your Body is a Battleground) Barbara Kruger 1989 Photographic silkscreen on vinyl 112 x 112 in.
  • 90. Barbara Kruger, Untitled (We Will No Longer Be Seen and Not Heard), 1985 Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 91. Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 92. Guerrilla Girls, "Do women have to be naked to get into the Met. Museum? Less than 5% of the artists in the Modern Art sections are women, but 85% of the nudes are female", 1989 The Guerrilla Girls came into being in 1985, shortly after the opening of a huge exhibition at NewYork’s Museum of Modern Art.The show, titled “International Survey of Contemporary Painting and Sculpture,” included works by 169 artists, fewer than 10 percent of whom were women.
  • 93. The Guerrilla Girls lecturing. Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 94.
  • 95. Jenny Holzer Abuse of Power Comes as No Surprise Photograph Feminist Art in the 80’s Jenny Holzer, Survival,Times Square, NewYork (197-?)
  • 96. Jenny Holzer, Survival,Times Square, NewYork (1986) Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 97. Jenny Holzer Living: More than once I've wakened with tears... 1980-82, Bronze, 7 5/8 x 10 1/8" (19.4 x 25.7 cm) Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 98. Jenny Holzer Living: Some days you wake and immediately... 1980-82 Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 99. Installation view of Jenny Holzer: PROTECT PROTECT (Whitney Museum of American Art, NewYork, March 12–May 31, 2009). Photograph by Bill Orcutt Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 100. Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 101. Untitled Film Still #7, Cindy Sherman (American, born 1954), 1978 Feminist Art in the 80’s The “Untitled Film Stills” series by Cindy Sherman (b. 1954) exemplifies Postmodern strategies of looking.These photographs eerily resemble authentic still photographs from early 1960s films; but all are in fact contemporary photographs of Sherman herself.
  • 102. Untitled Film Still #13 Cindy Sherman (American, born 1954)1978. Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 103. Cindy Sherman Untitled Film Still #21 1978, Gelatin silver print Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 104. Feminist Art in the 80’s In UNTITLED FILM STILL #21 for instance, Cindy Sherman appears as a small-town girl who has moved to the big city to find work. Other photographs from the series show her variously as a Southern belle, a hardworking housewife, and a teenager waiting by the phone for a call. Critics have discussed these images in terms of second-wave feminism, as questioning the culturally constructed roles played by women in society, and as a critique of the male gaze. In these photographs, Sherman is both the photographer and the photographed. By assuming both roles, she complicates the relationship between the person looking and the person being looked at, and she subverts the way in which photographs of women communicate stereotypes. Cindy Sherman Untitled Film Still #21 1978, Gelatin silver print
  • 105. Untitled Film Still #58, Cindy Sherman (American, born 1954), 1980 Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 106. Cindy Sherman, Untitled #123. 1983. Untitled #153, Cindy Sherman (American, born 1954), 1985. Feminist Art in the 80’s
  • 107.
  • 108. Pierre Huyghe "No Ghost Just a Shell" (collaboration with Philippe Parreno), 1999-2003 "Annlee," original image, 1999 © Pierre Huyghe, courtesy Marian Goodman Gallery, Paris/NewYork. "’For ‘No Ghost Just a Shell’, Philippe Parreno and I bought the copyright of a manga character. We can call it a sign. Normally this kind of sign is bought to make little advertising cartoons. It’s a platform for a narrative, advertising things." - Pierre Huyghe Appropriation
  • 110. Pierre Huyghe "No Ghost Just a Shell" (collaboration with Philippe Parreno), 1999-2003 "One Million Kingdoms," video still, 2001. DigiBeta video, 6 minutes, color, sound. Co-production of Anna Sanders Films and Antéfilms. Photo by Laurent Lecat. © Pierre Huyghe, courtesy Marian Goodman Gallery, Paris/NewYork. Appropriation
  • 111. VIDEO
  • 112. Early experiments in video centered on figuring out the characteristics of the medium, both of video itself and also of television. Genre’s of video art 1. Video about the medium of video. 2. Video about performance. 3. Video as physical material. 4. Video as a comment on television / film. Video Art By 1960 90% of American homes had a television. It had become the dominant and definitive medium of mass culture.
  • 113. Carlota Fay Schoolman Richard Serra 1973, "Television Delivers People" Video Art ***For video see Video Art subfolder.*** Produced in 1973, "Television Delivers People" is a seminal work in the now well-established critique of popular media as an instrument of social control that asserts itself subtly on the populace through "entertainments," for the benefit of those in power-the corporations that maintain and profit from the status quo.Television emerges as little more than a insidious sponsor for the corporate engines of the world.
  • 114. Boomerang (1974), Richard Serra and Nancy Holt Video Art ***For video see Video Art subfolder.*** Boomerang (1974), Serra taped Nancy Holt as she talks and hears her words played back to her after they have been delayed electronically. Originally broadcast over Amarillo,TX public television.
  • 115. Left Side Right Side Joan Jonas 1972 videotape :single-channel video, black-and-white, with sound, 2:50 min. Video Art Creating a series of inversions, Joan Jonas splits her image, splits the video screen, and splits her identification within the video space, playing with the spatial ambiguity of non-reversed images (video) and reversed images (mirrors).
  • 116. Joan Jonas:Vertical Roll, video still, 19:38 minutes, 1972 (Whitney Museum of American Art, NewYork); image courtesy of Electronic Arts Intermix (EIA), NewYork Video Art ***For video see Video Art subfolder.***
  • 117. Marshall McLuhan (1911-1981): Canadian Communications Theorist ''the medium is the message” ''Most people are alive in an earlier time, but you must be alive in our own time,'' Mr. McLuhan strove to understand and explain the electronic media, which he believed were shaping people in ways they hardly suspected. Two major books: ''The Gutenberg Galaxy'' ''Understanding Media:The Extensions of Man'' Video Art
  • 118. For McLuhan the way we acquire information affects us more than the information itself. Media: Are seen as extensions of human needs / senses. Examples: The foot > the wheel. The eye > the book. The skin > clothing. The nervous system > the “electronic media”.
  • 120. The Global Village... A non-spatial communal existence. Video Art
  • 122. Vito Acconci / Following Piece, 1969 Performance artists were among the first to use video.They immediately saw that it could record and preserve their artworks as they unfolded …. in time. Performance Art: Descriptive term applied to ‘live’ presentations by artists. From the early 1960s in the USA to refer to the live events taking place at that time, such as Happenings, or body art.
  • 124. ***For video see Video Art subfolder.*** Vito Acconci Theme Song 33 minutes, 1973 Performance Art
  • 126. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-md_AeTjVk0 GUY BEN NER Stealing Beauty 2007 single channel video running time: 17:40 minutes Performance Art
  • 127. https://vimeo.com/99546893 Walk this Way (Clip)--2008 Kate Gilmore Performance Art
  • 128. https://vimeo.com/99539393 Performance Art Kate Gilmore, Sudden as a Massacre (Clip)--2011
  • 129. Video as physical material
  • 130. Zen for TV Nam June Paik (American, born Korea. 1932–2006) 1963 (executed 1975/1981).Altered television set, overall (original television): Video Art Still other artists chose to work with the medium of video through it’s physical presentation as electronics and electronic signals. Nam Jun Paik in particular was interested in the distortion of the televised image.
  • 131. Moon is the Oldest TV Nam June Paik 1965 Video Art
  • 133. Nam June Paik, MagnetTV, 1965. 17-inch black-and-white television set with magnet, 28 3/8 × 19 1/4 × 24 1/2 in. (72.1 × 48.9 × 62.2 cm) overall. Video Art
  • 134. Nam June Paik , TV Buddha (1974) Closed Circuit video installation with bronze sculpture Video Art
  • 135. Installation view of Projects: Nam Jun Paik MOMA, 1977 Video Art
  • 136. Electronic Fables Nam June Paik (American, born Korea. 1932–2006) and JudYalkut (American, born 1938) 1965-1971/1992.Video (color, sound) Video Art
  • 137. Video Art Peter Campus Three transitions 1973 Exhibited at Paula Cooper Gallery, Summer 1997 color, sound, 4:53 minutes ***For video see Video Art subfolder.***
  • 138. Cory Arcangel http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nuXz-uVnIkw Glitch art: The aestheticization of digital or analog errors, such as artifacts and other "bugs", by either corrupting digital code/ data or by physically manipulating electronic devices (for example by circuit bending). Video Art
  • 139. Video Art Cory Arcangel Clouds, 2002 ***For video see Video Art subfolder.***
  • 142. Video as a comment on television / film.
  • 143. Technology/Transformation:WonderWoman - by Dara Birnbaum (1978) Other artists used video to reflect on the messaging and stereotypes being put out in the kinds of television and movies that were in the mass media. Similar to Appropriation artists they wanted to get to the meaning of the stories and look “behind the scenes”. ***For video see Video Art subfolder.***
  • 144. Video Art 24 Hour Psycho by Douglas Gordan 1993, 35mm film projection/installation. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UtLg5TqqVeA
  • 145. Paul Pfeiffer, Fragment of a Crucifixion (After Francis Bacon), 1999 Video Art
  • 146.
  • 149. Identity Politics: Following the example of Feminism and the pluralism of Postmodernism, artists began to reflect on the ways in which they “performed” identity. 1). Culturally specific ways of making art were explored and celebrated. 2). Old pictures of oppression were criticized. Prominent Groups: African and Latino Americans, LGBTQ movement. The “representation of politics” and the “politics of representation”.
  • 150. Kerry James Marshall, (American, born 1955) Many Mansions, 1994 Identity Art
  • 151. MANY MANSIONS by African- American painter Kerry James Marshall (b. 1955) refers to Stateway Gardens, Chicago, one of the largest housing projects in America. The inadequate conditions were the subject of much debate prior to its demolition in 2007. Marshall shows an idyllic setting of three African-American men, who are too well dressed for gardening, to create an tidy garden that includes manicured topiary in the background and flowerbeds in the foreground.The painting includes a number of details, including the statement “In my mother’s house there are many mansions,” which both changes the gender of the biblical quotation (John 14:2). Two cute cartoon bluebirds with a baby-blue ribbon fly into the scene like the birds that bring the fairy godmother’s gifts to Cinderella in rags in the Disney film, while two Easter baskets neatly wrapped in plastic sit in the garden.The artist takes a swipe at the fact that the condition of the projects was studied and then ignored by the authorities by labeling his own picture “IL2-22” (“Illustration 2-22”) in the upper right Identity Art
  • 152. KERRY JAMES MARSHALL, Scout Master, 1996, acrylic on paper on wood, 41 x 40 inches image size, 43 3/8 x 42 1/4 x 2 3/8 inches framed,
  • 153. Kerry James Marshall, "Better Homes Better Gardens", 1994 Identity Art
  • 154. Kerry James Marshall makes formally rigorous paintings, whose central protagonists are always, in his words,“unequivocally, emphatically black.” As he describes, his work is rooted in his life experience:“You can’t be born in Birmingham,Alabama, in 1955 and grow up in South Central [Los Angeles] near the Black Panthers headquarters, and not feel like you’ve got some kind of social responsibility.You can’t move toWatts in 1963 and not speak about it.” Marshall’s erudite knowledge of art history and black folk art structures his compositions; he mines black culture and stereotypes for his unflinching subject matter. Identity Art
  • 155. Kerry James Marshall, Souvenir IV, 1998 Identity Art
  • 156. Kerry James Marshall, Souvenir I, 1998 Identity Art
  • 157. Kerry James Marshall, Untitled (Painter), 2010 Identity Art
  • 158. KERRY JAMES MARSHALL, Untitled, 2009, acrylic on pvc, 61 1/8 x 72 7/8 x 3 7/8 inches,
  • 159. KERRY JAMES MARSHALL, Untitled (Lovers), 2015, acrylic on PVC panel, 60 x 48 x 3 inches (152.4 x 121.9 x 7.6 cm),
  • 160. Carrie Mae Weems, Untitled (Woman playing solitaire) (from KitchenTable Series), 1990. Gelatin silver print, 27 1/4 x 27 1/4 in.
  • 161. Carrie Mae Weems has documented the African American experience weaving together jokes, music and storytelling with photographic imagery. Much of her work involves adapting her own photographs and historical images of African Americans by adding text evoking themes of family relationships, gender roles and the histories of racism, sexism, and class. Carrie Mae Weems’s acclaimed Kitchen Table Series (1990) speaks. In a 2011 interview with Art21,Weems described the series as a response to her own “sense of what needed to happen, what needed to be, and what would not be simply a voice for African American women, but would be a voice more generally for women.” Identity Art
  • 162. Carrie Mae Weems, Untitled (Woman and daughter with makeup) (from KitchenTable Series), 1990. Gelatin silver print, 27 1/4 x 27 1/4 inches (69.2 x 69.2 cm).
  • 163. Carrie Mae Weems, Untitled (Man and Mirror), 1990 Gelatin silver print, from the "Kitchen Table Series”, 36.5 x 36.5 cm
  • 164. Carrie Mae Weems,,Josephine Baker from Slow Fade to Black II, 2010–11 Identity Art
  • 165. Identity Art Carrie Mae Weems,,Josephine Baker from Slow Fade to Black II, 2010–11
  • 166. Carrie Mae Weems, Katherine Dunham from Slow Fade to Black II, 2010–11 Identity Art
  • 167. David Hammons African-American Flag 1990 Identity Art David Hammon, American installation artist, performance artist and sculptor. African– American Flag is typical work in dealing with a contemporary racial issue. These served as a prelude to the found-object sculptures he began to make in the late 1970s from cheap and discarded items such as elephant dung, hair, chicken bones, bottles and bags.
  • 168. David Hammons, Bliz-aard Ball Sale, 1983
  • 169. David Hammons, Untitled (NightTrain), 1989 Identity Art
  • 170. Hammons, David In the Hood, 1993 Identity Art
  • 171. Hammons, David Higher Goals, outdoor sculpture; found objects. 1988 Identity Art Higher Goals (1986), erected in Cadman Plaza, Brooklyn, NY, was one of his many public commissions; the project involved turning enormous telegraph poles into basketball hoops and decorating them with abstract patterns made from bottle caps.
  • 172. Hammons, David Higher Goals, outdoor sculpture; found objects. 1988
  • 173. AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power (ACT UP) is an international direct action advocacy group working to impact the lives of people with AIDS (PWAs) and the AIDS pandemic to bring about legislation, medical research and treatment and policies to ultimately bring an end to the disease by mitigating loss of health and lives. Identity Art
  • 174. Identity Art Gran Fury, Art is not enough, poster, 1988, ©The NewYork Public Library
  • 175. Through the late 80’s and 90’s ACT-UP held demonstrations around the USA, from Wall Street, the FDA, the NYSE, and major television outlets.
  • 176. Members of ACT UP Chicago with the sign Kissing does not kill , Gay Pride in Chicago , June 24, 1990 , © The NewYork Public Library
  • 177. Untitled" (Monument), 1989 Print on paper, endless copies 20 in. at ideal height x 29 x 23 in. (original paper size) Identity Art
  • 178. Untitled" (Monument), 1989 Print on paper, endless copies 20 in. at ideal height x 29 x 23 in. (original paper size) Identity Art
  • 179. Felix Gonzales-Torres was an American sculptor and photographer of Cuban birth. In 1987 he joined Group Material, a NewYork-based group of artists adhering to principles of cultural activism and community education. His own engagement as a gay man with socio-political issues centered around the interaction of public and private spheres. His stacked-paper work consists of two stacks of sheets printed with the bracketed words of the titles, neatly piled to resemble Minimalist floor sculptures. By inviting gallery visitors to take the sheets, Gonzalez-Torres undermines Minimalist principles of social and aesthetic autonomy, suggesting that the artwork is completed by the viewers’ physical interaction with (and consumption of) the work. This strategy also criticizes the ways in which ideas are propagated through an art practice; by offering a work that depends on the projection and contemplation by its audience. Identity Art
  • 180. Felix Gonzalez-Torres, ”Untitled" 1991, Billboard Identity Art
  • 181. “Untitled”, 1989 Billboard Overall dimensions vary with installation Location: Sheridan Square, NewYork. Mar. – Sept. 1989. Sponsored by the Public Art Fund.
  • 182. Felix Gonzalez-Torres "Untitled" (Perfect Lovers), 1991 Clocks, paint on wall Identity Art
  • 183. Although made shortly after the death of his partner, Ross Laycock, “Untitled” (Perfect Lovers) was characteristically open to interpretation. His ability to create sensual metaphor for private life in public, in which two synchronized clocks, of the type to be found in offices and public spaces, are displayed side by side; the implicit romanticism is tempered by the inevitable fact of one stopping before the other. In 1993 a died from AIDS-related causes. Felix Gonzalez-Torres "Untitled" (Perfect Lovers), 1991 Clocks, paint on wall Identity Art
  • 184. Felix Gonzalez-Torres "Untitled" (USA Today), 1990, Candies, individually wrapped in red, silver, and blue cellophane (endless supply), Ideal weight: 300 lbs (136 kg) Identity Art
  • 185. Identity Art Felix Gonzalez-Torres "Untitled" (Toronto), 1992 Light bulbs, extension cord, and porcelain light sockets
  • 187. Takashi Murakami, Ian Tan Bo Puking, 2002 Global art Postmodernism, pluralism and globalization have allowed artists to bind nations and cultures of the world together, giving rise to an international network in which art from many points of origin circulates and becomes known. Contemporary artists are incorporating their traditional folk arts, without fully assimilating into Western Art (history). Creates a “hybrid” approach.
  • 188. Begun in the 1600‘s in Japan, Ukiyo-e was initially considered "low" art for distribution due to it’s reproducible nature as woodblock prints. Global art
  • 189. Cosmos 1998 acrylic on canvas mounted on board H300 × W450cm, 3 panels ©1998 Takashi Murakami/Kaikai Kiki Co., Ltd.All Rights Reserved. Global art Trained in traditional nihon-ga painting,Takashi Murakami’s work has been described as a successful combination of Western with Japanese techniques, and the traditional with the contemporary. He also popularized the term ‘Superflat’, a word used to describe the two- dimensional and flat quality of culture in contemporary Japan
  • 190. TAKASHI MURAKAMI "Splash Nude" 2001 Acrylic on canvas / Acrylique sur toile 35 1/2 x 47 1/4 inches / 90 x 120 cm Global art
  • 191. Takashi Murakami, The Castle ofTinTin, 1998, Global art
  • 192. Global art TAKASHI MURAKAMI "Tan Tan Bo" 2001 Acrylic on canvas mounted on board 11.9 feet x 17.8 feet x 2 1/2 inches (3 panels, / 360 x 540 x 6,7 cm
  • 193. Global art Murakami’s view of art as entertainment and commerce coupled with his entrepreneurial spirit led to the establishment of Hiropon Factory in 1996, which eventually became Kaikai Kiki Co. in 2001. Partly inspired by Andy Warhol’s Factory and Damien Hirst’s masterful self- branding, Murakami’s company assists in the production of his artworks and handles all the merchandising. Kaikai Kiki Co.
  • 194. Murakami and merchandise. Murakami collaboration with French fashion house Louis Vuitton
  • 195. Murakami inVersailles The sculpture Flower Matango by Japanese artist Takashi Murakami is displayed atVersailles Palace. Murakami, who was born in Tokyo in 1962, will display his sculptures and paintings in 15 rooms in the palace's Hall of Mirrors and the apartments of the King and the Queen
  • 196. Visitors gather around a sculpture by Japanese artist Takashi Murakami entitled Tongari-Kun (Mr Pointy), at theVersailles Palace
  • 197. The sculpture by Japanese artist Takashi Murakami is displayed at the Château deVersailles
  • 198. The Oval Buddha Silver (2008) in the Hercules Salon of Versailles Palace Global art
  • 199. Oval Buddha by Takashi Murakami is displayed in theVersailles Palace gardens Global art
  • 200. Kiki,Takashi Murakami is displayed at the Palace ofVersailles Global art
  • 201. Ai Weiwei Study of Perspective - Tiananmen Square 1995-2003
  • 202. Ai Wei Wei is a cultural figure of international renown, he is an activist, architect, curator, filmmaker, and China’s most famous artist. Open in his criticism of the Chinese government,Ai was famously detained for months in 2011, then released to house arrest.“I don’t see myself as a dissident artist,” he says.“I see them as a dissident government!” Some of Ai’s best known works are installations, often tending towards the conceptual and sparking dialogue between the contemporary world and traditional Chinese modes of thought and production. His infamous Coca ColaVase (1994) is a Han Dynasty urn emblazoned with the ubiquitous soft-drink logo.Ai also served as artistic consultant on the design of the “Bird’s Nest” stadium for Beijing’s 2008 Olympics, and has curated pavilions and museum exhibitions around the globe. Global art
  • 203. Ai Wei Wei Coca ColaVase, 1997 *Vase from the Tang dynasty (618-907) Global art Urns of this vintage are usually cherished for their anthropological importance. By employing them as readymades,Ai strips them of their aura of preciousness only to reapply it according to a different system of valuation.
  • 204. Ai Wei Wei, PaintedVases, 2009 Global art
  • 205. Ai Wei Wei, Map of China, 2004 * Tieli wood from dismantled temples of the Qing dynasty (1644-1911) Global art
  • 206. Ai Wei Wei, Forever, 2003 Global art
  • 207. Ai Wei Wei, Snake Ceiling, 2009 backpacks Global art
  • 208. Ai Wei Wei, Fountain of Light, 2007 Global art
  • 209. Ai Weiwei Sunflower Seeds 2010 For Sunflower Seeds (2010) at the Tate Modern, he scattered 100 million porcelain “seeds” handpainted by 1,600 Chinese artisans—a commentary on mass consumption and the loss of individuality.
  • 210. On October 23,Ai posted on Instagram: “In September LEGO refused AiWeiwei Studio's request for a bulk order of LEGOs to create artwork to be shown at the National Gallery ofVictoria as they 'cannot approve the use of LEGOs for political works’.” Ai’s post triggered a flood of responses on social media criticizing LEGO for "censorship and discrimination.” Thousands of anonymous supporters offered to donate their used LEGOs to Ai. #legosforweiwei Ai Weiwei (@aiww) | Twitter
  • 211. DanhVo, We the People, Copper 2012, Kunsthalle Fridericianum Global art
  • 212. DanhVō’s conceptual works explore themes of appropriation and fragmentation, incorporating his experience as aVietnamese-born Danish citizen and consistently using his own life as material. Vō’s We the People (2011) is a scrupulous replica of fragments of the Statue of Liberty for which the artist took pains to ensure the same copper hammering technique.The resulting hollow pieces were exhibited spread out on the floor of a gallery space, highlighting the unexpected fragility of the original statue, visible in the thinness of its material. Global art
  • 213. DanhVo, We the People, Copper 2012, Kunsthalle Fridericianum
  • 214. DanhVo, We the People, Copper 2012, Kunsthalle Fridericianum
  • 215. El Anatsui, City Plot, 2010, aluminum liquor bottle caps and copper wire, 184 x 140 inches, Global art
  • 216. El Anatsui began his tenure as a professor of art at the University of Nsukka, Nigeria. Meticulously assembled from discarded aluminum often sourced from liquor bottles, the recycled materials coalesce in exquisite constellations that track postcolonial exchange and global abstract traditions. StressedWorld, 2011 is a quintessential example: delicate yet monumental. Hovering between sculpture and painting, the metal constructions defy categorization and have solidified Anatsui’s status as a groundbreaking visual artist of international critical acclaim. Global art
  • 217.
  • 218. El Anatsui, Ink Splash, 2010, aluminum and copper, 124 x 149 5/8 inches Global art
  • 219. InstallationView Gravity and Grace: Monumental Works by El Anatsui Brooklyn Museum, NewYork, February 8–August 4, 2013
  • 220. Black Block, 2010, aluminum and copper wire, 207 1/2 x 135 7/8 inches, Global art
  • 222. Post Colonialism: Popularized in the 1980s, the term refers to investigations into the cultural situation of nations who have formerly been subject to colonial control, predominantly at the hands of European nations. A culture's aesthetics must be seen both as a tool used in furthering its specific agenda and as a product of its own political past. the “Other”: the imaginary oppositional subjects whose invention supports the definition of the self. Key Figures: Frantz Fanon, Edward W. Said, Homi K. Bhabha. Global art
  • 223. YINKA SHONIBARE, MBE How to Blow up Two Heads at Once (Ladies), 2006 Two mannequins, two guns, Dutch, wax printed cotton textile, shoes, leather riding boots, plinth 93 1/2 X 63 X 48 inches Global art
  • 224. YINKA SHONIBARE, MBE The Age of Enlightenment - Adam Smith, 2008 Life-size fiberglass mannequin, Dutch wax printed cotton, mixed media Figure: 70 X 43 1/2 X 33 1/2 inches Plinth: 4' 11" X 5' 7" X 5" Global art
  • 225. YINKA SHONIBARE, MBE The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (Africa), 2008 C-print mounted on aluminum Image size: 72 X 49.5 inches Framed: 81.5 x 58 x 2.5 inches Edition of 5 Global art
  • 226. YINKA SHONIBARE, MBE Wanderer, 2006 Wood, Plexiglas, fabric, brass 67 3/4 X 48 X 17 1/4 inches Edition of 8 Global art
  • 228.
  • 229. Rirkrit Tiravanija, PadThai, 1991-'96 Relational Aesthetics: French critic and philosopher Nicolas Bourriaud adopted the term in the mid-1990s to refer to the approach of socially conscious art of participation: an art that takes as its content the human relations elicited by the artwork. The relational art of the 1990s and 2000s is a continuation of traditions of participatory art (such as the arts of the 1950s and 1960s, Happenings, and Conceptual Art).
  • 230. Carsten Holler,Test Site 2006. Relational Aesthetics
  • 231. Carsten Holler, Singing Canaries Mobile), 2009 Relational Aesthetics
  • 232. Rirkrit Tiravanija Untitled, 2002 Relational Aesthetics
  • 233. All art is potentially participatory, if viewers are willing to engage with the work. However, in Bourriaud’s formulation, not all participatory art is relational.A relational work, for Bourriaud, does not aim at a critique of the art institution or an expansion of the definition of art, but rather focuses on the social interactions sparked by the art exhibition. For example, in Untitled 1992 (Free) of 1992–2007, first presented at 303 Gallery in NewYork, Rirkrit Tiravanija moved what he found in the office and storage room into the exhibition space, reversing the relationship between public and private; he invited the director and his assistants to work there, and then cooked Thai curry in the office for everybody in attendance. Relational Aesthetics
  • 234. Relational Aesthetics Rirkrit Tiravanija: Untitled 1992 (Free), installation view, David Zwirner Gallery, NewYork, 2007; image courtesy of David Zwirner Gallery, NewYork
  • 235. Rirkrit Tiravanija Untitled (Studio rehearsal, silent version), InstallationView Spiral Gallery,Tokyo, 1996 Relational Aesthetics
  • 236. “Art is important when artists exercise their freedom to ask the biggest questions about us, our society, our past, present and future.” - author Rebecca Solnit