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Aquaponics, gobi

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Aquaponics, gobi

  1. 1. Aquaponics R.Gobiraj BSc in Fisheries Science, University Of Jaffna, Sri Lanka.
  2. 2. Contents  Introduction  History  Essential components of an Aquaponic unit  Water quality in Aquaponics  Aquaponics Plants and requirements  Aquaponics Fishes and requirements  Functioning of Aquaponics  Aquaponics in Sri Lanka  Advantages and disadvantages  Other Possibilities in Aquaponics  Conclusion  Reference
  3. 3. Introduction  Aquaponic is a fast growing and more sustainable method of food production.  Aquaponics is a system that combines hydroponics with intensive aquaculture  bio-integrated food production system.
  4. 4. History hydroponics  Hydroponics is the production of plants in a soilless medium where by all of the nutrients, which are supplied in aqueous solution  In China it was reported that "frame fields" for growing water spinach were widespread in ancient times  The raft gardens were made with a frame of bamboo and a layer of soil and supplied leaf vegetables for home consumption  In Mexico and Bangladesh organic matter from plants was used to create rafts for floating agriculture
  5. 5. Chinampas Built by Incas and Aztecs Between 14th -16th century A.D
  6. 6. intensive aquaculture  intensive aquaculture in which fish are kept at high density in tanks or raceways and fed a high quality food  US only since the mid-20th century  As production intensified it was realized that the effluent was high in nutrients and could cause eutrophication and other environmental impacts
  7. 7. Aquaponics  it has an ancient history, Plants have been grown using fish farm wastes either directly or indirectly in China and SE Asia for thousands of years  aquaponics has been strong since the 1960s, in US at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute  awareness of impact of nutrient wastes on the environment while at the same time increasing the requirement of food production developed the aquaponics  Globally there are now hundreds of small scale aquaponic initiatives and several larger scale commercial or near commercial enterprises
  8. 8. Essential components of an aquaponic unit  fish tank  mechanical filter  bio filter  hydroponic containers  Water circulation unit  aerators
  9. 9. fish tank  essential component in every unit  Shapes round Square Oval  material plastic Fiberglass Cement ground pond  Colour White or other light colours
  10. 10. mechanical filter  separation and removal of solid and suspended fish waste from fish tanks  It is essential for the health of the system  Type of filter Screen filter sedimentation tanks sand or bead filters
  11. 11. Bio filter  The bio filter is installed between the mechanical filter and hydroponic containers  living bacteria  Nitrosomonas  Nitrobacter  volcanic gravel, plastic bottle caps, netting, PVC, shavings and nylon scrub pads are act as substrate for bacteria  Nitrosomonas bacteria convert ammonia (NH₃) into nitrite (NO₂-)  Nitrobacter bacteria then convert nitrite (NO₂-) into nitrate (NO₃-)
  12. 12. Hydroponic components  the plant-growing sections in the unit  Three designs are more familiar with aquaponics media bed /particulate beds
  13. 13. nutrient film technique (NFT) deep water culture
  14. 14. Water circulation unit  Water circulation is fundamental for keeping all organisms alive in aquaponics  The water moves from the fish tanks, through the mechanical filter and the bio filter and then to the plants in their media beds and finally to the collecting tank
  15. 15. Water quality in aquaponics  Oxygen  pH  Temperature  Ammonia  Nitrite  Nitrate  Water hardness
  16. 16. oxygen  plants, fish and nitrifying bacteria all need oxygen to live.  fish may die within hours when exposed to low DO within the fish tanks  adequate DO levels is crucial to aquaponics pH  The pH of the water has a major impact on all aspects of aquaponics, especially the plants and bacteria  the pH controls the plants’ access to micro- and macronutrients  Nitrifying bacteria difficult to survive below a pH of 6, and the bacteria’s capacity to convert ammonia into nitrate reduces in low pH conditions. This can lead to reduced bio filtration and fish mortality
  17. 17. Temperature  general compromise range is 18–30 °C.  Temperature has an effect on DO as well as on the toxicity of ammonia high temperatures have less DO and high temperatures more unionized (toxic) ammonia Ammonia  Most of the fish waste is form of ammonia (NH3)  ammonia is then nitrified by bacteria and converted into nitrite (NO2-)  Ammonia is toxic to fish, Commonly in fishes can show symptoms of ammonia poisoning at levels 1.0 mg/ liter  high level of ammonia damage to the fishes’ central nervous system and gills
  18. 18. Nitrite  High levels of NO2- can immediately lead to rapid fish deaths.  Again, even low levels over an extended period can result in increased fish stress, disease and death  NO2- prevent the transport of oxygen within the bloodstream of fish its called as brown blood disease Nitrate  Nitrate is a far less toxic than the other forms of nitrogen  It is the most accessible form of nitrogen for plants, and the production of nitrate is the goal of the bio filter  Fish can tolerate levels of up to 300 mg/ liter.
  19. 19. Aquaponics Plants and requirements  most popular vegetables are leafy vegetables and herbs-especially lettuce and basil  less suitable for fruit vegetables  suitable vegetables Lettuce Basil Spring onion Fruit vegetables such as tomato, cucumber Beets Okra Blueberries
  20. 20.  Plants require sunlight, air, water and nutrients to grow  Essential macronutrients include: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur  Micronutrients include iron, zinc, boron, copper, manganese and molybdenum  Deficiencies need to be addressed by supplying the limiting nutrients with supplemental fertilizer or increasing mineralization  The suitable temperature range for most vegetables is 18–26 °C, although many vegetables are seasonal.  pest/disease management uses physical, mechanical and cultural practices to minimize pests/pathogens  uses fish-safe chemical and biological treatment in targeted applications, when necessary
  21. 21. Aquaponics Fishes and requirements  High tolerance and high marketable fishes are more suitable Tilapia, carp, and catfish are highly suitable for aquaponics  Common culture fishes Tilapia Catfish common carp (Cyprinus carpio) Mullet perch bester sturgeon grass carp
  22. 22. Tilapia  possibilities  preferred species for tropical and sub-tropical situations  easy to breed  tolerates low Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels (0.2 ppm)  high Total Ammonia Nitrogen levels (>90 ppm @ pH 6.0)  low pH levels (< 5.0)  Problems  It will breed very readily  Breeding will reduce fish production rate/quality
  23. 23. Requirements  the correct balance of proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and minerals needed for fish  never overfeed the fish, and remove uneaten food after 30 minutes  Poor / changing water quality, overcrowding, and physical disturbance can cause stress  which may lead to disease outbreaks  Take the time to observe and monitor the fish in order to recognize symptoms early and provide treatment
  24. 24. Functioning of Aquaponics Hydroponics Bacteria Aquaculture
  25. 25. Functioning of Aquaponics ….
  26. 26. The Aquaponics cycle
  27. 27. Aquaponics in Sri Lanka  In Sri Lanka aquaponics introduced as a Agriculture Tourism E.g - Gadadessa is a Holiday Resort in Kandy
  28. 28. Advantages  Reduced labour  Aquaponics uses 90% less water than traditional farming  NOT require farm land and soil  Fish feed is the only nutrient inputs  Aquacultural waste products are used  Aquaponics protects our rivers & lakes  Health & Nutrition value high  Higher production rate  Provides income from two separate products  A lot of current research and improvements going on
  29. 29. Disadvantages  High initial cost To fill up water tanks To build the system (Greenhouse, pumps etc.)  Difficult to grow root crops  Requires skill and experience  Constant monitoring of water parameters  Pests and diseases can be devastating  Limitations concerned with fish species reared  Competitive market prices  Requires electric energy to maintain and recycle water within the system
  30. 30. Other Possibilities in Aquaponics Organic Aquaponics  Natural fertilizer  Natural minerals (snail shells)  Good marketing – labelling Use of Technology  Smart phone applications  Pipe blockage warning  System automation
  31. 31. Other Possibilities in Aquaponics Growing Indoors Can be used underground and indoors Artificial lighting
  32. 32. Other Possibilities in Aquaponics …… Growing Upwards Futuristic Concepts Growing locally Dedicated Skyscraper Farms Makes use of limited space availability Space missions
  33. 33. Conclusion Aquaponics is a more sustainable food production systems It involves the production of both fish and vegetables, using a single nutrient source (fish feed) however that aquaponic systems are primarily vegetable production systems, simply because of the biological nature of the relationship between fish nutrient production and plant nutrient uptake The primary advantage of aquaponics is water use efficiency. Other oft-cited advantages include nutrient utilization efficiency, product quality and food security
  34. 34. Reference  Bakhsh, H.K. (2008) Integrated culture, Hydroponics &Aquaponics systems. Universiti Malaysia Terengganu.  Bernstein, S. (2011) Aquaponic gardening: A step-by-step guide to raising vegetables and fish together. New York, NY, United States: New Society Publishers.  Long, B. (2012) The EZ guide to aeroponics, hydroponics and aquaponics: [how to create a sustainable food supply]. Texas: Bonjour Limited Holdings.  Staff, P.S. (2007) Great source aim new jersey: Student edition Workbook 5pk grade 3 (level C) 2007. United States: Great Source Education Group.  Somerville, C. (2014) Small-scale Aquaponic food production: Integrated fish and plant farming. Rome, Italy, Italy: Food & Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).
  35. 35. Thank you

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • round tanks with flat bottoms are recommended, The round shape allows water to circulate uniformly
    Plastic, fiberglass = because their durability and long life span
    Metal is not possible because of rust