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• IMPROVEMENT IN CROP YIELD
• Fruits and vegetables
• Crop seasons
• Crop Production Management
• Manures and Fertilizers
• Few pictures
• Cropping patterns
• Weed control & Insect pest control Disease of
• animal husbandry
• Fish production
IMPROVEMENT IN CROP YIELDS . TYPES:-
1] Seeds : Not all seeds of plants are edible like seeds of apple or
cherries. Edible seeds include cereals, pulses , oil seeds & nuts.
Cereals : They include crops like wheat, rice, maize, barley etc.
Pulses : They include legumes such as chicken pea gram, pea,
black gram, pigeon pea etc.
Oil seed crop: They include cotton seed, Niger , soybean etc.
Nuts or Dry Fruits : Nuts are rich in proteins . Example include –
coconut, peanut, date, walnut.
Fruits: they include
apple , mango,
banana, kiwi, litchi,
custard apple, pear
and many more.
Vegetables: They are edible parts
of plants of herbaceous plants .
Every part of them is eaten like
the roots as carrot or radish, stem
as onion, garlic, are eaten, leafy
vegetables like spinach , spices
like chilly, black pepper , fodder
crops & other crops are eaten .
Kharif Crop : these crop grow during rainy season -
[ June to October] . They are also known as summer season
crops .few examples of kharif crops are –
Garlic ,lady finger, black gram, green gram, plum ,peach etc.
Rabi Crop: these crops are grown during November to April .
Rabi crops are known as winter crops . Some examples of
rabi crops are – cabbage , cauliflower , carrot , radish , beans
Crop Production Management
India is a country which is based on agriculture. The
production include “no cost” production “high cost”
production . High cost production is based on high
yielding varieties, improved farming particles,
modern technology ,least agricultural , machines
and implements . Crop production management
refers to controlling the various aspects of crop
production , to obtain the maximum and best yield .
It has nutrition management, irrigation and ,
Nutrient management means controlling the
selections , timing and amount of nutrient supply
to the crops. Like living organisms, plants also
require inorganic elements are called nutrients.
There are 40 elements found in the plant ash , but
only 16 elements of those elements are essential
for plant growth and development . Hence these 16
elements are called essential elements or essential
Manures and Fertilizers
• Manures :-manures are natural fertilizers . They are bulky sources of organic
matter which supply nutrients in small quantities , and organic matter in
large quantities. Manure enrich the soil with nutrients , they add organic
matter , the organic matter in manures provides food for the soil organism .
Types of manure :- Farmyard Manure [FYM]
Compost: Prepared from farm and town refuse such as vegetables and animal
Fertilizers provide plant nutrients , commercially manufactured
using chemicals. Fertilizers supply Nitrogen, Phosphorus and
Potassium [NPK] . They are used for the vegetative growth.
Fertilizers are divided into following group :-
1] Nitrogenous fertilizers
2] Phosphatic fertilizers
3] Potassic fertilizers
4] Complex fertilizers
The process of supplying water to crop plants by means of
canals , wells , reservoirs, tube-wells, etc. is known as
Factors of controlling irrigation :
Irrigation depends on the nature of the crop
Irrigation dependent on the nature fields
1] Crop based production : some crop plants require more
water & some less water for cereals as wheat irrigation is
required before ploughing the field
2] Soil based irrigation : irrigation also depends on the
nature of the soil in which the crop is grown
Canal system ;in canal system , human made canals are used to
receive water from one or two reservoir
Tanks: tanks are small storage reservoir.
Wells : wells are constructed whenever exploitable ground water are
1] dug well and 2] tube well are two types of wells
River lift system : in this system water is directly drawn from rivers
drip and sprinkler system : this method save water and use pipes .
1] mixed cropping : this is a process in
which more than one or two plants are
2] intercropping : it aims to increase
productivity per unit area.
3] Crop rotation : the particles of
growing of different crops on a price of
land in a prepared succession.
Weed control & Insect pest control
Weeds are the unwanted plants in the
Many insects are serious pests of plants they
attack plants in the following ways
1] chewing insects
2] sucking insects
3] internal feeders
Disease of crop plants
There are some names of diseases of plants
1] seed-borne disease
2] soil-borne disease
3] air-borne disease
4] water-borne disease
The branch of agriculture that deals with the
feeding , caring ,and breeding of domestic
animals is called animal husbandry . they
1] cattle farming
2] breeds of buffaloes
Marine fishes :- India is a vast scope of marine
fishery . Our marine fishery resources include 7500
kms cost line and extensive deep sea . popularly
consumed fishes are as follows :-
6] salmon , etc.
Honey & bee wax are obtained from bees
There are three types of bees . They are :-
1] the worker
We must do our best to
improve food resources.
Ix a 1 (C.B.S.E.)