1. Critical Analysis of Protagonists
Mulk Raj Anand’s Novels
Dr. Shashi Yadav
Barkatullah University Institute of Technology
Barkatullah University, Bhopal - India
Thursday, January 22, 2015 1
2. Brief Introduction of Mulk Raj Anand
(12th December 1905 - 28th September 2004)
• Indian English Novelist
• Literature for social
• Depicts the in human plight
• Influenced by Mahatma
Gandhi’s love and sympathy
for the downtrodden in the
• Untouchable (1935)
• Coolie (1936)
• Two Leaves and a Bud (1937)
• Trilogy (The Village-1939, Across the Black
waters- 1940, The Sword and the Sickle-
• The Big Heart (1945)
• Gauri (1960)
• Lament on the Death of a Master of Arts
4. Short Stories
• The Child & Other Stories (1934)
• The Barber’s Trade Union & Other Stories (1944)
• The Tractor and the Corn Goddess and Other
• Reflections on the Golden Bed and Other Stories
• The Power of Darkness and Other Stories (1959)
• Lajwanti and Other Stories (1966)
• Between Tears and Laughter (1973)
5. Meaning of Characterization
• Characterization means the creation of
imaginary person so that they seem life-like.
• The word “Character” derive from Greek word
“Charassein”- meaning to mark with a cut or
• Through characterization an author gives life
and meaning to his character.
• Author thinks and behave according to the
distinguished quality of the character which
he has created.
• It gives us the micro-cosmic vision of
• Presents long preserved feeling of
protest against Indian caste system.
• Bakha the main character portrayed as
strong, hard working, dedicated
towards his work.
• Shows pain and agony of Untouchables
• Feeling of untouchability is deep
• All the people of upper caste are not
bad; some of them are also kind
7. • Novel concludes with a note of faith and
“Can be free from stigma of untouchability
and assume the dignity of status that is their
right as useful members of a casteless and
• Direct towards the evils of class
• It has been translated into more than
38 languages of the world.
• None give a cross-section of the
people, the haves and have-nots.
9. • Munoo is the central character.
• Four phases in the life of the protagonist.
• Represents those member-less children whose
childhood is lost in endless physical labour. Love,
care & fun are strange words for them.
• Over emphasizing the picture of exploitation, to
some extent damages his art and vision.
• Succeeds in rousing humane feeling.
10. Two Leaves and a Bud
• In human treatment by British tea garden
owners and Indian merchants.
• Powerful crusade against imperialism and
• Portrayal and open criticism of the British
here is very harsh and unconvincing.
11. The Big Heart
• Protagonist epitomises all the good qualities.
• Fighting with the destructive forces of rapid
• Removal of caste system, capitalism male-
• Practicing humanism as religion.
• Theme of the tradition verses modernity is
12. The Road
• An amplification of theme of Untouchable.
• Viewed from different angle and incisiveness.
• Defect in the novel is weak characterization.
• Introduction of too many characters.
• Untouchables, tortured and condemned for
13. Lament on the Death of a Master of Arts
• Presents the last days of Nur the protagonist.
• The novel’s greatness lies in its deep and
authentic search for illumination.
• Dangers of having an obsolete educational
• Frame work of a Hindu scripture, the Ramayan.
• Not to endorse the myth but fictional
framework for a modern period.
• Gauri is a modern Sita.
• She battles her way out of the confines of her
narrow, encircling world to a position of
• Anand makes touching appeal through Gauri,
for women’s emancipation.
15. • Many of his novels based on the theme of
• Janki in The Big Heart, the suffering of widow.
• Widowed Maya in The Village Trilogy faces
• Rukmani in The Road whose marriage was
delayed because of dowry.
16. Trilogy (The Village, Across the Black
waters, The Sword and the Sickle)
• Transformation of hero Lal Singh, from an
irresponsible sikh youth to a committed
• Uncompromising from the very beginning
• In second novel joins the war as a professional
• Third novel concludes on a note of Lal Singh’s
quest for self realization and self actualization.
• Reveal an idealistic humanistic vision of life.
• Idealist; revolutionary, socialism and
• Deals with a man as social being with a moral
purpose capable of self development.
• Produces a tragic vision of life but also finds
solutions to the problems.
• To give a new turn or direction to the Indian
18. • References:
• Mulk Raj Anand : Across the Black Waters, Orient
Paperbacks, New Delhi, 1980.
• Mulk Raj Anand : Coolie, Arnold Associates, New Delhi,
• Mulk Raj Anand : Gauri, Arnold Heinemann, New Delhi,
• Mulk Raj Anand : Lament on the Death of a Master of
Arts, Hindi Pocket Books, New Delhi 1963.
• Mulk Raj Anand : Morning Face, Kutub-popular,
Bombay, 1968 .
• Mulk Raj Anand : Private Life of an Indian Prince, Arnold
Heinemann, New Delhi, 1983.
19. • Mulk Raj Anand : The Big Heart, Arnold Heinemann,
New Delhi, 1984.
• Mulk Raj Anand : The Bubble, Arnold Heinemann, New
• Mulk Raj Anand : The Road, Kutub-popular, Bombay,
• Mulk Raj Anand : The Sword and the Sickle, Kutub-
popular, Bombay, 1942.
• Mulk Raj Anand : The Village, Kutub-popular, Bombay,
• Mulk Raj Anand :Two Leaves and a Bud, Arnold
Heinemann, New Delhi, 1983.
• Mulk Raj Anand : Untouchable, Penguin Book, England,