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Corso di orticoltura - Grow the Planet - Prima lezione

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Le slide della prima lezione del corso di orticoltura di Grow the Planet intitolata: Cos'è l'orto.

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Corso di orticoltura - Grow the Planet - Prima lezione

  1. 1. COS'E' L'ORTO
  2. 2. DEFINIZIONE  UNO SPAZIO DELIMITATO DESTINATO ALLA COLTIVAZIONE DI ERBE E ORTAGGI
  3. 3. Storia dell'orto Intorno al I sec a.C. E fino all'epoca alto imperiale le villae rusticae, si trasformano in ville rustico-residenziale. Nasce una nuova forma di investimento più redditizio, la pastio villatica e l'orto-frutta ( Pucci, 1985). L'orto irriguo -hortus inriguus- sfruttava l'acqua disponibile dei canali irrigui o dei fiumi. La cintura di orti intorno a Roma, non era troppo estesa molto al di fuori della città perchè la necessità reperire prodotti freschi ed evitare la loro deperibilità, i prodotti ortofrutticoli di fatto richiedevano un consumo immediato.
  4. 4. L'idea di coltivare in uno spazio delimitato e separato dall'ambiente esterno ha la sua massima espressione con la nascita dell'Hortus conclusus, nato per difendere le coltivazioni in prossimità delle città nella simbologia del tempo, era un luogo che proteggeva dal male e all'interno dei conventi proteggeva una natura incontaminata, una sorta di giardino dell'Eden. Intorno all'anno 1000, in cui la pratica monacale diede sviluppo agli orti-giardini chiusi. L'idea di orto/giardino scopre il suo massimo splendore nel Medioevo per effetto dei giardini persiani, dove veniva pensato come spazio delimitato. L'umanesimo diffuse l'idea di giardino come “seconda natura” ordinato grazie all'intervento dell'uomo che ne migliora le carattestiche, un modo per realizzare l'idea del paradiso terrestre naturale Nella storia di Milano, nel medioevo gli orti intorno alla città come dimostrano i documenti storici appartenevano per la maggior parte ai monasteri. Nel documento De Magnalibus Mediolani, del 1288 di Bovesin de la Riva, si può leggere una prima testimonianza della presenza degli orti frutteti all'interno della città.
  5. 5. ASPETTI FONDAMENTALI  Esposizione  Disponibilità di acqua  Accessibilità degli spazi  Terreno fertile  Spazi
  6. 6. DOVE SI PUO' REALIZZARE  In campagna  In città: cassoni fuori terra, colture senza suolo.  Sul balcone: container gardening ( vasi, vasche altre forme)
  7. 7. Cosa sono le piante  Fotosintesi: cloroplasti  Organismi primari: capaci di trasformare l'energia del sole e renderla disponibile sotto altre forme disponibili per altri organismi ( secondari )
  8. 8. LA FOTOSINTESI CO2 + H20 (energia solare) → C6 H12 O6 + O2 anidride carbonica + acqua = Glucosio + Ossigeno
  9. 9. Traspirazione - evapotraspirazione  Intensità luminosa: apertura stomi ( notte o giorno)  Concentrazione CO2 ( se alta si aprono stomi, se bassa si chiudono)  Condizioni idriche: stress idrico gli stomi si chiudono
  10. 10. LA PIANTA RADICI COLLETTO FUSTO FRUTTO FOGLIE FIORE
  11. 11. Le foglie  Raccogliere l'energia solare  Traspirare – evapotraspirazione – scambi gassosi con l'aria  Ortaggi per il consumo della foglia: cavolo versa, cavolo nero, spinaci, lattuga, radicchio, valeriana  Forme diverse, diverse strategie
  12. 12. Il Fiore Il fiore è l’organo riproduttivo delle piante; quando non diversificato per sesso (come nelle piante dioiche) ciascun fiore presenta una parte maschile, gli stami, e una femminile, il pistillo. Gli stami sono dei filamenti alla cui sommità sono poste le antere, organi che producono il polline. Il pistillo raccoglie il polline e lo convoglia verso la propria base allargata, l’ovario, che contiene gli ovuli da fecondare. Solitamente si consumano i fiori delle piante di carciofo, di broccolo e di cavolfiore
  13. 13. FRUTTI  DRUPA: pesco, cigliegio, susino, olivo  DRUPA COMPOSTA: con più noccioli, nespolo  BACCA: pomodoro ( endocarpo carnoso )  ESPERIDIO: arancio, limone ( epicarpo sottile ricco di essenza, mesocarpo spugnoso )  PEPONIDI: melone, cocomero, zucca  BACCHELLO: fagiolo  CONOCARPO: fragola ( ingrossamento ricettacolo)  POMO: melo e pero ( il vero frutto è il torsolo, la polpa deriva dall'ingrossamento dell'ipanzio e non dell'ovario
  14. 14. FALSI FRUTTI  BALAUSTO: melograno  CONOCARPO: fragola  POMO: mela e pera Frutti che derivano dalla trasformazione non dell'ovario ma da altri organi
  15. 15. Il frutto si sviluppa dall’ingrossamento dell’ovario; differente da specie a specie, il frutto ha il compito di proteggere, nutrire e diffondere i semi che contiene. Gran parte degli ortaggi vengono coltivati proprio per il loro frutto, come per esempio accade per zucche, zucchine, meloni, melanzane, cetrioli, pomodori, peperoni e peperoncini.
  16. 16. SEMI  PROPAGAZIONE  EMBRIONE: SOSTANZE DI RISERVA  TEGUMENTO ESTERNO  POVERO DI ACQUA Gli rtaggi coltivati per il consumo del seme sono: piselli, fagioli, ceci, lenticchie, mais.
  17. 17. EMBRIONE  COTILEDONI ( ABBOZZO DI PRIME FOGLIE)  RADICI  FUSTO
  18. 18. Uno stesso ortaggio, invece, avrà bisogno di molta più acqua se messo a dimora in un ambiente siccitoso piuttosto che in un clima mite. La stessa dinamica è valida anche se prendono in considerazione le necessità idriche stagionali, è molto più probabile che le piante risentano della mancanza d’acqua in estate piuttosto che durante il resto dell’anno. Anche lo stato di crescita del vegetale condiziona i suoi bisogni irrigui, è facile intuire che una pianta adulta ha bisogno di molta più acqua rispetto a un seme appena germinato.
  19. 19. Il terreno è sicuramente il substrato di coltivazione più comune. La buona riuscita di una coltura è legata direttamente alla fertilità del suolo, intesa come la capacità da parte del terreno di favorire lo sviluppo ottimale delle specie messe a dimora. La fertilità è condizionata dalla quantità di macroelementi (azoto, fosforo e potassio) e microelementi (ferro, cloro, silicio, nichel, rame, manganese, cobalto, zinco, boro, molibdeno), dalla natura delle particelle che compongono il suolo (argilla, limo e sabbia), dal modo in cui queste sono aggregate l’una con l’altra e da come sono disposte nello spazio. Il suolo può essere condizionato e alterato anche dagli esseri viventi che lo popolano, questi organismi scompongono la sostanza organica in humus e in singoli elementi nutritivi modificando cos“ sia la struttura fisica che la qualità del suolo.
  20. 20. LUMINOSITA'  Fonte di energia  Piante esigenti: solanacee  Piante meno esigenti: insalata, spinaci, erbette
  21. 21. CRUCIFERAE La fam ig lia de lle Crucife rae , o Brassicace ae , co m pre nde un g ran num e ro di piante e rbace e . Le spe cie po sso no e sse re anche m o lto dive rse tra lo ro , ciò spie g a ilpe rchè è po ssibile tro varle in o g ni fascia clim atica. L’e le m e nto che acco m una que ste piante so no i fio ri a 4 pe tali che rico rdano una cro ce e la pre se nza di 4 stam i inte rni alfio re e 2 più co rti e spo sti ve rso l’e ste rno . Le Crucife rae più co ltivate so no ilbro cco lo , ilcavo le tto di Bruxe lle s, ilcavo lfio re , ilcavo lo cappuccio , ilcavo lo ne ro , ilcavo lo ro m ano , ilcavo lo rapa, le cim e di rapa, ilcre scio ne , ilravane llo , la ruco la e la ve rza.
  22. 22. LAMIACEAE La fam ig lia de lle Lam iace ae , g ià co no sciuta co n ilno m e di Labiatae , co m pre nde spe cie ve g e tali pre se nti in g ran parte de lle zo ne te m pe rate e calde de lpiane ta. Le piante po sso no ave re po rtam e nto e rbace o , ce spug lio so o arbustivo ; so ppo rtano m o lto be ne i pe rio di di siccità e pre fe risco no po sizio ni in pie no so le . Le lam iace ae so no acco m unate dalla pre se nza di g hiando le o le ife re sui fusti e , in alcuni casi, alla base de lle fo g lie . Gran parte de lle piante aro m atiche più usate in cucina fanno parte di que sta fam ig lia, co m e ad e se m pio , ilro sm arino , l’o rig ano , la m ag g io rana, iltim o , ilbasilico , la salvia e la m e nta.
  23. 23. FABACEAE Le Fabace ae , spe sso de finite Le g um ino se , co stituisco no una fam ig lia bo tanica co m po sta da spe cie a po rtam e nto e rbace o , arbustivo o arbo re o . Ele m e nto distintivo de lla fam ig lia è ilfrutto ; ilbace llo , infatti, è co m une a tutte le le g um ino se e no n è altro che un invo lucro , più o m e no lig nificato , che co ntie ne i se m i de lla pianta. Ino ltre la m ag g io r parte de lle fabace ae m ig lio ra la qualitˆ de lte rre no su cui cre sce in quanto rie sce a fissare ne lsuo lo l’azo to atm o sfe rico . Fanno parte di que sta fam ig lia num e ro se spe cie co ltivate , tra que ste rico rdiam o le fave , i fag lio li, i fag io lini, le arachidi e i pise lli.
  24. 24. CHENOPODIACEAE Fam ig lia co m po sta da spe cie e rbace e e arbustive , le Che no po diace ae so no pre se nti principalm e nte ne lle zo ne clim atiche te m pe rate e subtro picali de lpiane ta. Adatte a so ppo rtare i clim i più duri e i te rre ni più difficili, le piante di que sta fam ig lia so no larg am e nte co ltivate in tutto il m o ndo . Tra g li o rtag g i, i più fam o si e appre zzati in cucina so no sicuram e nte g li spinaci, la barbabie to la e la bie to la da co ste .
  25. 25. SOLANACEAE Le so lanace ae co m po ng o no una de lle fam ig lie bo taniche più im po rtanti e num e ro se . Ilno m e di que sta fam ig lia di ve g e tali è e splicativo ; infatti le so lanace ae , pur adattando si a clim i diffe re nti, si sviluppano alm e g lio so lam e nte se e spo ste dire ttam e nte also le . Le so lanace ae ve ng o no co ltivate da se co li a uso alim e ntare (co m e po m o do ri, m e lanzane , pe pe ro ni e patate ) o farm ace utico (be llado nna).
  26. 26. LILIACEAE La fam ig lia de lle Liliace ae riunisce un g ran num e ro di piante e rbace e m o lto co m uni. La m ag g io r parte de lle spe cie apparte ne nti a que sta fam ig lia hanno radici bulbo se o rizo m ato se . Caratte ristica pe culiare di que sti ve g e tali è ilfio re , ilquale po rta 6 stam i libe ri m o lto e vide nti. Le Liliace ae più usate co m e piante o rnam e ntali so no ilg ig lio , iltulipano e ilm ug he tto m e ntre le più co ltivate in o rto so no ag lio , cipo lla, scalo g no , asparag o , e rba cipo llina e po rro .
  27. 27. APIACEAE La fam ig lia de lle Apiace ae , o Um be llife rae , è un g ruppo di ve g e tali che vivo no in tutte le zo ne te m pe rate de lla Te rra. Le spe cie di que sta fam ig lia so no pe r la m ag g io r parte di natura e rbace a, e cce zzio n fatta pe r qualche arbusto e qualche albe ro . Caratte ristica co m une a tutte le Apiace ae so no le infio re sce nze a o m bre lla, caratte rizzate da fio ri di lung he zza sim ile che si diparto no da uno ste sso punto de lfusto . Le Apiace ae co ltivate in o rto so no le caro te , ilfino cchio , ilpre zze m o lo , ilse dano , ilcum ino , la pastinaca e l’ane to .
  28. 28. CUCURBITACEE Orig inarie de i pae si tro picali, le piante apparte ne nti alla fam ig lia de lle Cucurbitace ae so no quasi tutte spe cie ram picanti o striscianti che am ano alte te m pe rature e e spo sizio ni in pie no so le . Te m o no ilfre ddo e g li sbalzi te rm ici. Ilfrutto , te cnicam e nte de finito “pe po nide ”, è caratte rizzato da una buccia più o m e no co riace a e da una po lpa so da che co ntie ne un g ran num e ro di se m i. Apparte ng o no a que sta fam ig lia le zucche , le zucchine e i ce trio li.
  29. 29. ASTERACEAE La fam ig lia de lle Aste race ae , co no sciuta anche co n ilno m e di Co m po sitae , co m pre nde un g ran num e ro di spe cie e rbace e e , ne i clim i pi ン caldi, anche qualche pianta a po rtam e nto arbustivo o arbo re o . Le Aste race ae pre dilig o no am bie nti te m pe rati m a so no pre se nti in tutto ilg lo bo te rre stre ad e cce zzio ne de ll’Antartide . Si co ntraddisting uo no pe rle lo ro infio re sce nze a capo lino , di cui so litam e nte si cita co m e e se m pio ilfio re de lla m arg he rita co m une (Be llis pe re nnis). Apparte ng o no a que sta fam ig lia m o lti o rtag g i (lattug a, radicchio , cico ria, carcio fo , to pinam bur, cardo e indivia) e alcune piante o fficinali (co m e arnica e cam o m illa

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