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Conole graz 25_may

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Conole graz 25_may

  1. 1. The changinglandscape of educational practices:openness andparticipation Gráinne Conole The Open University, UK 26th May 2011, Graz, Austria http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/5553
  2. 2. A little context…
  3. 3. A little context…My background:IrishPhD ChemistryProfessor of e-learning•Research interests: Learners’ and teachers’ experiences of using technologies New approaches to design Open Educational Resources Learning theories Strategy and policy
  4. 4. A little context…My background:IrishPhD ChemistryProfessor of e-learning•Research interests: Learners’ and teachers’ experiences of using technologies New approaches to design Open Educational Resources Learning theories Strategy and policy
  5. 5. Today’s educational context• Fast changing technological environment• New digital literacy skills needed for learners, teacher and the workplace• Open practices• New forms of online community and interactivity
  6. 6. Limitless• Unbounded intelligence• Unlocking potential• Distributed cognition (people and technologies) Trailer
  7. 7. Social and participatory media 5
  8. 8. Social and participatory media 5 Media sharing
  9. 9. Social and participatory media 5 Media sharing Blogging
  10. 10. Social and participatory media 5 Media sharing Blogging Messaging
  11. 11. Social and participatory media 5 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Recommender systems
  12. 12. Social and participatory media 5 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Recommender systems Virtual worlds and games
  13. 13. Social and participatory media 5 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Recommender systems Virtual worlds and games Syndication
  14. 14. Social and participatory media 5 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Recommender systems Virtual worlds and games Social Syndication bookmarking
  15. 15. Social and participatory media 5 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Recommender systems Social Virtual worlds networking and games Social Syndication bookmarking
  16. 16. Social and participatory media 5 Media sharing Blogging Messaging Collaborative Recommender editing systems Social Virtual worlds networking and games Social Syndication bookmarking
  17. 17. Social and participatory media 5 Media sharing Blogging Mash ups Messaging Collaborative Recommender editing systems Social Virtual worlds networking and games Social Syndication bookmarking
  18. 18. Mash ups 6 http://voicethread.com/
  19. 19. Social networking 7 http://sometu.ning.com/
  20. 20. Virtual worlds 8 http://muversllc.blogspot.com/2009/12/medical-roleplays-in-second-life.html
  21. 21. 9Effective use of new technologies requires a radical rethink of the core learning and teaching processes; a shift from design as an internalised, implicit and individuallycrafted process to one that is externalised and shareable with others. Change in practice may indeed involve the use of revised materials, new teaching strategies and beliefs - all in relation to educational innovation. Conole and Alevizrou, 2010
  22. 22. The machine is Us/ing us
  23. 23. Peercritiquing The machine is Us/ing us
  24. 24. Peercritiquing Usergenerated content The machine is Us/ing us
  25. 25. Peercritiquing Usergenerated contentNetworked The machine is Us/ing us
  26. 26. Peer Opencritiquing Usergenerated contentNetworked The machine is Us/ing us
  27. 27. Peer Opencritiquing User Collectivegenerated aggregation contentNetworked The machine is Us/ing us
  28. 28. Peer Opencritiquing User Collectivegenerated aggregation contentNetworked Personalised The machine is Us/ing us
  29. 29. Digital literacies Jenkins et al, 2006
  30. 30. Digital literaciesPerformance SimulationAppropriation JudgementNetworking MultitaskingCollective Transmediaintelligence navigationDistributed Negotiationcognition Play Jenkins et al, 2006
  31. 31. Creativity
  32. 32. Definition • Derived from Latin ‘creo’ to create/make • About creating something new (physical artefact or concept) that is novel and valuable • Ability to transcend traditional ideas, rules, partners, relationships and create meaningful new ideas, forms, methods, interpretations
  33. 33. Why is it important?• Essential skill to deal with today’s complex, fast and changing society• Discourse and collaboration are mediated through a range of social and participatory media
  34. 34. Technologies• Can promote creativity in new and innovative ways• Enable new forms of discourse, collaboration and cooperation• Access and repurpose knowledge in different forms of representation• Aggregation and scale - distributed and collective
  35. 35. Online communities• New open, social and participatory media enable new means of communication, collaboration, sharing and co- construction of knowledge• Want to focus on the nature of community in these new online spaces• From tight to loosely coupled: groups, networks and collectives (Dron and Anderson, 2007)• What is it and how can it be fostered, supported?
  36. 36. The nature of community• Complex, distributed, loose communities are emerging• Facilitated through different but connected social networking tools such as facebook, Twitter, Ning• Users create their own Personal Digital Environment• Mix of synchronous and asynchronous tools• Boundary crossing via the power of retweeting• Links between interests, rather than places
  37. 37. Definitions[Community does not] imply necessarily co-presence, awell-defined identifiable group, or socially visibleboundaries. It does imply participation in an activity systemabout which participants share understandings concerningwhat they are doing and what that means in their lives andfor their communitiesLave and Wenger, 1991Virtual communities are social aggregations that emergefrom the Net when enough people carry on those publicdiscussions long enough, with sufficient human feeling, toform webs of personal relationships in cyberspace.Rheingold, 1993
  38. 38. Community as a process• Constantly evolving and changing• Shifting groups and depths of relationships• Dynamic, evolving and potentially transformative• Both directed and serendipitous interactions
  39. 39. Interactivity• New technologies enable increasing interactivity between learners and teachers• Complex: psychological, social, technical, linguistic and cultural dimensions• Types: communication-based, purpose-based, tool-based, activity-based• Important in achievement, persistence, enjoyment and approaches to learning
  40. 40. DefinitionInteractions occur when these objects and eventsmutually influence one another. An instructionalinteraction is an event that takes place between alearner and the learners environment. Its purpose isto respond to the learner in a way intended to changehis or her behavior toward and educational goal.Instructional interactions have two purposes: tochange learners and to move them toward achievingtheir goals. Wagner, 1994
  41. 41. Types• Learner-learner• Learner-teacher• Learner-content• Learner-interface Moore, 1989; Hillman et al., 1994
  42. 42. Open practices What are the implications ofadopting more open approaches?
  43. 43. Social and participatory media 24 Media sharing Blogging Mash ups Messaging How are social andCollaborative participatory media Recommenderediting systems being used to enable open practices? Social Virtual worlds networking and games Social Syndication bookmarking
  44. 44. Open resources
  45. 45. Open resources
  46. 46. Open resources
  47. 47. Open resources
  48. 48. Open courses
  49. 49. Open design Shift from belief-based, implicit approaches to design-based, explicit approaches Learning Design A design-based approach to creation and support of coursesEncourages reflective, scholarly practices Promotes sharing and discussion Conole, 2010b
  50. 50. Open research
  51. 51. Open research
  52. 52. Open research
  53. 53. Open research
  54. 54. Open scholarship 30
  55. 55. Open scholarship 30DiscoveryIntegrationApplicationTeaching
  56. 56. Open scholarship 30DiscoveryIntegrationApplicationTeachingOpenDigitalNetworked Weller: http://nogoodreason.typepad.co.uk/
  57. 57. CloudworksCloudworks audio presentation
  58. 58. Community indicatorsParticipation CohesionSustained over time Support & toleranceCommitment from core group Turn taking & responseEmerging roles & hierarchy Humour and playfulnessIdentity Creative capabilityGroup self-awareness Igniting sense of purposeShared language & vocab Multiple points of viewSense of community expressed, contradicted or challenged Creation of knowledge links & patterns Galley et al., 2010
  59. 59. Participation• Three types of hierarchical roles • Veterans: support and encourage groups and newbies • Trendsetters: make a difference • Posters: need to be incentivised to turn from lurkers to active contributors
  60. 60. Cohesion• Through support, tolerance, reciprocity and trust• Language and tone are critical factors in the development of an online community• Emotional and peer support
  61. 61. IdentityCentral to the notion of communityare issues of membership andexclusion. Some people are in, othersare out. Communities range frombeing open to anyone who sharesparticular ideas or interests tocommunities accessible only to thosewho meet certain criteria ofgeography, ethnicity, gender, etcErickson (1997)
  62. 62. Creative capability• Importance of conflict, disagreement and negotiation in the process of collaborative knowledge creation and developing understanding• Social discord as a catalyst for knowledge construction and expansive learning
  63. 63. Framework for sociality• System needs to accommodate both evolution of practices and inclusion of newcomers• Both individual and group identity are important• People more likely to use systems that resemble their daily routines, languages and practices• Metaphors that mimic real life practices are likely to be more successful Bouman et al., 2007
  64. 64. Final thoughtsOpen, participatory and social media enable new forms of communication and collaborationCommunities in these spaces are complex and distributedLearners and teachers need to develop new digital literacy skills to harness their potentialWe need to rethink how we design, support and assess learningOpen, participatory and social media can provide mechanisms for us to share and discuss teaching ideas in new waysWe are seeing a blurring of boundaries: teachers/ learners, teaching/research, real/virtual spaces, formal/ informal modes of communication and publication
  65. 65. The future?• Limitless potential of technologies• Individual, tools and collective• Augmented and gesture technologies• Blurring the boundaries of real World Builder and virtual worlds
  66. 66. References Conole, G. (forthcoming), Designing for learning in an open world, Springer:Verlag. Conole, G. (2010a), Review of pedagogical models and their use in e-learning, http:// cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/2982 Conole, G. (2010b), Learning design - making practice explicit, ConnectEd conference, Sydney, 28th June 2010, http://cloudworks.ac.uk/cloud/view/4001 Galley, R., Conole, G. and Alevizou, P. (submitted), Community Indicators: A framework for building and evaluating community activity on Cloudworks, Interactive Learning Environments. Conole, G, and Alevizou, P. (2010), A literature review of the use of Web 2.0 tools in Higher Education, HE Academy commissioned report, http://www.heacademy.ac.uk/assets/EvidenceNet/ Conole_Alevizou_2010.pdf Galley, R., Conole, G. and Alevizou, P. (2010), Case study: Using Cloudworks for an Open Literature Review, An HE Academy commissioned report. Alevizou, P., Conole, G. and Galley, R. (2010), Using Cloudworks to support OER activities, An HE Academy commissioned report. Conole, G., Galley, R. and Culver, J. (2010), Frameworks for understanding the nature of interactions, networking and community in a social networking site for academic practice, The International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning. Conole, G. and Culver, J. (2010) The design of Cloudworks: applying social networking practice to foster the exchange of learning and teaching ideas and designs Computers and Education, 54(3): 679 - 692. Conole and Culver (2009), Cloudworks: social networking for learning design, Australian Journal of Educational Technology, 25(5), pp. 763–782, http://www.ascilite.org.au/ajet/ajet25/conole.html.
  67. 67. Websites• http://ouldi.open.ac.uk• http://cloudworks.ac.uk• http://e4innovation.com• http://oer-quality.org/• http://olnet.org
  68. 68. Other references• Jenkins, H., Clinton, K., Purushotma, R., Robison, A.J. and Weigel, M., (2006), Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: media education for the 21st Century, http://digitallearning.macfound.org/atf/cf/ %7B7E45C7E0-A3E0-4B89-AC9C-E807E1B0AE4E%7D/ JENKINS_WHITE_PAPER.PDF• Weller, M (2011) The Digital Scholar. Bloomsbury Academic• Loveless, A M (2007) Creativity, technology and learning – a review of recent literature Futurelab, http://archive.futurelab.org.uk/resources/ documents/lit_reviews/Creativity_Review_update.pdf• Dron, J., and Anderson, T. (2007). Collectives, networks and groups in social software for e-Learning, Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, and Higher Education Quebec. Retrieved Feb (Vol. 16, pp. 2008).• Moore, M. (1989). Three types of interaction. American Journal of Distance Education, 3(2), 1-6.• Hillman, D. C., Willis, D. J., and Gunawardena, C. N. (1994). Learner- interface interaction in distance education: an extension of contemporary models and strategies for practitioners. The American Journal of Distance Education, 8(2), 30-42.
  69. 69. URLs• http://robwall.ca/2009/03/10/creativity-is-the-new-technology/• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nvIQP-EBPqc• http://vimeo.com/3365942• http://blogs.hbr.org/video/2010/05/andrew-klavan-on-how-21st- cent.html• Questionmark http://www.flickr.com/photos/crystaljingsr/3914729343/
  70. 70. Acknowledgements• Snoopy http://www.flickr.com/photos/andertoons-cartoons/2754475964/• Juggling http://www.flickr.com/photos/r8r/4109502436/• Social media http://www.flickr.com/photos/intersectionconsulting/ 5045734278/• Creativity http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http:// content5.videojug.com/89/89cae62c-c95f-a407-cf09-ff0008ca3c71/how-to- improve-your-creative-thinking.WidePlayer.jpg%3Fv5&imgrefurl=http:// www.videojug.com/film/how-to-improve-your-creative- thinking&usg=__bEFuNbKuJOK09BS2c9VJfCgPdo8=&h=360&w=640&sz=3 3&hl=en&start=44&sig2=0ftqDrzlzNjiQdVg2NawBQ&zoom=1&tbnid=- vw_2HkT2g1nOM:&tbnh=96&tbnw=170&ei=zg-gTeA8iJs6zLiQNQ&prev=/ search%3Fq%3Dcreativity%2Bthinking%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari %26sa%3DX%26rls%3Den%26biw%3D1293%26bih%3D571%26tbm %3Disch0%2C1123&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=954&vpy=161&dur=2679&hovh= 168&hovw=300&tx=221&ty=96&oei=yg- gTdmaENTh4gbxt6j9Ag&page=3&ndsp=23&ved=1t:429,r:22,s: 44&biw=1293&bih=571
  71. 71. Acknowledgements• 8LEM http://cetl.ulster.ac.uk/elearning/images/8LEM.jpg• Voicethread http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http:// www.elearningclouds.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/ VoiceThread.png&imgrefurl=http://www.elearningclouds.com/ tag/voicethread/ &usg=__7L1fZGuSPbDZZkSyT0m27qHVvFE=&h=356&w=4 90&sz=151&hl=en&start=0&sig2=sNNsNslPKl_Ucq4YaPbiK A&zoom=1&tbnid=FmSySUW83Pk8aM:&tbnh=120&tbnw=1 66&ei=6hWgTZGmCt2R4gbguNz8Ag&prev=/search%3Fq %3Dvoicethread%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26sa %3DX%26rls%3Den%26biw%3D1293%26bih%3D571%26tbm %3Disch%26prmd %3Divnsl&itbs=1&iact=hc&vpx=120&vpy=257&dur=135&hov h=191&hovw=263&tx=166&ty=72&oei=6hWgTZGmCt2R4g bguNz8Ag&page=1&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:6,s:0
  72. 72. Acknowledgements• Secondlife http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://3.bp.blogspot.com/ _bsWh9JKbOZ0/SxYN0s1MWJI/AAAAAAAABuk/Pvj5ETXXSRU/s400/MUVErs%2BPatient %2BRoleplay%2BSimulation%2B2.jpg&imgrefurl=http://muversllc.blogspot.com/2009/12/ medical-roleplays-in-second- life.html&usg=__OZyvO6Qsvqlprr4cqytvD7JGkUo=&h=312&w=400&sz=33&hl=en&start= 0&sig2=FATQ_VZhDaabBkDTT-5-WA&zoom=1&tbnid=nNPgrT6f_XC- kM:&tbnh=129&tbnw=165&ei=8hegTciACoeDOqXkkTQ&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dsecond %2Blife%2Bmedical%2Brole%2Bplay%26hl%3Den%26client%3Dsafari%26sa%3DX%26rls %3Den%26biw%3D1293%26bih%3D571%26tbm%3Disch%26prmd %3Divns0%2C161&itbs=1&iact=rc&dur=476&oei=6RegTZ7oKJWI4Qbhr6z- Ag&page=1&ndsp=22&ved=1t:429,r:15,s:0&tx=93&ty=36&biw=1293&bih=571• Pandora’s box http://www.flickr.com/photos/darkwood67/3431956363/• Clouds http://www.flickr.com/photos/torley/2311784203/• Students http://www.flickr.com/photos/snoy/2599258991/• Community http://www.flickr.com/photos/anonymonk/1403378488/