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Legal Issues In Graphic Design ver. 2

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Legal Issues In Graphic Design ver. 2

  1. 1. Jeffrey M Glazer<br />Attorney, Glazer Legal Services<br />jmg@glazerlegal.com<br />608-277-1778<br />Erin R. Ogden<br />Attorney, Murphy Desmond, S.C.<br />eogden@murphydesmond.com<br />(608) 268-5595<br />
  2. 2. Disclaimer<br />Not Legal Advice – this presentation is for informational purposes<br />All quoted prices are approximate and subject to change<br />You may get bored<br />
  3. 3. Legal Issues in Graphic Design<br />Trademarks<br />Copyrights<br />(Design) Patents<br />Artist Releases<br />
  4. 4. Trademarks<br />Anything that designates source of origin<br />Tradenames (International Business Machines)<br />Brandnames (iPod)<br />Logos <br />
  5. 5. Trademarks<br />More obscure mark types<br />Slogans (“The World Needs A Coke”)<br />Colors (UPS/Brown)<br />Sounds (Harley Engine)<br />Even More Obscure Mark Types<br />Family of Marks (“Mc”)<br />
  6. 6. Trademarks<br />How do I protect this awesome designator of source of origin?<br />Preliminary Search (3-5 “top designs”)<br />$150-300<br />Full Availability Search (final design)<br />$600-800; $500 fees<br />
  7. 7. Trademarks<br />Protection, Pt 2<br />™ <br />Application to USPTO<br />Typically about $750; with about $350 of that in USPTO fees<br />Office Action Responses<br />Publication<br />Opposition<br />Registration<br />®<br />
  8. 8. Trademarks<br />How Long Is My Registration Good For?<br />Forever<br />But…<br />Section 8 and 15 Application in the 5th year<br />Section 8 and 9 Application in the 9th year<br />Section 8 and 9 Application every 10 years after that<br />
  9. 9. Trademarks<br />So what does all this money get me?<br />Prevent Consumer Confusion<br />
  10. 10. Trademarks<br />Market differentiation (Polaroid Factors)<br />Relative strength of the marks in question<br />Degree of similarity of the marks<br />Proximity of products<br />Products will “bridge the gap” between each other<br />Actual confusion<br />Good faith in adopting the marks<br />Quality of the products in question<br />Consumer sophistication<br />
  11. 11. Trademarks<br />When is not infringement, infringement?<br />“Famous” marks<br />Dilution<br />Tarnishment<br />Victor/Victoria: Victoria’s Secret and Sex Toys<br />
  12. 12. Copyright<br />Does protect: “original works of authorship”<br />Does not protect: the idea itself<br />Examples:<br />Books<br />Non-trade art and design<br />Music/video (script/song v performance)<br />Websites/software (code v design/GUI)<br />Layout<br />
  13. 13. Copyright<br />Bundle of Rights<br />Reproduction<br />Distribution<br />Public Performance<br />Public Display<br />Derivative Works<br />How<br />© Date. Owner.<br />Registration<br />
  14. 14. Copyright<br />Why protect copyrights?<br />Grant of monopoly for life of copyright within the bundle of rights<br />Life of Copyright<br />Life + 70 yrs (last surviving author)<br />95 years from publication or 120 years from creation; whichever is shorter<br />Infringement: any action within the “bundle of rights” taken by anyone without permission<br />Includes: copying, distributing, performing, displaying, or creating “derivative works”<br />
  15. 15. Copyright<br />Derivative Work: Based upon one or more pre-existing works<br />Examples<br />Movie versions of books<br />“Cliffs Notes”<br />Dramatization<br />Elaborations and condensations<br />
  16. 16. Copyright<br />“Substantially Similar”<br />Direct copying: photocopy/exact reproduction<br />Indirect/unconscious copying: not knowing about prior work is not a defense<br />Derivative Works: escape liability if prior work is “unrecognizable” in the new work<br />
  17. 17. Copyright<br />Fair Use Defense<br />It is a defense, which means that absent fair use it is infringement; as opposed to uses which are not infringing at all<br />Purpose and character of use<br />Nature of the copied work<br />Amount and substantiality of copied work<br />Effect on work’s value<br />Very difficult to determine ahead of time<br />Parodies and satire<br />Reviews and education<br />Time-shifting<br />
  18. 18. Case Study<br />
  19. 19. Design Patents<br />Ornamental design of a functional item<br />A design consists of the visual ornamental characteristics embodied in, or applied to, an article of manufacture. <br />The subject matter of a design patent application may relate to:<br />The configuration or shape of an article, <br />To the surface ornamentation applied to an article, or <br />To the combination of configuration and surface ornamentation. <br />Protects only the appearance of the article and not structural or utilitarian features<br />Like what?<br />Fonts<br />Coca-Cola bottle<br />Signs<br />
  20. 20. Design Patents<br />Ornamental design of a functional item<br />May be embodied in an entire article <br />Bottle<br />Only a portion of an article<br />Part of a sign silhouette <br />Ornamentation applied to an article.<br />Patterns on item<br />A design patent application has a single claim<br />In general terms, a “utility patent” protects the way an article is used and works. A "design patent" protects the way an article looks<br />Both design and utility patents may be obtained on an article<br />
  21. 21. Design Patents<br />First Sale Doctrine and Exhaustion <br />The first unrestricted sale of a patented item exhausts the patentee's control over that particular item<br />Downstream use may be restricted by contract<br />Implied License<br />A license to practice an invention will be implied when the patentee (or its licensee) sells a device that has "no non-infringing uses" under circumstances that "plainly indicate that the grant of a license should be inferred.“<br />Both are affirmative defenses<br />
  22. 22. Artist Releases<br />Invasion of Privacy<br />Intrusion upon seclusion (invade physical quarters)<br />Public disclosure (disseminate private information)<br />False light (not defamatory because it’s true)<br />Appropriation of name/likeness<br />Requires person’s consent to use for commercial gain<br />“Artist Release and Consent” – allows image/name to be used for commercial gain<br />
  23. 23. Thank you!<br />Any Questions?<br />Feel free to e-mail or call.<br />

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Section 8: Declaration of UseSection 9: Application for RenewalSection 15: Declaration of Incontestability
  • “Mark strength” refers to both the “uniqueness” of the mark as applied to the goods or services, but also to length of time, territory, and marketing $
  • Dilution: lessening of capacity to distinguish goods and services regardless of competition or likelihood of confusion
  • Registration is not strictly necessary, but is required to sue for infringement and provides prima facie proof of ownership
  • “unrecognizable” is not a legal term of art, but an example of when creating a derivative work (technically uses a prior work) does not infringe the prior work: example, cut a model’s mouth of a magazine to make a collage vs. cut out Cindy Crawford’s mouth with recognizable mole, to make a collage
  • Lux et veritas – light and truthWicked SweeTNewspaper from 1916 (94 yrs – not OK); Newspaper from 1914 (96 yrs - OK)